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Tit. 2. Directions against Sloth and Idleness. What it is, and
what not. The aggravation of it. The Signs of Sloth.
The Greatness of the sin. Who should be most careful to
avoid it...

Tit. 3. Directions against Sloth and Laziness in things
spiritual, and for Zeal and Diligence. The kinds of False
Zeal. The Mischiefs of False Zeal. The Signs of Holy
Zeal. The Excellency of Zeal and Diligence. Motives to
excite us to it. Other Helps

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PART II.

Directions against Sin in Sports and Recreations.

What lawful Recreation is. Eighteen necessary Qualifications
of it or eighteen sorts of sinful Recreation. Q. Must all
wicked men forbear Recreations? Q. What to judge of
stage-plays, gaming, cards, dice, &c. The evil of them
opened. Twelve convincing Questions to them that use or
plead for such Pastimes. Seven more Considerations for
Vain and Sportful Youths. Further Directions in the use
of Recreations

PART III.

Directions about Apparel, and against the sin therein com-
mitted

PAGE

Q. 1. May pride of Gravity and Holiness be seen in
Apparel? Q. 2. How else it appeareth. Q. 3. May not
a Deformity be hid by Apparel or Painting? Q. 4. May we
follow the Fashions? Further Directions

587

601

613

ibid.

626

628

A

CHRISTIAN DIRECTORY.

PART I. ·

CHRISTIAN ETHICS.

CHAPTER IV.-Continued.

Subordinate Directions against those Grand Heart-Sins, which are directly contrary to the Life of Godliness and Christianity.

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PART V.

Directions against Pride, and for Humility.

PRIDE, being reputed the great sin of the devil by which he fell, is, in the name and general notion of it, infamous and odious with almost all; but the nature of it is so much unknown, and the sin so undiscerned by the most, that it is commonly cherished, while it is commonly spoke against ". Therefore the chief Directions for the conquering of it, are those that are for the full discovery of it. For when it is seen it is shamed, and to shame it is to destroy it.

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Direct. 1. Understand aright the nature of pride, that you may neither ignorantly retain it, nor oppose your duty as supposed to be pride.' Here I shall tell you, I. What Pride is, and what commandment it is against: and what

Of this subject read the preface to my book of" Self Denial," and chap. xli. to chap. li.

VOL. III.

B

Humility is, which is its contrary. II. Some seemings or appearances like pride, which may make men be censured as proud, for that which is not pride. III. The Counterfeits of Humility, which may make a proud man seem to himself or others to be humble.

I. Pride, is an inordinate self-exalting; or a lifting up of ourselves above the state or degree appointed us. It is called 'Teρnpavía,' because it is an appearing to ourselves, and a desire to appear to others above what we are, or above others of our quality. It is a branch of Selfishness, and containeth Man-pleasing as before described, and produceth Hypocrisy, and is its original and life. It containeth in it these following acts of parts. 1. A will to be higher or greater than God would have us be. 2. An overvaluing of ourselves, or esteeming ourselves to be greater, wiser, or better than indeed we are. 3. A desire that others should think of us, and speak of us, and use us, as greater, or wiser, or better than we are. 4. An endeavour or seeking to rise above our appointed place, or to be overvalued by others. 5: An ostentation of our inordinate self-esteem in outward signs of speech or action. Every one of these is an act of pride. The three first are the inward acts of it in the mind and will, and the two last are its external acts.

As the love of God and man are the comprehensive duties of the decalogue, expressed most in the first and last commandments, but yet extending themselves to all the rest; so selfishness and pride (which is a principal part of it) are the opposite sins, forbidden principally in the first and last commandments, as contrary to the love of God and man, but so as it is contrary to the rest. They are sins against the very relation itself that God and man do stand in to us, and not only against a particular law. They are against the very constitution of the kingdom of God, and not only against the administration. It is treason or idolatry against God, and a setting up ourselves in some part of his prerogative. And it is a monstrous extuberancy in the body, and a rising of one member above and so against the rest; either superiors (and so against the fifth command) or equals (against the rest.)

Humility is contrary to pride; and therefore consisteth, 1. In a contentedness with that degree and state which God

hath assigned us. 2. In mean thoughts of ourselves, est teeming ourselves no greater, wiser, or better than we are. 3. In a willingness and desire that others should not think of us, or speak of us, or use us as greater, or wiser, or better than we are; that they should give us no more honour, praise, or love than is our due; the redundancy being but a deceit or lie, and an abuse of us and them. 4. In the avoiding of all inordinate, aspiring endeavours, and a contented exercise of our assigned offices, and doing the meanest works of our own places. 5. In the avoiding of all ostentation or appearance of that greatness, wisdom, or goodness which we have not; and fitting our speeches, apparel, provisions, furniture, and all our deportment and behaviour to the meanness of our parts, and place, and worth. This is the very nature of humility. The more particular signs I shall open afterwards.

II. Pride, lying in the heart, is often misjudged of by others, that see but the outward appearances, and sometimes by the person himself, that understandeth not the nature of it. The inward appearances that are mistaken for pride, and are not, are such as these: 1. When a man in power and government, hath a spirit suitable to his place and work this is not pride but virtue. 2. When natural strength and vigour of spirits expel pusillanimity; espe cially when faith, beholding God, expelleth all inordinate respect to men, and fear of all that they can do, this is not pride but Christian magnanimity and fortitude: and the contrary is not humility, but weakness, and pusillanimity, and cowardice. 3. When a wise man knoweth in what measure he is wise, and in what measure other men aré ignorant or erroneous, and when he is conscious of his knowledge, and delighted and pleased in it through the love of truth, and thankful to God for revealing it to him, and blessing so far his studies and endeavours; all this is mercy and duty, and not pride. For truth is amiable and delectable in itself. And he that knoweth, must needs know that he knoweth ; as he that seeth, doth perceive, by seeing, that he seeth. And if it be a fault to know that I know, it must be a fault to know at all. But some knowledge is necessary and irresistible, and we cannot avoid it and that which is good must be valued, and we must be thankful for

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it. Humility doth no more require that a wise man think his knowledge equal with a fool's, or ignorant man's, than that a sound man take himself to be sick. 4. When a wise man valueth the useful knowledge which God hath given him, above all the glory and vanities of the world, which are indeed of lower worth, this is not pride, but a due estimation of things. 5. When a wise man desireth that others were of his mind for their own good, and the propagating of the truth, this is not pride, but charity and love of truth: else preachers were the proudest men, and Paul had done ill in labouring so much for men's conversion, and saying to Agrippa, "I would to God that not only thou, but also all that hear me this day, were both almost and altogether such as I am, except these bonds." 6. When an innocent man is conscious of his innocency, and a holy person is conscious of his holiness, and assured of his state in grace, and rejoiceth in it, and is thankful for it, this is not pride, but an excellent privilege and duty. If angels rejoice at the conversion of a sinner, the sinner hath reason to rejoice himself. And if it be a sin to be unthankful for our daily bread, much more for grace and the hope of glory. 7. When we value our good name, and the honour, that is indeed our due, as we do other outward, common mercies, not for themselves, but so far as they honour God, or tend to the good of others, or the promoting of truth or piety among men, desiring no more than is indeed our due, nor overvaluing it as that which we cannot spare; but submitting it to the will of God, as that which we can be without; this is not pride, but a right estimation of the thing.

The outward seemings which are oft mistaken for the signs and fruits of pride by others, are such as these: 1. When a magistrate or other governor doth maintain the honour of his place, which is necessary to his successful government, and liveth according to his degree. When princes, and rulers, and masters, and parents, do keep that distance from their subjects, and servants, and scholars, and

b Duplex est humilitas: una lucida solum et non fervida: quæ ex ratione potius quam ex charitate exercetur. Altera quæ lucida, fervidaque simul est ex charitate magis quam ex ratione exercetur; non tamen citra rationem. Humilitas enim (ut et reliquæ virtutes) opus est voluntatis. Nam sicut virtutes per rationem cognos cimus, ita per dilectionem nobis sapiunt, Thauler. flor. c. 7. pp. 103, 104, e Acts xxvi. 29.

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