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apply. And we may add, that Portsmouth is too large a town to furnish a fair average of the whole country; to say nothing of the difficulty of any individual's keeping a very accurate account of the births in so considerable a population. Mr Godwin finds that in these two accounts there are about four and a half births to a marriage. His mode of ascertaining this is by merely dividing, in each instance, the whole number of births by the whole number of marriages. But this is not a correct mode of ascertaining the prolificness of marriages, for it is evident that many of these births, must have resulted from marriages which took place prior to the period embraced by the registers; and on the other hand subsequently to the period in the registers, many of the marriages contained therein will have yielded other births, which of course are not counted. And on this account, where the population is either increasing or diminishing, the proportion of births to marriages in the registers will never truly represent the prolificness of marriages. We had supposed that Mr Malthus had made this subject clear enough, in his chapter on the fruitfulness of marriages; and to that we refer our readers for the correct rule on the subject. By this rule, and with the premises furnished him by Mr Barton, Mr Malthus finds 5.58 to be the prolificness of marriages in this country. Of the uncertainty of these premises we have already intimated our opinion. are very much at a loss to determine whether Mr Godwin read the chapter just referred to, or not. He occasionally extracts from it a detached passage ; but at the same time he goes on reasoning from principles, which are there demonstrated to be erroneous, as if he were utterly unconscious that the correctness of those principles had ever been questioned. It is possible that he may have resolved that he will be instructed by nothing which comes from Mr Malthus; but it is hardly possible that he can be so childish as to believe that his readers have formed a similar resolution.

To those who are acquainted with Mr Malthus' book, it is superfluous to observe, that there is nothing in the Hingham account at all inconsistent with the supposition of a rapid increase of population. The proportion of births to marriages, indeed, forms no criterion whatever by which to judge of the rate of increase. The population of a country may be stationary or declining, with a proportion as 5 to 1, and may be increasing with some rapidity with a proportion as 4 to 1.'* The

* Malthus' Essay on Pop. vol. ii. p. 23.


ever "*

prolificness of marriages is a thing different from the proportion of births to marriages, as presented in the registers. It is only the latter to which Mr Godwin pays any attention. But it is not even on the prolificness of marriages alone, that the rate of increase depends. Population increases when the births exceed the deaths. And the excess of births over the deaths is affected not merely by the prolificness of marriages, but likewise by the proportion of the born which lives to marry; and by the earliness of these marriages compared with the average duration of life. That with the

same prolificness of marriages, the rate of increase will be the more rapid, in proportion as a greater proportion of the born shall live to marry, must be evident to every one; and a slight reflection will render it apparent, that where any increase is going on, it will be more rapid, as the interval between the average age of marriage and the average age of death shall be longer. It is evident that if there be any principle of increase, that is, if one marriage in the present generation yields more than one in the next, including second and third marriages, the quicker these generations are repeated, compared with the passing away of a generation by death, the more rapid will be the increase. Mr Malthus has explained and demonstrated these principles in his chapter on the fruitfulness of marriages; and yet Mr Godwin, with a perverseness which was never equalled, asserts, and builds all his arguments on the assertion, that there must be eight births to a marriage, or the population cannot double itself. And in his attempt, or rather his pretence of ascertaining whether this has been the case, instead of calculating the prolificness of marriages, he looks merely at the proportion of births to marriages in the registers, and if he finds this proportion to be but as 4 to 1, he assures us that the population must be at a stand.

If the Hingham register could be considered as presenting the true proportion of births to marriages for the whole country, the only consequence would be, that every thing which Mr Godwin has written respecting the unhealthiness of the United States must be considered incorrect, even if from other sources we did not know it to be so. For in that case we should have to account for the known rate of our increase, by the supposition that the proportion of the born which lives to marry is extraordinarily large; and the larger this proportion is, the more healthy must be the country. But as Mr Malthus ob

* Essay on Pop. vol. ii. p. 21.

serves, 'to occasion so rapid an increase as that which has taken place in America, it will be necessary that all the causes of increase should be called into action. And the proportion in the Hingham register is undoubtedly too small; although we are not to expect to find the true proportion (as Mr Godwin thinks it must be) any thing like 8 to 1. We attach but little importance to the registers of single parishes, but the following account of the marriages, births, and deaths in Billerica, in this state, is perhaps less liable to suspicion than such accounts generally are, because it is of a period when the law for recording the births and deaths must have been more regarded, and when likewise the increase was less likely to be affected by emigration, than is the case at present. From the year 1654 to the year 1704, in Billerica,* there were marriages 106, births 557, deaths 172. Giving a proportion of births to marriages of 51 to 1; and of births to deaths of more than 3 to 1. This proportion of the births to marriages is about as high as we ought to expect; for the more rapid is the rate of increase, the more will the proportion of births to marriages in the registers fall short of the real prolificness of marriages.

We have seen accounts of two or three other villages, which give a proportion of births a little larger than the foregoing; but the accounts, though very probable from their results, are themselves of so unauthentic a character, that we do not think it worth while to introduce them.

Although Mr Godwin seems to think it is only by an augmented proportion of births that the population of a country can be increased, yet he takes upon himself to prove that a smaller portion are not prematurely cut off by disease or otherwise in the United States than in Europe.' And to this end he devotes a chapter to the subject of the diseases' of this country, We have not left ourselves time to follow him step by step through this chapter, which is almost as weak as those upon emigration. It contains such stuff as this:

• The lady from Pennsylvania, whom I mentioned above, stated to me, that the citizens of that state, male and female, were generally found to decline from their youth and strength at twentyfive or thirty years


age. She further expressed herself as having no doubt ihat the continuity of population from their own proper sources was less full there than in England : for which she assigned four reasons; first, that the mothers suckle their children * Co

Mass. Historical Soc. vol. ii.-- 2d series, p. 166. Neon Series, No. 12.



that there were other things in Rome worth seeing went the rounds of the public buildings, pictures, Morellet declares himself to have received little pleası them. “I must acknowledge to my shame,' says he,' impression I received from these masterpieces of art, wa in comparison with that which I observed in real amate in artists. In fact, I am near sighied, which is a ve disadvantage, but besides, I am strongly inclined to that the habit of thinking profoundly, of occupying in all the mental faculties, of concentrating one's self, is, to tain degree, opposed to the sensibility demanded by tl of imitation. At Rome, he made an extract from the · D rium Inquisitorum,' of Nicholas Eymeric, grand inquisito fourteenth century. Under the title of · Manual of Inqui Morellet collected the most revolting customs and infl from the information to the execution of the criminal. summary of the severities of this barbarous institution, w doubtedly very striking. The author was, however, surp and almost incredulous, when assured by M. de Malesh that the criminal jurisprudence of France contained the same cruelties with the Italian church. Indeed, at the when these processes were most customary in the churcl administration of the state was also sullied with the mos gusting and obscene ignorance, and the most ferocious barity, and every baronial castle was, in proportion, pro with as ample means of torture and exaction, as the vaults o Holy Office. The stain on the church, therefore, does not sist so much in its dungeons having been shut in the fourte century, as in their not having been opened till the ninetee By the late intelligence from Portugal, it appears that the built in the form of an inverted cone, where the prisoner co not even stand without pain, and the furnaces in which victim was bricked up and quick-lime showered on him f. above, have continued in use to the present day. With res to the enormities in question, we find the following judgn in a letter of Voltaire, on reading the manual. Men do deserve to live ;' says he, for there is wood and fire, and they have not employed them to burn these monsters in th infamous retreats. It seems that the philosopher's justice of the same complexion as the inquisitors' charity.

Morellet, while on this visit to the south, had the opportur of hearing the famous improvisatrice Corilla, and gives the lowing account of her performance :

Malthus thinks the towns of England were more unhealthy at the time Dr Price made his calculations than they are at present; but still he is of opinion, that 1 in 31, the proportion of mortality for London, mentioned in The observations on the result of the Population Act, is smaller than the truth.* • It may be stated in general,' says Dr Price, t'that whereas in great towns the proportion of inhabitants dying annually is from 1 in 19 to 1 in 22 or 23; and in moderate towns, from 1 in 24 to 1 in 28; in country parishes and villages on the contrary, this proportion seldom exceeds 1 in 40 or 50. He afterwards, I however, gives an account of several parishes taken from actual enumerations, according to which, in some villages, only a 45th, a 50th, a 60th, a 66th, and in one, a 75th part, dies annually. Mr Malthus, combining these and several other calculations, thinks that if we take 1 in 46 or 1 in 48, as the average mortality of the agricultural part of England, including sickly seasons, this will be the lowest that can be supposed with any degree of accuracy. And this proportion, he supposes, will be raised to 1 in 40, when we blend with it the mortality of towns and the manufacturing part of the community, in order to obtain an average for the whole kingdom. Thus in England, where the rate of mortality in the towns is so high, and where so large a proportion of the whole population live in towns, the rate for the whole kingdom is but 1 in 40. And when we find a rate of but 1 in 40 in our cities, even after making all allowances for omissions in the bills of the cities, we cannot believe the rate for the whole country to be so high as 1 in 45. In Russia, if their bills be correct, the rate of mortality is 1 in 58; and this we believe is thought the lowest of any country in Europe. In some large divisions of the United States, we are confident the rate is lower than in Russia ; and although from the great variety of climate in different parts of our territory, it is extremely unsafe to reason from observations made in a single section, yet we think that the average for the whole country is about as low as the Russian. Our duty does not require of us to collect original facts on this subject ;—for the purpose of refuting Mr Godwin, new facts are wholly unnecessary. But having before us bills of several country towns in various parts of New England, we present our readers with the following abstract of the same :

Essay on Pop. vol. i. p. 465, 466. + Observ. on Revers. Paym. First Add. Essay, p. 4. # Ibid. p. 10 $ Essay on Pop. vol. i. p. 464.

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