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• But one should hear at the end of each piece, the cries of bility and joy of this multitude and its transports, 0 bene O che gusto! Piacer da morire ! &c. I have seen some unable to control their delight, embraced the horses of th riages in the crowd ; and it is well known that Italian hors not so gentle as the English or even as our own. All the t this phrenzy, the most of us Frenchmen heard nothing bi noise, and were far from paying any attention to the music.
We cannot afford space for farther extracts from Mor journal, at this time. On returning to France in 1759,
1 commenced the study of mercantile and political econ which he had begun before his journey to Italy. He wa sented to Madame Geoffrin at this time, whose house the Josophers frequented. After their literary dinners, an e lent thing when truly literary, D'Alembert, Raynal, Helv Marmontel, &c. used to resort to the Tuilleries to meet other friends, learn the news, and criticise the govern They took great interest in the various success of their brother Frederic, and were of course disposed to oppos to the French ministry. Madame Geoffrin, a great ministe ist, attempted to divide the forces of the philosophers on ! march to the place of meeting. When Raynal, D'Alem or Marmontel were about leaving her together, she would tain one of them. This policy of the hostess was defeated by philosophers waiting for each other at the foot of the stairc and she was forced to acknowledge her opposition was v About this time they were violently attacked in a discours the academy by M. de Pompignan. Voltaire replied by s eral satires, and the other light armed troops of ridicule w maneuvred so effectually that de Pompignan was obliged effect an immediate retreat to his own province, accompan by this quotation, made by the dauphin :
' Et l'ami Pompignan pense être quelque chose.' On the side of the assailants, Palissot wrote the philosophe comedy,' in which they were brought forward to ridicule ai hatred, in the style of the old comedy. Morellet procured by a accident an account of the events of the private life of Palisse which he worked up into a satire, that he acknowledges himse passed the bounds of legitimate warfare. Palissot, howeve had friends in power, and Morellet had been imprudent enoug to introduce a lady, who was among the most powerful, in hi preface to the philosophers' comedy.' This little affair con
After his very satisfactory chapter on the diseases of the United States, Mr Godwin comes to what he says is the principal point in my whole subject.' It is this wherever there is an increase of mankind from procreation, the number of the born must be proportional to that increase. To keep up
the born, we must reckon upon four births to a marriage ; to double it, we must reckon upon eight. Where there are four births to a marriage, the number of births must double the number of procreants; where there are eight, it must quadruple it. p. 440. Now the authors of the American census for 1800 and 1810, have fortunately classed the free white inhabitants according to their ages, and thus enabled us to ascertain the number of adults and the number of children.'
According to these censuses the number of those under the age of sixteen, exceed but by a small number those above that age. And Mr Godwin affirms, that if the population of the United States doubled every twenty-five years, it is absolutely certain that in that country the children would outnumber the grown persons two or three times over.' p. 442. All this absolute certainty is founded on the assumption that the rate of increase is dependent only on the number of births; an assumption which we have already seen to be erroneous. It is impossible to define the proportion of children which is to be found in a country, from merely knowing the rate at which its population increases. Thus much we have a right to anticipate, and no more. When a country has doubled its population in the last twenty-five years, we have a right to expect to find in that country a number of inhabitants under the age of twenty-five years (for the age of sixteen has nothing to do with the case) sufficient, in the first place, to supply the places of all those who, during the period, have died out of the original stock, and then to furnish a surplus equal to the whole amount of the stock at the commencement of the period. And this
youth and strength at 25 or 30 years of age,' we cannot forbear transcribing a passage of a letter from Rev. Mr Hale of West Hampton, in this state.
When I was ordained (in 1779) there were, including myself, 34 or 35 ministers in Hampshire county. Of these, nine are now living, and I am the youngest of the nine. Two are above 85, but do not preach; two others are above 75, and have colleagues. Four perform the ordinary ministerial duties, two of them are above 70. One was dismissed, and is about my age. In forty years, only one minister has died, within the present limits of Hampshire county, under the age of 70. of those who have died within the limits of the old county, (as it was in 1779,) one was nearly 100, three about 90, one 87, right about 80, and eight about 70.'
we do find in our censuses. Mr Godwin says that more than one half of the whole population are under the age of sixteen; and if he will count the numbers between the ages of sixteen and twenty-five, he will find them equal to any fair calculations which can be made of the number, which has died from the population existing twenty-five years ago. Our census is taken at the end of every ten years. We ought, therefore, to find in each census, the number of inhabitants under the age of ten years exceeding the amount of the whole increase which has taken place during the preceding ten years. It should erceed the amount of the increase, because the places of those of the original stock who have died during the period must be supplied by those who have been born within it, before we can begin to count an increase. And accordingly, we find that in every census which has ever been taken in this country, the inhabitants under the age of ten years do exceed, by a considerable number, the amount of increase which had taken place since the preceding census. If any thing more were wanting in reference to this principal point of all,” Mr G. himself has kindly furnished it. In Sweden, the tables of which Mr G. has furnished us, it seems that the number of persons above the age of 6fteen are double those under that age. And yet the population of Sweden, according to Mr G's own statement, is increasing. In the United States, those above the age of sixteen are not quite equal to those under the same age.
We have thus, though not without some trial of our patience, followed Mr Godwin through his statements and arguments which have any relation to this country. In doing this, we have been obliged incidentally to notice some of the principal errors in his general view of the subject of population. Something we had intended to add on his misrepresentations of Mr Malthus' views and arguments; and in consideration of what we should say on this subject, we have hitherto treated the book with more forbearance than it merited. But we have no room left for so endless a topic ; and the able reviews of this work from Edinburgh and London, which are already in possession of our readers, render such remarks superfluous. Notwithstanding the disgust we feel at the flimsy, shallow, and uncandid manner in which Mr Godwin has acquitted himself, we are glad that he has written on the subject. After the lapse of more than twenty years, and when the charms of novelty must have ceased, the world has been called upon to recon
sider and revise the judgment it originally pronounced on the truth of Mr Malthus' work. The consequence has been an entire and deliberate affirmance of that judgment; and henceforth, we presume, the subject of population will be considered as at rest.
ART. XIV.-Memoires de l'abbe Morellet, de l'academie Fran
çaise, sur le 18e siecle et sur la revolution, &c. Paris, 2 vols. 1821.
LADY MORGAN, in her France, thus commemorates the subject of our present article : Morellet, the dear friend of Diderot who had nearly lost his reason in the donjon of Vincennes, of Rousseau banished for the novelty of his paradoxes, of Marmontel who had been thrown into the bastile for reciting a humorous satire, was naturally a friend to the revolution. In this instance, the fair historian appears to have been more solicitous to establish the most natural theory on the probable conduct of Morellet, than to draw any inferences from the actual facts. He appears to have been throughout, firmly, though peacefully, opposed to the prevailing doctrines of the new philosophy and politics, as far as they affected the state. Indeed the sympathy, with the misfortunes of his friends, which is ascribed to him in the extract just made, would hardly operate sufficiently on his mind to counteract the adverse influence of his own personal losses, by the confiscation of the church property. We have been in fact annoyed by the frequency with which the Abbé, in the memoirs before us, reverts to events which, it cannot be denied, appear to have affected him quite as much from the consequences to himself, as from the dangers to more general interests, which were anticipated or realized in their progress. Thus he speaks in the following way of the suppression of the Société de Sorbonne, a theological assembly, which he describes as improperly confounded with the theological faculty of the same name, and into which he was admitted.
* By the suppression of this establishment, without any indemnity to its members, is not an act of remarkable violence towards private property committed ? To procure admission into this society, every one of its members had prolonged his studies, undergone examinations, and incurred expense; these efforts and their reward were his personal property.-By what right and with what justice did the assemblies, styled national, deprive me of these advantages, without affording me the slightest indemnity ? I had iny portion, during life, of the usufructuary property of fifty thousand livres, the income of the association to which I belonged; I had my portion of the building, the use of a public library, cmmon apartments, and provisions, which the house furnished ai a low price, and under pretence that it was a public institution, I am deprived of all !
It is a little surprising, therefore, that the literary veteran, of whose memoirs we propose to give some account at present, should ever have been described by any writer, however inaccurate, as a revolutionary partisan. But Lady Morgan has been abundantly dealt with, and we are all liable to error.
André Morellet died the 12th January 1819, at the great age of 92 years. This long life he passed in a succession of useful literary labors. He has left behind him a long list of translated and original works, and he enjoyed more or less the intercourse of the distinguished public and literary characters who flourished in France and England during his career. The book before us begins with his éloge, delivered before the academy. This is followed by his memoirs, written by himself, up to the year 1800; and the work concludes with extracts from his writings, illustrations of passages in his life, and notices of some of his contemporaries. At the age of fourteen he was sent to a seminary in Paris, from Lyons, his birthplace. After five years at this school, he passed through his concluding examination with some credit. During this period, he describes himself as having become a very acute disputant, and as producing objections in argument with great success. At the close of his stay, by the assistance of a distant relation, who gave him a thousand francs, he obtained the situation in the Société de Sorbonne, already mentioned. Here he passed the ensuing five or six years of his life with great tranquillity, 'never leaving his room or the library but for the lecture room or dining hall,' and having no acquaintance but the inmates of the institution. He was called good Morellet,' and in point of theory, was at this time a confirmed optimist. Though very violent in manner and gesture, especially in disputation, he was remarkably good tempered and friendly in disposition. • I used to spit blood sometimes,' says he, from the violence