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SNOW. At the close of the month there was a considerable body of snow on the ground from western Kansas and eastern Colorado northeastward to the Lake region and over northern New York and much of New England, but elsewhere east of the Rocky Mountains there was but a light covering.
In the central Rocky Mountain region there was considerable snow, and nearly the normal amounts were stored in the mountains of Montana and Idaho; but elsewhere in the western mountain districts there was less snow than usual, and in California and the States of the far Southwest the deficiency of snow in the mountains was unusually great.
TEMPERATURE.-The month opened with a cold wave of considerable severity over the central valleys and northern districts, but to the westward of the Rocky Mountains more moderate temperatures prevailed. Unusually cold weather continued in the interior portions of the country with but few interruptions throughout the first half of the month, and it was generally cold in most other districts, except over the Florida Peninsula and in the far Northwest, where the first half of the month was as warm as or slightly warmer than the average.
Over the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains; and generally in the Great Plains and middle Mississippi Valley regions, the first half of the month was remarkable for the long duration and severity of the cold, the average departure of the mean temperature for the period from the normal ranging from -10° to -15° per day.
During the second half of the month some severe cold occurred about the 19th to 23d, and again at the end of the month over the interior and northern districts, and it was cool in other districts also, but the temperatures were not abnormally low.
For the month as a whole the temperature averaged unusually low from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys, and in portions of the Great Plains region it was one of the coldest months of its name in many years. PRECIPITATION.--Unlike the two preceding months, March had abundant precipitation in nearly all districts. Heavy rains occurred during the early part of the month in central and southern California, and rain and snow were more or less frequent during the same period over much of the Southwest.
No less than five general storms having their origin in the Southwest moved across the lower Mississippi and Ohio Valleys during the month, accompanied as a rule by heavy precipitation. As a result there was an excess of from 2 to 4 inches or more above the average precipitation over a large area, embracing nearly the entire central and southern portions of the country, and nearly all streams to the eastward of the Rocky Mountains were more or less in flood at some period during the month.
The most severe floods were in the Ohio and middle and lower Mississippi Valleys, where much land was overflowed and immense damage resulted. The flood in the lower Ohio and middle and lower Mississippi Rivers was still in progress at the end of the month. with every prospect that the stages reached would be the highest ever recorded.
SNOW. The amount of snow was much below the normal fall for March over nearly all northern districts, especially in the upper Lake region and upper Mississippi Valley. On the other hand, snow was unusually heavy in portions of the middle Plains region and lower Missouri and middle Mississippi Valleys. In fact the snowfall over the greater portion of Kansas, Nebraska. Iowa, and
Missouri was the heaviest that has occurred in March for the past 30 years or more.
The ice in the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers and their tributaries broke up and moved out as a rule during the latter part of the month, and similar conditions prevailed in the navigable streams of the north Atlantic coast.
In the Lake region the harbors continued heavily icebound at the end of the month, and there were but few signs of the ice breaking up in the open lakes.
TEMPERATURE.-Along the northern border from the Lake region to New England, and in portions of the Great Plains, the first of the month was cold, but over the remaining districts moderately warm weather had set in, which gradually overspread the entire country till about the end of the first decade. Cold weather for the season then developed in the far Northwest, and during the following few days it overspread the districts to the eastward and southward, and some unusually low temperatures occurred in California and the Southwest about the 12th. This cold area gradually spread over the districts to the eastward of the Rocky Mountains, reaching the Atlantic coast about the 20th, and causing freezing temperatures or lower as far south as Kansas and in the mountain districts of Arizona and New Mexico, and frosts in Tennessee and northern Georgia.
During the first 15 days the average temperature was above the normal over all districts from the Rocky Mountains eastward, except in New England and portions of New York, where the period was moderately cold. It was colder than the average also in the far Southwest and over the entire Pacific coast section.
During the latter part of the month the weather continued cold in the districts to the westward of the Mississippi, and frosts and freezing temperatures prevailed in the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains regions. Over the Southern States and along the Atlantic coast the latter half of the month was moderately warm.
PRECIPITATION.-The general rainy condition that prevailed over the more southern districts during March continued into April, and heavy rains occurred near the beginning of the month in the watersheds of the Ohio and lower Mississippi Rivers, further augmenting the flood conditions that prerailed in those rivers at the end of March.
During the remainder of the month rainfall was frequent and in many sections of the great cereal and cotton-producing States the continued wet and cold condition of the soil greatly interfered with farming operations and delayed the development of vegetation. The precipitation over the central valleys and Gulf States was far above the average, and floods of moderate character prevailed in many of the rivers of the region referred to.
SNOW. Some heavy snows occurred during the early part of the month in portions of New York and New England, and there was a heavy fall in portions of eastern Iowa and the adjoining parts of Illinois and Wisconsin on the 17th and 18th, the depth reaching more than 1 foot at points in northern Illinois.
The snowfall in the mountain regions of the West was heavy in the more northern districts and moderate in other portions. The generally cool weather during the month prevented any rapid melting of the snow stored in the high mountains, and the outlook for water for irrigation was somewhat improved, despite the general deficiency in the winter's supply in many localities.
TEMPERATURE.-During the first two weeks of May the temperature conditions over the eastern half of the country were the most favorable of the season to that time. Over the western districts, especially in the Rocky Mountain region, the first half of the month continued cold and backward.
Near the middle of the month an extensive area of cold overspread the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains regions, and freezing temperatures occurred at exposed points in those localities. The cold extended eastward into the central valleys and eastern districts, and the temperatures of the third week of the month were decidedly low as a whole throughout these districts. To the westward of the mountains the third week of the month was fairly warm, especially over the far Northwest, and on the whole it was the most favorable since the beginning of the season. The last week of the month was generally warm and favorable over all districts to eastward of the Rocky Mountains, but to the westward cold weather again prevailed, causing some damage to fruit and still further delaying vegetable growth.
PRECIPITATION.-Moisture was generally well distributed through the different periods of the month, although it was more abundant during the first half than during the latter part. Some delay in farm work occurred on account of the wet condition of the soil in the great corn-growing States to the eastward of the Mississippi and also in the middle portion of the cotton belt, but the drier weather of the latter half was very beneficial and permitted of much outdoor work, while the warm weather and sunshine rapidly advanced vegetation. The flood conditions prevalent in April were greatly relieved during the month, and most streams had returned to moderate stages by the end of the month, except the lower Mississippi, which was still in flood at the end of the month.
SNOW. Some snow fell in the lower Lake region and northern portions of New York and New England on the 13th and 20th, and moderate amounts fell in the central and northern portions of the mountain regions of the West.
TEMPERATURE.-The first few days of the month were warm and favorable in nearly all districts, and some unusually high temperatures were reported from California and the far Southwest, and at the same time it was quite warm over the North Atlantic States. Beginning about the 5th, a cool area overspread the Northwest, and during the next two weeks temperatures far below the normal prevailed over much of the country to the eastward of the Rocky Mountains, and toward the latter part of the period the cold area had extended to nearly all portions of the country. During this period minimum temperatures were unusually low over much of the eastern portion of the country and heavy frosts occurred at points in New York and New England and in the upper Missouri Valley and other portions of the Northwest.
During the last week of the month a change to warmer weather occurred over the northern districts, and high temperatures prevailed in the Missouri and upper Mississippi Valleys, but over the southern districts it remained cool, and similar conditions prevailed over the Pacific Coast States
For the month, as a whole, the temperature was considerably lower than the normal over all interior portions of the country as well as over most southern districts.
Over the Pacific Coast States the month was warmer than usual, and it was quite warm in the northern portions of the Mountain and Plateau regions.
PRECIPITATION.-The distribution of the rainfall during the month was timely, and it occurred in generous quantity in nearly all districts where rain is expected during June.
At the first of the month dry, hot winds over portions of the Great Plains region rapidly evaporated the moisture from the soil, and there was urgent need of rain in portions of Oklahoma and adjacent States by the end of the first decade. During this period some heavy rains occurred in the Southeastern States, especially in Georgia about the 7th or 8th, where they were excessive and injurious.
About the middle of the month heavy rains prevailed over the Great Plains region, and there were generous falls from the upper Missouri Valley westward to the Pacific coast, and moderate falls in many other portions of the country. In the North Atlantic States, however, there had been a general lack of rain which continued throughout the month, and at the end the surface soil had become quite dry in portions of New England and New York, and to a less extent in some of the States farther south.
Toward the end of the month dry weather had set in over the Great Plains region, and there was a general, though as yet not serious, lack of rainfall throughout nearly all the great cereal-growing States.
The month, as a whole, was generally favorable, and the moderate temperatures and lack of general rains during the latter part, with abundant sunshine, were unusually favorable for the ripening and harvesting of wheat and the development of plant growth.
TEMPERATURE.-The warm weather prevalent over the northern districts from the Lake region westward to the mountains during the latter part of June continued during the first week of July, while to the westward of the mountains it continued abnormally cold, and it was generally cool over the Southeastern States.
During the second week warmer weather overspread most of the central and eastern districts, the day temperatures becoming decidedly high, and much inconvenience and suffering, as well as many deaths, resulted therefrom in the large cities of those districts. Cool weather still continued in the far western districts and over the Southeastern States.
About the middle of the third week a change to decidedly cooler weather occurred over the central and northern districts, affording much relief from the heat that had prevailed during the preceding week, but it continued warm over the south, and there was a general rise in temperature to the westward of the mountains.
The last week of the month was marked by generally high temperatures in the Great Plains, Mississippi Valley, and the Southern States from Texas eastward, but cool weather prevailed from the Lake region eastward to New England, and it was moderately cool in the Mountain and Plateau regions of the West.
The drought prevailing in the north Atlantic States at the end of June continued into the second week of July, and high temperatures and drying winds greatly increased its severity and threatened an almost complete loss of the staple crops. Fortunately rain at intervals during the second decade of the month relieved the conditions, especially in New England, but the latter part of the month was again dry, and at the close rain was badly needed in portions of New York and Virginia.
Over the great cereal-growing States the rainfall was sufficient, as a rule, for the needs of growing vegetation, although to the westward of the Missis
sippi there were periods when rain was needed, especially in Oklahoma, northern Texas, and portions of adjoining States. The absence of general rains was favorable for harvesting the winter-wheat crop, and there was generally sufficient moisture in the soil in the more northern districts to insure the proper development and ripening of the spring-wheat crop.
In the cotton region there was rather too much cool, rainy weather during the early part of the month in the middle Gulf States, and dry weather prevailed in the more western portions, but timely showers relieved the drought conditions locally, and during the latter part of the month the warmer and drier weather in the central portions of the belt was generally favorable.
TEMPERATURE.-During the first and second weeks of August cold weather for the period of the year prevailed in all districts, save along the Gulf coast and over portions of the Southwest, and occasionally along the immediate Pacific coast.
Throughout the great cereal-growing States the temperatures during this period were nearly continuously below the normal, and on the mornings of the 4th and 5th they were as low as, or lower than, ever before recorded in the first decade of August at numerous points from the middle and lower Mississippi Valley eastward to the Atlantic coast.
The mean temperature for the first week ranged from 9° to 12° per day below the normal over large portions of the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys, Lake region, and Atlantic coast States, and during the second week they were more than 6° below over much of the same region.
During the third week of August there was a general warming up in the districts to the eastward of the Rocky Mountains, and conditions became much more favorable for crop growth over the great corn-growing districts. To the westward of the mountains, however, the weather continued cool, the deficiency exceeding 6° per day in the far Northwest.
The last week of the month continued warm over the great agricultural districts, and there was a general rise in the temperature to normal, or slightly above, in the districts to the westward of the mountains, where temperatures generally below the normal had prevailed since early in June.
During the last day or two of the month cold weather overspread the northern and central districts, and the lowest August temperatures in many years were reported from portions of New York and New England, and abnormally cold weather for the season prevailed in the Rocky Mountain and Plateau regions, with frosts at exposed points.
PRECIPITATION.-Unusually heavy rains for the season and locality occurred during the first few days of the month in portions of the Rocky Mountain and Plateau regions, but over much of the great cereal-growing sections there was little or no rain. About the 10th general rains set in over the Plains region, and gradually overspread the districts to the eastward, and good rains thoroughly saturated the soil in the principal corn-growing States, as well as in the cotton region; in fact, all portions of the country from the middle Plains region eastward received generous amounts, except along the middle Atlantic coast.
During the third week rain again occurred in moderate amounts over the western part of the corn belt and generally throughout the northern and central Mountain and Plateau districts of the West. In the more eastern portions, especially in the Appalachian Mountain regions, there was but little rain during this period, and only small amounts occurred in the western portions of the cotton region.