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sixty-five thousand; and with it, he thinks he may reduce the number to eighty or ninety thousand. As respects the object of Mr. Godwin's argument, this exception is not worth considering. For allowing him all that he claims from it; instead of reckoning the annual emigration at seven or eight thousand, we should only have to consider it as raised to thirteen or fourteen thousand, which would still leave the period of doubling, by procreation alone, within the twenty-five years. The allowance claimed by Mr Godwin on this account, is, however, most enormous, upon any theory of the increase of mankind, and most of all upon that broached by Mr Godwin. If 1,600,000 persons of both sexes had come here in the year 1790, Mr Godwin might perhaps, without a very great departure from his own principles, admit that this number would, by the year 1810, have increased to 3,200,000. But this number come, not all at the same time and at the commencement of the twenty years, but successively, through every part of the period, a moiety of them within the last half of it, and some not until the very

Under these circumstances, to suppose that they will be found to have doubled at the end of the period, is admitting a greater tendency in the human race to increase its numbers, than Mr Malthus has ever contended for. We do not say that such a thing is impossible ; but we do say that the assertion of it on the part of Mr Godwin, is an abandonment of every principle in his book. If, however, we take any number of emigrants arriving here at the same time, and look at them as they are, it probably will not be supposed that each one of them is equal to two human beings taken indiscriminately among the population' of this country. By the transcript we have given above, it appears that, of the passengers therein enumerated, 5,042 are males, 1,959 females. Many of the emigrants come in families, but the majority of them are unmarried men. The situation of a great portion of both classes, at least for some time, after their arrival, is but little favorable to their rapid increase. Those, who are single, have generally to wait long, before they can so establish themselves in a strange land, as to be in a condition to support a family ; and of those who come in families, it is unfortunately too often the case, that their situation, to say the least of it, is no better calculated for the rearing of their children, than it was in their own country. One of the proofs adduced by Mr Godwin of the great number of emigrants to the United States, is founded on the number of societies which exist in our cities for the relief of foreigners. He has collated from Morse's geography the names of divers St George's and St Patrick's, and St Andrew's and Thistle and Shamrock Societies; and infers that the amount of emigration must be immense, where so many charitable institutions can find employment. He might have inferred another fact, and with more truth; which is, that the amount of poverty and distress must be very great among those emigrants. Skilful mechanics, practical farmers, and industrious, prudent, calculating laborers, who have come here from abroad, and brought with them the means of support, until they can overcome the great difficulties necessarily attendant on a recent establishment in a strange community, have generally been able to attain to a greater degree of respectability, and to bring up their children with better prospects, than they could have done at home. But then it is a fact not less notorious than it is melancholy, that very much of all the squalid poverty and wretchedness, which is to be found in our cities, is amongst the foreigners. If the fact were not in itself perfectly notorious, the records of our alms-houses and jails could prove it. It seems to be thought in England, that most of our emigrants are farmers, attracted hither by the cheapness of land. The fact we believe to be, that a very great proportion of the foreigners in the United States are to be found in the cities, where the checks to population are almost as great as they are in Europe. Many, no doubt, who come with other intentions, remain in the seaports where they were first landed, because, having exhausted their little all, in procuring their passage, they are unable to proceed onward to the new country ;' but yet if we look again at our transcript of passengers, we see that of the whole 7,000, according to the occupations specified, only 997 belong to agriculture; the rest are nearly all of them of such professions as must necessarily be exercised in large towus.

last year.

Mr Godwin has a great deal to say about the impossibility of the increase of the United States having arisen from procreation. He observes,

• I further trust, that if I shall not be able to make out to demonstration the precise sources of the increasing population of the United States, I shall at least show in what follows, from a variety of considerations, exclusively of the thread of the argument of my second and third books, that it is impossible that the source should be found in the principle of procreation.' p. 571.

It does seem to us that under the circumstances of the case Mr Godwin is bound to point out very clearly the precise sources of the increasing population of the United States.' That the increase has taken place is admitted ; that it is not owing to emigration is no less certain than that the increase has taken place ; then if it be not owing to procreation, it behoves Mr G. at least to name some third source from which it might have arisen. Any reasoning a priori, on a subject of this nature, is extremely unsafe, as is evinced by the numerous errors which prevailed in England on the subject of their own population, previous to the population acts? Such reasoning is almost always founded on arbitrary principles of the prolificness of marriages, or on imperfect parish registers of births and deaths. Whiist therefore the fact of increase is ascertained, and it is known not to have arisen from emigration, any argument which goes to prove that in the nature of things it is impossible that such a rate of increase should arise from natural causes, ought to be considered as answered and refuted by the fact, even if it were less easy, than it is in the present case, to detect the fallacy of the argument itself.

Throughout Europe,' says Mr G., 'taking one country with another, the average falls short of four births to a marriage,' p. 206 ; and in every instance which has come to our hands, the fruitfulness of the human species in the United States does in no way materially differ from what occurs on the subject in many countries of Europe.' p. 425. To which he afterwards adds, that a smaller number are not prematurely cut off by disease.' p. 431. With regard to the fruitfulness of marriages in the United States, he further says, and often repeats the observation, the difference of the United States and the Old World, does not, I presume, consist in the superior fecundity of their women.' p. 30. Be it so—the natural capability of women on either side of the Atlantic may be the same; but if in America a smaller proportion of the women remain unmarried, and if marriages take place at an earlier age than in Europe, they may still produce a greater number of children. Now it is a fact, which we think will hardly be denied even by Mr Godwin, that the wages of labor are higher, and food more abundant here than in Europe. And whilst this is the case, we may very safely infer that a greater proportion of the whole population will marry; and of those who marry, the marriages will take place at an earlier period of life, than in countries where a different state of things prevails. There are no documents in this country, from which we can estimate the average fruitfulness of marriages. There is, or rather there was, a statute in Massachusetts, requiring the marriages, births, and deaths to be recorded by the town clerk of the place where they occur. But the statute, though unrepealed, has become so nearly obsolete, that not many, even among the profession, are aware that it ever existed. The record of marriages and baptisms might be obtained from clergymen; but the number of baptisms would furnish us with a very uncertain criterion for estimating the number of births. If, however, we could procure certain records of the marriages and births in particular towns or parishes, it would be of no importance in ascertaining the fruitfulness of marriages ; so great is the interchange of inhabitants constantly taking place between our towns. The older settlements are every day sending forth new married couples to find farms in other places; of course the marriage, and the births resulting from it, do not appear on the same record. And for the same reason, it would be of no assistance to us, if we could obtain the number of the births and marriages in the whole state of Massachusetts, or of any single state in the union. For the intercourse between the states, is as unrestrained as that between different towns. There is every reason to believe, as we have before remarked, that in New England there is born, on an average, a greater number of children for each marriage ; and that of the born, a greater number are reared, than in any other part of the United States; unless it be in some of the new states north west of the Ohio. Yet an inspection of the records of marriages and births would very probably lead us to a different conclusion ; because thousands of the children of marriages solemnized in New England, must be sought for on the banks of the Ohio or the Wabash. We have no doubt that, in consequence of the migratory spirit, we could find many towns of Massachusetts, where the proportion of births to marriages in the records, would be no more than three to one; whilst the census should indicate, and truly too, that the population was increasing. And on the other hand, we might take the records of a town in Indiana or Ohio, which has been settled within the last ten years, (and there are hun

dreds of such towns,) and by counting up all the marriages, and then all the births, which have taken place within the town, we should obtain a dozen or fifteen births for one marriage. No reliance therefore is to be placed on the records of particular towns, as a mean of judging of the fruitfulness of marriages throughout the country, or even in the place where they are kept. In the absence of documents, conjectures are not of much avail on such a subject; yet all writers have agreed in the supposition, that the number of births is very much greater here than in Europe. Mr Godwin indeed is to be excepted ; but there is no subject with which he is less acquainted than America ; unless, indeed, it be the subject of population in general. Dr Franklin supposes eight births to a marriage, which we have no doubt is too high. Dr eybert thinks there are six, and that four out of the six are reared, and this we conceive to be very near the truth. But that either there must be a greater number of births in America than in Europe, or that of the born, a greater number must live beyond the first and most dangerous stages of life, is proved by the fact, that the children in this country, as shown by all our censuses, compose a much larger portion of our population, than they do of the population of other countries.

The remarks we have just made respecting registers, apply to all the evidence which Mr Godwin adduces in support of his proposition, that marriages are not more prolific in America than in Europe. He introduces with infinite satisfaction, a communication to the philosophical society of Philadelphia, by Mr Barton, in which communication, is contained, an account of the births, marriages, and deaths, in the first parish of Hingham, in this state. By this, it appears that during fiftyfour years, there were 2,247 births, 1,113 deaths, and 521 marriages.'

Supposing this account to be accurate, (and it may be so or it may not,) it is not safe to estimate from it the prolificness of marriages. For although we are not particularly acquainted with Hingham, yet we know enough of the country towns in New England generally, to be able to say with great confidence, that of the children of five hundred marriages solemnized in so old a town as that, a very considerable proportion were born in other places. Mr Godwin likewise gives us a report of marriages and births, in Portsmouth N. H. for a period of six years, drawn up by Dr Spalding, to which the same remarks

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