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another telegram also, saying that measures had been taken for the protection of all churches, schools, and hospitals in Szechuen; that in times when there is no trouble the department and district magistrates send police to protect them, and in times of trouble send soldiers in addition to remain on guard; that sometimes where the people and church are on friendly terms they object to the presence of soldiers and police, and in some cases, in wild out-of-the-way places and in mountain nooks, it is difficult to look after them, but in no case do they fail to exhaust their minds and strength to take measures for their protection, etc.
As in duty bound, on receiving this telegram we have transmitted it to your excellency for your information..
We avail ourselves of the opportunity to wish your excellency the compliments of the day.
REFORM ELICTS AIMING AT REORGANIZATION OF INSTITUTIONS
OF LEARNING, AND RESTORATION OF FRIENDLY INTERCOURSE WITH FOREIGNERS.
Mr. Conger to Mr. Hay.
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
Peking, January 16, 1902. SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith translations of several edicts which have appeared within the past week, and which seem to show an earnest desire on the part of the Chinese court to placate the foreign powers by the punishment of several officials implicated in the “Boxer” outrages, by strict orders for the protection of the missionaries, and by educational reforms which may secure more intelligent officials for the management of international affairs than have been available in the past.
The usual depreciation of western learning appears, however, in the expectation that within a few months enough may be learned to render men efficient in the discussion of the problems which need an acquaintance with modern science for their solution.
This cheap estimate of any knowledge wbich the West can give them bas vitiated all the educational reforms that have been projected by the Chinese in the past.
The decision to reopen the Imperial University at Peking is an important one, but the trusting of its entire management to Mr. Chang Po-hsi does not augur well for its success, although he is a progressive man and was one of the supporters of K’ang Yu-wei. He is a man of thorough Chinese education, but he has no such intimate acquaintance with western sciences or educational methods, as to fit him for such an important post as that of preparing the courses of study and regulations of the university.
It is true, of course, that there is a faculty composed of European and American scholars, of which our countryman, Dr. W. A. P. Martin, is the president, and he will naturally consult with them, but it is understood that these are all to be discharged and others engaged in their places; and so long as the Chinese show an entire unwillingness to trust the entire management of their schools for a time to capable foreign educators they will fail, as they have in the past, to make these schools anything more than a sham. The “T'ung-wen Kuan” mentioned in one of the edicts as having placed under the same management as the university is the old school of languages established many years
ago in Peking, of which Dr. Martin was president before assuming the more responsible post of president of the university.
The edict depriving certain officials of their rank and prohibiting their reemployment in any official capacity because of their connection with the Boxer” movement, as well as that charging the various provincial and local authorities with the more careful protection of missions and the suppression of evil societies, are both commendable, but their value will depend entirely upon the care, which the Government may take in promulgating and enforcing them. I have, etc.,
E. H. CONGER.
Translation from the Peking Gazette of January 10, 1901.
“The Hanlin Academy is an institution intended for the culture of talent. As its members ordinarily have no public duties to discharge and enjoy quiet leisure, they ought to thoroughly acquaint themselves with political economy, that they may develop useful talents and fit themselves for the service of the state. Let the chancellor of the academy direct the members of the institution to exert themselves in the study of ancient and modern methods of government and in Chinese and western branches of learning, that, whether holding office or otherwise, they may alike keep themselves posted as to current affairs and not fall into ruts. After the expiration of five months let them be classified according to their talents. Let the said chancellor examine them and separate the proficient from the worthless, and prepare and present a memorial reporting on the subject.
“Let there be no deception.” Respect this.
Translation from the Peking Gazette of January 10, 1902. The following edict was issued on January 10:
“The establishment of schools for the cultivation of talent is a most important thing at the present time. The capital is the chief place in the Empire, and there should extra care be taken, therefore, to adopt there such methods as may serve for an example to be followed elsewhere.
“The Imperial University, which was established here some time ago, ought at once to be set going in thorough earnest, and we appoint Chang Po-hsi to be chancellor of said university, and, in all matters pertaining to it, charge him with the responsibility of management. We must search for the best methods to produce that general intelligence and understanding of principles and practice which will give us efficient men. We further direct him to carefully consider and decide upon the regulations which ought to be adopted and report to us as occasion may require.”
Translation from the Peking Gazette of January 11, 1902. The following edict was received on the 2d of the twelfth moon (January 11):
“Yesterday we issued an edict concerning the administration of the Imperial University of Peking, and appointed Chang Po-hsi to be chancellor thereof. As to the T’ung Wen Kuan, established a long time ago, let it no longer be controlled by the foreign office, but let its management be included in the duties of Chang Po-hsi, and let him at once earnestly employ himself in a conscientious effort to put things in order and to enforce discipline, that he may fulfill the obligations of his office.”
Translation from the Peking Gazette of January 13, 1902. The Peking Gazette of January 13 contained the following edict issued the same day:
* Last year the 'Boxers' stirred up confusion in the country which gradually grew into a great calamity. It was all due to the lack of wisdom on the part of princes and ministers who connived at the corrupt practice of magic, and by the intimidation of the court accomplished their cruel purposes. Their guilt, therefore, can not be overlooked. At that time their stupid followers, anticipating their designs, fawned upon them, and what the one called for the other accomplished. Their clamorous talking and planning grew to such proportions as to confuse the senses and really threatened destruction to the state. Although the doings of some were less guilty than those of others it is difficult for them to escape the Imperial notice. They ought all to be punished in order, to awaken a proper respect for official regulations.
“We command that Ho Nai.ying, the senior vice-president of the censorate, who has already been removed from his post, the expositor of the Hanlin Academy, Peng Ch'ing-li; the Hanlin compiler, Wang Lung-wen; the prefect of Han-chou Fu in Kiangsi, Lien Wen-chung, and the expectant-prefect of Shensi, Tseng Shih-wei, be all deprived of their ranks and forbidden forever to hold office.”
Translation from the Peking Gazette of January 13, 1902. We have received the commands of Her Imperial Majesty the Empress Dowager, Tzu-hsi, etc., as follows:
“The Government has entered into treaty relations with the foreign powers and reestablished good feeling, which is all very just. For over a year we have exhorted all the officials who have been summoned to audience, whether high or low, to acquaint themselves with current affairs, and to strengthen our relations with foreign powers. We have constantly urged upon the various department and district magistrates that they should regard the court as looking with the same kindly feeling upon missions and missionaries as upon others, and that they must use extra care to give them protection, as well as exhort the people and set the example in the matter of promoting good feeling between the people and the church, and that they must thoroughly remove all suspicions that are likely to breed trouble. This sort of exhortation we have given not thrice nor five times, so that there are plenty of these officials who understand the good intentions of the court. But those who have not sincerely observed these injunctions are also not few. Henceforth they must put away their prejudices, manifest sincerity, and show justice, choose the good and follow it. Mutual politeness will naturally enable China and the foreign powers to maintain friendliness, and together attain a lasting peace. Will this not be a fortunate circumstance, relieving those in authority and perfecting the conditions of those under their control? The character of the people in the different provinces is not uniform; and, even though the good and gentle may be in the majority, it has often happened that the evil and treacherous have, by their suggestions, stirred up suspicion, manufactured rumors, and produced trouble that has gradually grown into a missionary case, and the masses have become entangled in it and found no way of escape, when they have afterwards repented. The remedy lies in having the local officials keep in friendly relations with their people and in their leading them as occasion may require.
**If the people and the church get into a quarrel they should hear and decide the case with justice, without any prejudice, and without stirring up feeling. As to those who turn to the practices of evil societies, like the “White Lily' or the Eight Trigrams' societies, and others of that sort, and employ those to sow suspicions among the people, they are such as the laws can not tolerate. Such societies have been long ago forbidden, and the officials must at once publish this for the information of all, and issue strict orders and make investigation. Should there be lawbreakers, they must punish them in order to correct the hearts of the people and secure respect for the law. Let the various Tartar generals, viceroys, and governors all proceed as directed and publish this edict for general information."
RESTORATION OF TIENTSIN TO CHINESE AUTHORITIES.
Mr. Wu to Mr. Hay.
Washington, January 20, 1902. Sir: Confirming the conversation I had the honor of having with you last Saturday, informing you of my receipt of a telegram from His Excellency Yuan Shih Kai, viceroy of Chihli, regarding the international provisional government at Tientsin, China, I beg to state that, in view of the fact that the Imperial court has returned to Peking, that peace and order have now been completely restored, and as Tientsin is the port of Peking and the seat of the viceregal Government of Chihli, it should at once be restored to the administration of the Chinese authorities, so that the viceroy may assume full charge of bis office. Viceroy Yuan states that the foreign ministers in Peking have already expressed their consent to the proposition, but up to this date it has not been carried out.
I am therefore asked to bring the matter before you, with the request that you will kindly use your friendly offices with the Governments of the other great powers, to the end that a day may be fixed for the immediate restoration of the city of Tientsin and its suburbs to the Chinese authorities. Accept, etc.,
Mr. Hay to Mr. Wu.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, January 30, 1902. Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note No. 226 of the 20th instant, in which, in view of the fact that the Imperial court has returned to Peking, and that peace and order have been restored, and as Tientsin is the port of Peking and the seat of the viceregal government of Chihli, the opinion is expressed that the city should be restored to the administration of the Chinese authorities, so that the viceroy may assume full charge of his office, and the request is made that I will use my good offices with the governments of the powers to the end that a date may be fixed for the restoration of Tientsin and its suburbs to Chinese authority.
The Government of the United States has favored the early evacuation of Tientsin, and will consult the occupying powers. Accept, etc.,
Mr. Hay to Mr. Conger.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, January 30, 1902. Sir: I inclose herewith copy of a note from the Chinese minister at this capital, in which, in view of the fact that the Imperial Court has returned to Peking and peace and order have been restored, and as Tientsin is the port of Peking and the seat of the vice-regal government
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of Chihli, the opinion is expressed that the city should be restored to the administration of the Chinese authorities, so that the viceroy may assume full charge of his office; and the request is made that I will use my good offices with the Governments of the powers to the end that a date may be fixed for the restoration of Tientsin and its suburbs to Chinese authority.
With a view to uniform suggestion by you to your colleagues I also inclose a copy of the instruction which I have sent mutatis mutandis to the ambassadors of the United States at London, Paris, Berlin, and Rome, and to the minister at Tokyo, on the subject. I am, etc.,
Mr. Hay to Mr. Porter. No. 976.]
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, January 29, 1902. Sir: I inclose herewith a copy of a note from the Chinese minister, in which, in view of the fact that the Imperial Court has returned to Peking and that peace and order have been restored, and as Tientsin is the port of Peking and the seat of the vice-regal government of Chihli, the opinion is expressed that the city should be restored to the administration of the Chinese authorities, so that the viceroy may assume full charge of his office; and the request is made that I will use my good offices with the Governments of the powers to the end that a date may be fixed for the restoration of Tientsin and its suburbs to Chinese authority,
As early as May 28, 1901, Mr. Rockhill, special plenipotentiary of the United States to China, reported to the Department that the diplomatic corps at Peking believed that the evacuation of the native city of Tientsin and the transfer by the provisional government to the Chinese authorities of the authority with which it had been intrusted by the commanders of the troops in North China during the period of disorganization resulting from the occupation of Tientsin, should be brought to a close as soon as possible.”
It is my understanding that the diplomatic body always adhered to the opinion that this occupation should be promptly terminated, without prejudice, of course, to the question of the presence at Tientsin of a military force for the purpose of assisting in maintaining open communication between Peking and the sea.
This Government inclines to think that the continued existence of the provisional government of the Chinese city and district of Tientsin, which interferes with the general administration of affairs in the province, hampers the efforts of the Chinese Government to control the people and administer the laws, and interferes with the collection of duties pledged to the payment of the indemnities, is not consistent with the terms of the final protocol for the withdrawal of the powers from Chibli, and that the restoration of the city and district to the Chinese authorities at the earliest day practicable would be conducive to the ends sought in the adjustment of the issues between the powers and China. This would in no wise affect the question of the presence
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