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the expense of publication was too great. The expense consisted not only in the loss of space occupied by the map, but the papers were required to furnish the chalkplates and do the casting.

In 1910 a determined effort was made to improve these conditions. and to have the commercial map published in the local papers at the larger stations by furnishing the papers with a more creditable chalkplate map, the only expense being the space required. When a zinc etching was used the paper was furnished a clear, legible copy for photographic reproduction. If a chalkplate map was desired the paper was furnished the chalkplate and also a cast when requested. WEATHER CONDITIONS AT 8 A. M.

[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

FIG. 19.-A typical commercial weather map, published by many newspapers throughout the United States.

By this method the map is published regularly and made available, without great expense to the bureau, to hundreds of thousands of people where previously it had reached but a few thousand. (Fig. 19.)

By using the newspapers two issues of the map each day-morning and evening-were given to the public, where previously only the morning map was available. By means of a masterplate containing an outline map of the United States and the Weather Bureau stations, and using a pantograph for transferring these lines and stations to the chalkplate, the process has now become almost perfect.

Many papers have commended the map as an addition of great value to the news columns of the press. The Minneapolis Journal was the first paper to publish the map at this time, beginning on March 1, 1910. Other papers took it up in rapid succession. Before the end of the first month papers at Boston, New York, Binghamton, and Atlanta had begun publication. Within the first four months from date of first issue its publication had been extended to 65 daily papers in 45 cities. By the end of the year 1910 the publication had extended to over 100 papers, and by July 1, 1911, the map was published at 74 places in 132 papers, with a total daily circulation of 2,898,000. At the same time the issue of the daily station map was but 15,000, distributed between 58 stations. In 1912 the publication grew in popularity and numbers. On July 1, 1912, the map was published at 91 stations in 147 papers, with a total daily circulation of 3,036,000.

The advantages of this large circulation to the public are manifest. The average reader sees the map each day in his paper, examines it, and soon becomes interested in its study. He learns the general principles of forecasting, begins to make his own predictions, and learning from experience that meteorology is not yet an exact science, and that forecasts sometimes fail, becomes more reasonable in his criticisms of the official forecast.



Secretary of Agriculture, D. F. HOUSTON.

Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, BEVERLY T. GALLOWAY.

Chief Clerk, C. C. CLARK.


Appointment Clerk, R. W. ROBERTS.

Supply Division, CYRUS B. LOWER, Chief.

Weather Bureau, H. E. WILLIAMS, Acting Chief.

Bureau of Animal Industry, Alonzo D. MELVIN, Chief.

Bureau of Plant Industry, WM. A. TAYLOR, Plant Physiologist and Pathologist and Chief.

Forest Service, HENRY S. GRAVES, Forester and Chief.

Bureau of Chemistry, CARL L. ALSBERG, Chemist and Chief.

Bureau of Soils, MILTON WHITNEY, Soil Physicist and Chief.

Bureau of Entomology, L. O. HoWARD, Entomologist and Chief.

Bureau of Biological Survey, H. W. HENSHAW, Biologist and Chief.

Division of Accounts and Disbursements, A. ZAPPONE, Chief and Disbursing Clerk.

Division of Publications, Jos. A. ARNOLD, Editor and Chief.

Bureau of Statistics, VICTOR H. OLMSTED, Statistician and Chief.

Library, CLARIBEL R. BARNETT, Librarian.

Office of Experiment Stations, A. C. TRUE, Director.

Office of Public Roads, LOGAN W. PAGE, Director.

Reuben F. Kolb, commissioner of agriculture, Montgomery, Ala.
Guy B. Tucker, commissioner of agriculture, Little Rock, Ark.

J. A. Filcher, secretary State board of agriculture, Sacramento, Cal.
L. M. Taylor, secretary State board of agriculture, Fort Collins, Colo.
L. H. Healey, secretary State board of agriculture, Hartford, Conn.
Wesley Webb, secretary State board of agriculture, Dover, Del.

B. E. McLin, commissioner of agriculture, Tallahassee, Fla.

J. J. Conner, commissioner of agriculture, Atlanta, Ga.

Joseph P. Fallon, commissioner of immigration, labor, and statistics, Boise. Idaho.

J. K. Dickirson, secretary State board of agriculture, Springfield, Ill.

Charles Downing, secretary State board of agriculture, Indianapolis, Ind.

A. R. Corey, secretary State board of agriculture, Des Moines, Iowa.

F. D. Coburn, secretary State board of agriculture, Topeka, Kans.

J. W. Newman, commissioner of agriculture, Frankfort, Ky.

E. O. Bruner, commissioner of agriculture, Baton Rouge, La.

J. P. Buckley, commissioner of agriculture, Augusta, Me.

A. F. Trappe, secretary State bureau of immigration, Baltimore, Md.

J. Lewis Ellsworth, secretary State board of agriculture, Boston, Mass.
Addison M. Brown, secretary State board of agriculture, East Lansing, Mich.
J. M. Simpson, secretary State agricultural society, St. Paul, Minn.

H. E. Blakeslee, commissioner of agriculture, Jackson, Miss.

T. C. Wilson, secretary State board of agriculture, Columbia, Mo.
John J. Hall, commissioner of agriculture, Helena, Mont.

W. R. Mellor, secretary State board of agriculture, Lincoln, Nebr.
Louis Bevier, secretary State board of agriculture, Carson City, Nev.
N. J. Bachelder, secretary State board of agriculture, Concord, N. H.
Franklin Dye, secretary State board of agriculture, Trenton, N. J.
Nathan Jaffa, secretary of state, Santa Fe, N. Mex.

Calvin J. Huson, commissioner of agriculture, Albany, N. Y.

W. A. Graham, commissioner of agriculture, Raleigh, N. C.

W. C. Gilbreath, commissioner of agriculture, Bismarck, N. Dak.

A. P. Sandles, secretary State board of agriculture, Columbus, Ohio.

G. T. Bryan, president, Benj. F. Hennessey, secretary, board of agriculture, Oklahoma City, Okla.

Frank Meredith, secretary State board of agriculture, Salem, Oreg.

N. B. Critchfield, secretary of agriculture, Harrisburg, Pa.

John J. Dunn, secretary State board of agriculture, Providence, R. I.

E. J. Watson, commissioner department of agriculture, commerce, and industries, Columbia, S. C.

C. N. McIlvaine, secretary State board of agriculture, Huron, S. Dak.

T. F. Pock, commissioner of agriculture, Nashville, Tenn.

Ed. R. Kone, commissioner of agriculture, Austin, Tex.

O. L. Martin, commissioner of agriculture, Plainfield, Vt.

G. W. Koiner, commissioner of agriculture, Richmond, Va.

I. M. Howell, secretary of State, Olympia, Wash.

John M. Millan, secretary State board of agriculture, Capitol Building, Charleston, W. Va.

J. C. Simpson, secretary State board of agriculture, Madison, Wis.

A. J. Parshall, State engineer, Cheyenne, Wyo.


College instruction in agriculture is given in the colleges and universities receiving the benefits of the acts of Congress of July 2, 1862, August 30, 1890, and March 4, 1907, which are now in operation in all the States and Territories except Alaska. The total number of these institutions is 67, of which 66 maintain courses of instruction in agriculture. In 23 States the agricultural colleges are departments of the State universities. In 16 States and Territories separate institutions having courses in agriculture are maintained for the colored race. All of the agricultural colleges for white persons and several of those for negroes offer four-year courses in agriculture and its related sciences leading to bachelors' degrees, and many provide for graduate study. About 60 of these institutions also provide special, short, or correspondence courses in the different branches of agriculture, including agronomy, horticulture, animal husbandry, poultry raising, cheese making, dairying, sugar making, rural engineering, farm mechanics, and other technical subjects. The officers of the agricultural colleges engage quite largely in conducting farmers' institutes and various other forms of college extension. The agricultural experiment stations with very few exceptions are departments of the agricultural colleges. The total number of persons engaged in the work of education and research in the land-grant colleges and the experiment stations in 1912 was 7,666; the number of students (white) in interior courses in the colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts, 53,764; the total number of students in the whole institutions, including students in correspondence courses and extension schools, 210,269; the number of students (white) in the four-year college courses in agriculture, 9,546; in short and special courses (white), 15,594; the total number of students in the institutions for negroes, 8,495, of whom 2,173 were enrolled in agricultural courses. With a few exceptions each of these colleges offers free tuition to residents of the State in which it is located. In the excepted cases scholarships are open to promising and energetic students; and, in all, opportunities are found for some to earn part of their expenses by their own labor. The expenses are from $125 to $300 for the school year.

1 Including only institutions established under the land-grant act of July 2, 1862.

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