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[Inclosure 1.-Translation.) Address of Baron Czikann, Dean of the diplomatic corps, at imperial audience, January
SIRE: I have the honor to present to Your Majesty, in the name of the representatives of the foreign powers at Peking, our respectful homage.
The deplorable events of the year 1900, which led to the departure of the Imperial Court from Peking and disturbed, for more than a year, diplomatic relations with the Chinese Government, have necessitated prolonged negotiations with the plenipotentiaries of Your Majesty. The final protocol of these negotiations, signed on the 7th of September, 1901, has happily and, as we are convinced, with mutual satisfaction reestablished the former friendly relations between our Governments and the Chinese Empire. It has created a new basis for the future, on which, by the faithful fulfillment of its clauses, these relations may be cultivaterl and rendered more and more close.
We are pleased to consider the return of Your Majesty to Peking and the gracious reception of the diplomatic corps as the consummation of this work and as evidence of Your Majesty's desire to develop a cordial understanding between our Governments and to secure perpetual peace between our countries.
We can assure Your Majesty that the august sovereigns and rulers of the powers which we have the honor to represent are animated with the same desire.
We are therefore happy to be able to express to Your Majesty, on the occasion of your return to Peking, the very sircere wishes which we entertain for the happiness of Your Majesty and for the welfare of the Chinese Empire.
[Inclosure 2.) The Emperor's informal reply to the address of the Dean of the diplomatic corps, January
I am very much gratified by the visit of your excellencies at this time. Henceforth the friendly relations between China and the Western powers will grow more intimate. To-day Her Majesty the Empress Dowager also desires to see your excellencies and speak a few words to you in person.
(Inclosure 3.] The Emperor's formal reply to the address of the Dean of the diplomatic corps, January
The address which your excellencies have united in presenting to us, expressing your kind feelings, has been heard by us with deepest pleasure.
The troubles of last year, stirred up by the “Boxers," having caused our sudden departure, we especially appointed a prince and high minister as plenipotentiaries, and commanded them to return to Peking and negotiate and conclude a satisfactory treaty.
That our temples and altars are restored to peace and the people saved from suffering is certainly due to the friendly feelings entertained by the Emperors, Kings, and Presidents of your several States, as well as to the efforts of your excellencies in our behalf.
The united rejoicings of Chinese and foreigners at the return of our Court will ever be gratefully remembered, and gives us added pleasures and satisfaction.
We heartily share the sentiments of your excellencies that henceforth we should together, by the manifestation of sincerity and justice, secure confidence and righteousness, maintain harmony in our international intercourse, and thus give peace to the whole world,
[Inclosure 4.] The Empress Dowager's reply to the address of the Dean of the diplomatic corps, January
This audience with your excellencies to-day gives me very great pleasure. When your excellencies were being terrified in the capital last year, my heart was filled with great uneasiness. Henceforth China and the Western powers will renew their friendly relations, which will daily grow more intimate. Furthermore, I hope that while your excellencies reside in Peking you may have every good that you may desire and together enjoy the blessings of peace.
Ceremonial obserred at audience to diplomatic corps, January 28, 1902.
At the appointed time the various ministers, riding in their chairs, will be escorted by officers appointed by the board of foreign affairs, who will conduct them through the Tung-Hua gate. The secretaries, attachés, interpreters, etc., will leave their chairs outside the Shang Ssu Yuan (the Palace Stud), and will follow on foot. Outside the Ching Yun gate the ministers will exchange their chairs for the palace chairs, prepared by the department of the Imperial household, and will leave these chairs at the foot of the steps outside of the Ch’ien Ch'ing gate, and will pass on foot through the middle Ch'ien Ch'ing gate to the Imperial study, where they will waita few moments. At 1 o'clock the Emperor will enter the hall, and the ministers of the foreign office will lead in the ministers, their secretaries, attachés, interpreters, and others according to their rank. In the first rank will be the ministers, the doyen, and one interpreter, who will stand behind the doyen. The second row will contain the secretaries and attachés, and the remainder will constitute the third row.
At the middle door of the hall one bow will be made, on entering the hall a few steps a second bow will be made, and when before the steps of the throne, a third bow. The doyen will then read his address, which the interpreter will translate, and when he shall have finished translating, the Emperor will make his reply through Prince Ch’ing, which the interpreter will translate to the several ministers. When they shall have finished listening to the address, they will make a bow and retire a few steps, bow a second time, then retire to the hall door and bow a third time. When the ceremony is completed, they will lead their secretaries, attachés, and interpreters sidewise to the left gate and pass out backward. At the Imperial study they will rest awhile, and then pass out through the middle Ch’ien Ch'ing gate, enter the palace chairs, and ride through the Ching Yun gate, where they will leave the palace chairs and enter their own, to be carried back to their legations.
Address of Mrs. Conger, doyenne, at the reception of the Empress Dowager to the ladies of
the diplomatic corps, February 1, 1902. Your MAJESTY: The ladies of the diplomatic corps have responded with pleasure to your kind invitation to this audience, and we must heartily congratulate you and all the Imperial Court that the unfortunate situation which led you to abandon your beautiful capital has been so happily resolved that you are now permitted to return to it in freedom and in peace. Your safe return to Peking and to this palace undestroyed will furnish pages to future history little comprehended at this time. The events of the past two years must be as painful to you as they are to the rest of the world, but the sting of the sad experience may be eliminated, and we sincerely hope it will be, by the establishment of better, franker, more trustful, and friendlier relations between Chinese and the other peoples of the earth.
The world is moving forward. The tide of progress can not be stayed, and it is to be hoped that China will join the great sisterhood of nations in the grand march. May all the nations united manifest forbearance, respect, and good will, moving on to the mutual good of all.
The recent Imperial edicts give promise of great good to come to your people and to your vast Empire, and it is our earnest prayer that God may preserve Your Majesty and the Emperor, and guide you to the fullest fruition of this promise.
Reply of Her Imperial Majesty the Empress Dowager to the address of Mrs. Conger,
February 1, 1902.
The very kind sentiments expressed by the ladies of the diplomatic corps in the address which they have united in presenting to us have given us the deepest pleasure.
Last year the dissensions in the capital caused a revolution which compelled us suddenly to take our departure, but it is a great gratification to us to know that our return now is a cause of rejoicing both in China and abroad, and to see that Mrs. Conger is entirely well, and that all the ladies are in everything prosperous.
Your coming to the palace on this occasion for an audience and the good wishes you express in your address for the prosperity of China are a sure proof of your sincerity.
Henceforth the friendly intercourse between our several countries will grow more intimate and the blessings of peace will rest upon us all. We desire only that you may all, while in China, have your desires gratitied in all things, and find happiness and blessing. For this we earnestly hope.
REFORM EDICTS REMOVING PROHIBITION OF MARRIAGE
Mr. Conger to Mr. Hlay.
LEGATION OF THE UNITED STATES,
Peking, February 6, 1902. Sir: I have the honor to inclose herewith copies of two imperial edicts recently issued which indicate the loosening of the bonds of old custom and the present trend toward a new order.
The removal of the prohibition of intermarriage between Manchus and Chinese is of significance politically as indicating a desire to emphasize less strongly the distinction between rulers and ruled.
The other edict is in line with the policy declared in a number of recent edicts to encourage the study of western methods. I have, etc.,
E. H. CONGER.
Translation from the Peking Gazette of February 1, 1902. The following imperial edict was issued to-day:
“We have received this decree from her Imperial Majesty Tzu-hsi, etc., Empress Dowager:
“Our Dynasty, distinguished for its benevolence, has richly bestowed its benefits in overflowing measure throughout the whole Empire. No partiality has been shown to Manchu or Chinese, whether high official or people. But, according to an old custom, there has been no intermarriage between them. This was originally because when the Dynasty was first established the customs and speech of the two peoples were considerably unlike and therefore the prohibition was made. Now, however, customs and beliefs are alike, and more than two hundred years having passed, we ought to defer to the general feeling and remove the prohibition, and therefore we command that Manehu and Chinese, whether officials or people, be allowed to intermarry. Let there be no bigoted adherence to old custom. But, as for the Chinese women, for the most part, they have followed for a long time the custom of foot binding, which is an injury to the good order of creation. Hereafter let the officials and gentry all exert themselves to gently persuade and lead the
people and cause them all to understand, in the hope that this old custom may be gradually abolished. But on no account will it be permitted officials, clerks, or the slippery yamen runners to take advantage of this to go about harassing the people with their prohibitions. But at the times for selecting girls for palace attendants, the Manchus must still be chosen; there must not be any selection of Chinese, lest we fall into the corrupt practices of the former Ming Dynasty. We therefore make this restriction out of deference to the feelings of the (Chinese) people. Let this edict be published abroad for general information.'
Translation from the Peking Gazette of February 1, 1902.
The following edict was issued on the 23d of the twelfth moon (February 1, 1902):
“Our international relations are of the utmost importance. At the present time when we are seeking to restore prosperity to the people and the Government, we ought more than ever to gather together those of superior merit. If those who go abroad will devote themselves earnestly to the investigation of foreign methods of government and the sciences of those countries, we may hope to so increase our talents as in some measure to meet the needs of the Government. At present there are many students from the various provinces, zealous in acquainting themselves with current affairs, who have gone abroad to study in foreign schools and learn a profession. This practice has never obtained among the Imperial Clansmen and the Eight Banners, and it is urgently necessary that they become more liberally educated. Let the Imperial Clan court and the lieutenants-general of the Eight Banners select young men from each banner between the ages of 15 and 25, of good character, intelligent minds and sound bodies, and prepare a list to be sent to the Grand Council, who may report to us and await our appointment of an official to reexamine and make a selection of a certain number, who shall be furnished with means and sent abroad to travel and study, availing themselves of the opportunity to familiarize themselves (with foreign methods) and enlarge their experience that they may assist the Court in its purpose to cultivate talent for the service of the Government."
ARGUMENTS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES LAWS FOR THE
EXCLUSION OF CHINESE.
Mr. Wu to Mr. Hay.
Washington, February 7, 1902. Sir: I have the honor to inform you that I have just received a telegram from the Chinese consul-general at San Francisco, forwarding a petition of the Chinese Merchants' Association of California to the Committee on Immigration of the Senate and Committee on Foreign Relations of the House of Representatives, which have now under consideration a bill to prohibit the coming into and to regulate the residence within the United States, its Territories, and all possessions and all territory under its jurisdiction, and the District of Columbia, of Chinese persons and persons of Chinese descent.
I beg to inclose the original and two copies of the telegram referred to, and to request that you will kindly transmit the same to the respective committees of the Senate and House of Representatives for their favorable consideration. Accept, etc.,
WU TING-FANG. FR 1902, PT 1-14
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL., February 6, 1902. The Chinese merchants here have requested me to forward to you the following petition and ask you to transmit same to Senate and House commitiee, now in session on Chinese exclusion.
Ho Yow, Consul-General.
[Subinclosure. 1 Petition of Chinese Merchants' Association to committees of the Senate and House of
We respectfully draw your attention to the fact, which can be proven, that the recent convention convened in San Francisco to petition Congress to exclude Chinese did not represent the true sentiments of the large majority of the people of the State of California. The great majority of delegates were labor unionists and politicians. Farmers, manufacturers, capitalists, etc., had no chance to register their general opinions. The convention was not sincere, as many of its delegates were actual employers of Chinese. The convention was instigated by a few for political purposes, as the sentiment against the Chinese has changed, and conditions are not what they were years ago.
We respectfully pray that Congress send an impartial commission to investigate the whole matter and ascertain the true feeling of the country. If necessary, the exclusion act can be extended temporarily until completion of investigation. If friends of exclusion are so confident of the needs and justice of their cause, they certainly need not fear this proposed honest commission. This general investigation must result to the benefit of both countries, and would pave the way for a clear and useful treaty, as the present one expires in 1904.
We further pray that this, our prayer, be brought before the full House and Senate for consideration.
CHINESE MERCILANTS' ASSOCIATION.
Mr. Hay to Mr. H. No. 202.]
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, February 11, 1902. Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 7th instant, forwarding a petition from the Chinese Merchants' Association of California, and to inform you that, in compliance with the request which you make, I have communicated copies of your note and its inclosures to the Committee on Immigration of the Senate and to the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, for their consideration in connection with the bill to prohibit the coming into and to regulate the residence within the United States, its Territories, and all possessions and all territory under its jurisdiction, and the District of Columbia, of Chinese persons and persons of Chinese descent. Accept, etc.,
Mr. Wu to Mr. Hay. No. 240.]
Washington, March 22, 1902. Sir: When the Chinese Government consented in 1880 to a modification of the treaty of 1868, whereby the free immigration of Chinese