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Paulding, James K., 301; reply to

British criticism, 312.
Peale's Museum. 'Gas in, 127.
Pennsylvania. Anti-caucus address

of, 63; nomination of Jackson, 67;
charters a rallroad, 139-140; com-
mission to explore route from
Philadelphia to the Ohio, 141-142;
Canal Convention, 142; Board of
Canal Commissioners, 142; work on
canals begun, 141; railroad char-
tered. 142-143, 144; fugitive slave
law, 216-217; agitation in, in favor
of an increased protective tariff,
1827, 245-247; Harrisburg Conven-
tion, 250, 251; tariff memorial of
Legislature, 251; schools in, provi-
sions of early constitutions, 357; act
of 1802, 357, 358; agitation for, 358,
359; free private schools, 359; Phil-
adelphia the first school district,
359; controller's report, 359-361;
negro schools, 360, 361; poor char-
acter of country schools, 361, 362;
defects of the system, 362; defiance
of the Federal courts-Gideon Olm-
sted case, 403-406; amendment pro-
posed, 406; proposes amendment
for impartial tribunal, 430.
Peters, Judge, 405.
Petitions. Protective tariff, pro and
con, 1824, 232, 233; of New England

woollen manufacturers, 1826, 241.
Philadelphia Early labor strikes,

84; labor party in, 87-88; free
schools in, 87-88; labor party, 104-
105; government of, 126; introduc-
tion of gas, 126-128; anthracite
coal, 129; railroad meeting, 141;
magazines of, number of, 269, 271;
medical, 272, 273; religious, 273,
note, 274, note; theatrical and ju-
venile, 275, notes; The Port Folio,
276, 286; the Analectic Magazine,
275, 276, note; Irving editor of,
292; a literary centre, 281-283;
Medical

and

Physical Journal
founded, 272; schools in, 359; at-
tendance, 359, 360.
Philanthropist, The, 209.

Pllot," The. Publication of, 299,
300.
Pinckney, c. C. Anti-tariff toast

proposed by, 258; other seditious
toasts, 261.
Piracy. The United States makes

African slave trade piracy, 16.
Pitcher, Nathaniel. Working-men's
candidate, 107; Governor of New
York, 118-119.
Plaster of Paris Act, 484.
Platforms. Of the Working-men's
party, 99-100, 101–102.
Poetry, American. Review of, by

Bryant, 302.
Poinsett, Joel R. Clay's instruction

to, on Monroe Doctrine, 53; first
Minister to Mexico, 439; instruc-
tions of, 439, 440; opens negotia-
tions with Mexico, 440; signs
boundary treaty with Mexico, 461;
installs a York lodge of Masons in
Mexico, 540; renews negotiations
for purchase of Texas, 542-543; re-

call of, 549.
Political ideas. of the forefathers,

873; in early State constitutions,
374-378; in Northwest Ordinance

39.

and Federal Constitution, 378, 379;
in new State constitutions, 379,
380; in the second decade of the
century, 380, 381; the reforms in
New York, 383–388, 392; in Massa-
chusetts, 388-389; in Maryland, 390–
392; in Virginia, 392-393; changes
of half a century, 393, 394; power
of judiciary over legislative acts,
394; early state practice, 395–400;
Federal practice, 400-406; relation
between the State and the Fed-
eral governments, 401-418; juris-
diction of Federal Courts, 401-
406, 414 418; division of powers,
407-413; the Federal executive,
ideas of convention, 418-421, 425,
426; changes effected, 422-425, 426-

428.
Political literature, 278-279.
Polk, James K. Resolution on Pan-

ama Congress appropriation, 455,
456.
"Poor Man's Party," 108.
Population. of the States, 82; of

cities, 82; of New York, 122.
Port Folio, The. Character of, 276,

286.
Porto Rico. America fears transfer

to Great Britain, 434-436; instruc-
tions to our Minister to Spain, 435,
436; fear of South

American inter
vention in, 434, 436, 437; the Ad-
ministration attempts to mediate,

437-440.
Port Royal, Nova Scotia, 464.
Portugal. Agreement as to slave-

trade, 13, 14, 15; revolution in,
Postage. Rates of, 533; trouble over

the administration of the law, 533-
536.
Post-Office, The. Removal of post-
masters by Jackson, 532, 533;
growth of postal business, 533;
rates of postage, 533, note; new ad-
ministration of postal laws, 533,
534; arouses complaints, 534-536.
Preliminary Society of New Har.

mony, The, 92-93.
Prescott, W. H., 304.
President. Powers regarding slave-

trade, 16; method of election, 420,
421; twelfth amendment, 424, 425;
veto power, 421; speech or message,
422, 424; Cabinet and, 422, 425;
term of, 425-427; no third-term tra-
dition, 427, 428; proposed amend-
ment to restrict terms of, 428, 429;
the twelfth amendment, 430; for
abolition of the vice-presidency,
431; choice of, by lot, 431; num-
ber' and character of proposed
amendments, 432; Adams's elec-
tion, "corrupt bargain " charged,
489-494; Clay's reply, 494, 495
Jackson letter and speeches, 492-
496; Jackson renominated by Ten-
nessee, 496, 497; amendment pro-
posed, 497, 500; Jackson's charges,
604-508; Tennessee proposes amend-
ment, 508; New York's resolutions,
510, 511; Adams renominated, 513;
the campaign of 1828, 513-517; the
vote, 517-520, note.
Presidential Election of 1824.
Lowndes and Calhoun nominated,
56; Jackson nominated, 57; feeling

[graphic]

in the West, 58; Calhoun nominated
by caucus in South Carolina, 60;
Crawford in Georgia, 60; Tennessee
on caucus, 60-61; other States on
caucus, 61; Virginia on, 61-62;
Pennsylvania anti-caucus address,
63; congressional committee report
on, 63-64; caucus nominates Craw-
ford and Gallatin, 64; caucus ad-
dress, 64-65; Adams nominated, 65;
action by the people, 65, 66, 67, 68;
De Witt Clinton nominated,' 66;
Jackson indorsed, 67; Clay nomi-
nated, 67; standing of the candi-
dates, 69; Gallatin withdraws, 70;
contest over electors in New York,
70-73; election day in the States,
74-75; no choice by the electors,
76; Kremer's charge of bargain
and corruption, 78-79; election of
Adams, 79-81; election of 1828, an-
ger over the result, 489; members
of Congress explain, 490-492; Jack-
son's letter on, 492; Clay answers
Jackson, 493-495; popularity of
Jackson, 495 496; Clay, 496; Jack-
son resigns from United States
Senate, 496; renominated by Ten-
nessee, 496 497; the campaign in
Congress, 498; Branch attacks Clay,
499;

John Randolph, 500; Blifil and
Black George, 500; the Clay-Ran-
dolph duel, 500; McDuffie's speech,
501; the East Room, 503; the bil-
liard table, 503-504; Carter Bever-
ley letter, 505; Jackson's state-
ment, 505-506; Clay's reply, 506–
507; Jackson names Buchanan, who
denies, 507–508; Tennessee investi-
gates, 508-509; New York on
Adams, 509-510; nominations of
Adams and Rush, 513; choice of
electors, 513-514; abuse of Jackson
and Adams, 514-516; the election,
517; table of popular and electoral
vote, 518.
Prevost, J. B. Goes to Oregon, 18;

reports Russian settlements on Pa-
cific, 18; receives surrender of As-
toria, 25.
Produce. Kentucky, boycotted, 257,
259, 262.
Property qualifications. In early

State constitutions, 377; abolition
of, 379, 380; advocated by Chancel-
lor Kent, 385, 886; by Webster, 388.
Proscription of office ders, 521-536.
Protective tariff. Act of 1816 a dis-
appointment, 229; effort to secure,
230, 231; bill defeated in Senate,
1820, 231; House of Representatives
opposed to, 1821–23, 231; Monroe's
messages favor, 231; bili reported
in House, 1824, 231, 232; petitions
and memorials, pro and con, 1824,
232, 233;

argument in the House,
233-240; Hamilton's speech against,
234; Clay's speech in favor of, 234-
237; Webster's reply, 237-240; divi-
sion of the country over bill, 240;
vote and passage of bill, 240; effect
of the act of 1824 on New England,
240-242; increased protection for
woollens sought by New England,
241, 242; new bili, 242, note; de-
feated, 1827, 242; rejoicing in the
South over defeat, 242; reasons for
opposition in the South, 242-243;

agitation against, in South Caro-
lina, 243-245; agitation in favor, in
Pennsylvania and call for Harris-
burg Convention, 246, 247, 248; re-
newed agitation in South Carolina,
247-249; speech of Dr. Cooper at
Columbia, 247,249; Dr. Cooper's
resolutio 249; Georgetown, South
Carolina, resolutions, 249; the Har-
risburg Convention and its memo-
rial, 249-251; tariff and anti-tariff
memorials, 251-254; " tariff of
abominations," 254, 255; resistance
to, 255-267; anti-taritr meetings in
South Carolina, 255, 256; southern
newspapers on a, 256-258, 259; nul-
lification urged,' 261; message of
Governor of South Carolina, 262;
action of Legislature, 262, 263; the
“ South Carolina Exposition," 263–
267; protests of South Carolina,

Alabama, and Georgia, 267.
Qualifications. For the franchise,

376-377, 379, 381, 382, 383–388; for
office, 377, 379, 380, 385-386, 388,
390–392; in Virginia, 392–394.
Quarterly Review, The. Southey's
attack on the American people,
309-312; reviews of works of travel
in the United States, 315, 316; ar-
ticles on America, 319, 321-324, 337-
339, 342.
Quincy, Josiah. Speech on the ad-

mission of Louisiana, 409-411.
Railroads. The Stevens charter, 138;

Dearborn applies to Congress, 138-
139; Stevens's letter to Mayor of
Philadelphia, 139; charter from
Pennsylvania, 139-140; " What is a
railroad?” 140-141; model of loco-
motive, 141; meeting at Philadel-
phia, 141; Pennsylvania commis-
sion, 141-142; Columbia, Lancaster
and Philadelphia Railroad char-
tered, 142; Mohawk and Hudson,
143; Granite Railway Company,
143; Massachusetts plans for rail-
roads, 143; Stevens's circular road,
43-144; Pennsylvania charters, 144;
Baltimore and Ohio, 144; railroads
in the South, 144; in New Jersey,
144;-145; In Virginia, 145; mileage
in 1830, 145; mechanical difficulties,
145; early road-beds, 145-146; early

locomotives, 146–147.
Rails. Early kinds of, 146.
Ramsey's "History of the Revolu-

tion in South Carolina," 284, 306.
Randolph, John. Charges against,

and duel with Clay, 500.
Rapp, George, 89.
Rappites, 89; built Harmony, in

Pennsylvania, 89; New Harmony,

Indiana, 89–90; sell to Owen, 90.
Regency. The Albany, 70, 71.
Religion. Lack of, in United States,

322.
Religious journals. Early number,
269: Virginia magazine, 271; early
Philadelphia, 272; Presbyterian,
273; Episcopalian, 273; other maga-
zines, 273, note: the Religious Re-
membrancer, 274; of Boston, 274;

number and circulation, 274, 275.
Religious qualifications. In early

State constitutions, 377; abolition

[graphic]

of, 378, 379; contest to abolish, in
Maryland, 390–392; qualifications in
Massachusetts, 390, note; New Jer-
sey, Delaware, and North Caro-

lina, 391, note.
Religious Remembrancer. Founded,

274.
Removals from office. Jackson's

theory, 525-526; removals under
him, 527-537.
Representation. In early State con-

stitutions, 375, 376, note; new ap-
portionment in Virginia, 1829, 393.
Republics, Spanish American.' Rec-
ognized by United States, 41-42; at-
titude of Great Britain toward, 43;
Canning on European intervention
in affairs of, 44; Rush and Gallatin

on, 44, note; Monroe on, 45.
Resolutions. Congress, on independ-

ence of South American repub-
lics, 41, 42; Tennessee, nominating
Jackson, 57; South Carolina, on
State rights, 252-253; Georgia, 253;
Alabama, 253; “ South Carolina Ex-
position, 263, 266, 402, 403; Penn-
sylvania, 403-406; Delaware, 407;
Connecticut, 408; Ohio, 413; Geor-
gia, 413; Virginia, 414; Kentucky,
415-417; New York, on election of
President, 510, 511Maine and Mas-
sachusetts, on State rights, 473 476.
Revision. The Council of,' in New

York, 384-385.
Rhode Island. Case of Trevett vs.

Weeden, 397-399, note; refusal to
furnish militia, 407, 408; tariff me-
morial of Legislature, 251; schools
in, few free, in colonial times, 351;
first free school law, 1800, 352; re-
pealed, 1803, re-enacted, 1828, 352;

constitution of 1824, 390.
Ritner, Joseph. Governor of Penn-

sylvania, president of Harrisburg
Convention, 250.
Rittenhouse, David. Heirs of, sued

by Olmsted, 405-406.
Road. The national, 149, 150.
Robbins, Ashur, Senator. Delegate

to Harrisburg Convention, 250.
Rochester, 135.
Root, Erastus. Working-men's can-
didate for Governor of New York,

107.
Ross, Judge, 403-404.
Rouse's Point, 469-473.
Rush, Richard, 15; instructed as to

our claims in Oregon, 22–23; Can-
ning's proposition to, and reply of,
44; appointed Secretary of the
Treasury, 433; nominated for Vice-

President, 513.
Russia. Colonizes on Pacific coast,

18; claims to Oregon country, 20;
the

Alaskan boundary, 20-22;
United States seeks assistance of,
to end Spanish-South American

war, 437-439.
Rutgers vs. Waddington, 397.
Rutledge, Henry. Toast of, 258.
Santa Anna. Rebels against Itur-

bide, 11; Secretary of War, 541.
Santa Fé. Trade with, 168.
St. Croix. Settlement of De Monts,
464; determination of the river,

464 467.
St. John, New Brunswick, 485.

St. Mary's Bay, 464.
Say, Thomas. At New Harmony, 94.
Sehool, The Common. Present status,

343; in 1824, 343; beginnings in
Massachusetts, acts of 1642, 1647,
343, 344; later colonial acts, 344;
provision of first constitution and
act of 1789, 344, note, 345; school-
house, 345; the school tax, 345; the
district school, 345, 346; introduc-
tion of text-books, 346; the charac-
ter of teachers, 346; grammar
schools decline, 346, 347; acade-
mies founded, 347, note; faults of
the Massachusetts system, 347, 348;
system of Connecticut, the colonial
period, 348, 349; the "Western Re-
serve and the school fund, 349-
351; services of James Hillhouse,
350; decline of schools, 351; in
Rhode Island, few free, 351; first
free-school law, 1800, 352; repealed,
1803, re-enacted, 1828, 352; in New
York State, no free schools in colo-
nial times, 352; Governor Clinton's
message, 352, 354; Board of Regents
established, 352, 353; rivalry of Co-
lumbia College, 353, University of
the State of New York, 353; lot-
teries and other efforts to raise a
fund, 353, 354; a New York city
society incorporated, 354, 355; the
Lancastrlan method, 355, 356; school
districts system established, 356;
in New Jersey, 356, 357; backward
ness of Delaware, 357; provisions of
Pennsylvania's constitutions, 357;
act of 1802, 357, 358; agitation for,
358, 359; free private schools, 359;
Philadelphia schools, 359; Pennsyl-
vania, report, 359-361; negro schools,
360, 361; poor character of country
schools, 361, 362; defects of the
system, 362; character of, in Mary-
land, 362; Baltimore schools, 362,
363; beginnings of primary system,
363; Maryland seeks Federal land
grant, 364, 365; action of Congress
and States, 365; State legislation,
365, 366; Virginia schools, Jeffer.
son's plan for, 366; failure of legis-
lation, 366; North Carolina, char-
acter of, 366, 367; educational move.
ment in Legislature, 367, 368; South
Carolina system, 368; Georgia, early
legislation, 369; Northwest Terri-
tory, difficulties of establishment,
369, 370; Ohio, provisions of Arst
constitution, 370; difficulty of en-
forcement, 371; Indiana, neglect of,
371; Illinois, taxation for, resisted,
371; Kentucky, early efforts, 371,

372; Tennessee, 372.
Schools. Working-men's, in Philadel-

phia denounced, 87: free school in
Pennsylvania, 87--88.
Scientific journals. Suullman's, 273;

American Mineralogical, 273.
Seamen. South Carolina Negro Sea-

man Act, 200-204.
Search, The right of. In connection

with slave-trade, 14, 15. 17.
Secession. Suggested in South Caro-

lina, 256; toasts at Charleston, 258,
note; letter in Charleston Mercury,
259; sentiment in favor of, 260,
261.
Secretaries, Under Adams: State,

[graphic]
[graphic]

Henry Clay; Treasury, Richard
Rush; War, James Barbour; Navy,
James L. Southard; Attorney-Gen-
eral, William Wirt; Postmaster-
General, John McLean. Under
Jackson: State, Martin Van Bu-
ren; Treasury, S. D. Ingham; War,
John H. Eaton; Navy, John Branch;
Attorney-General, J. McP. Berrien;

Postmaster-General, W. T. Barry.
Sedgwick, Catherine, 301.
Sentinel, The Dally. Early labor

newspaper, 107.
Sergeant, Mrs., 405-406.
Settlers, Early, in the West. Jour-

ney to Ohio, 151-152; Halt-faced
camp, 152; the log hut, 152-153;
household utensils, 153, 154; farm-
ing, 154-155; growth of towns, 150-
156; anecdotes of frontier life, 156-
158; the circuit rider, 159–160; wild-
cat banking, 160-162.
Sharpe, Peter. Delegate to Harris-

burg Convention, 250.
Sidney. Urges nullification, 261.
Sigourney, L. H., 301.
Sliliman's Journal. Founded, 273.
Slave-trade. In the District of Co-
lumbia, 219–226; abolition of, pro-
posed for consideration for the
Panama Congress, 441; opposition
of the Pro-slavery party, 443, 447.
Slavers. Number of African coast,

14, 16-17.
Slavery. Pro-slavery laws of Illi-
nois, 187–188; struggle to make Illll-
nois slave soil, 189-191; abolition
of, by New York, 192; projected in-
surrection of slaves in Charleston,
South Carolina, 199-200; South
Carolina Negro Seaman Act, 200-
204; Governor Troup of Georgia on,
205; reply of Legislature, 205-206;
rise of the abolitionists, 208; Ben-
jamin Lundy, 208-209; early aboli.
tion presses, 209-213; Garrison, 210
212; antislavery societies, 213-214;
fugitive slave law, 215-216; Penn-
sylvania law, 216-217; complaint of
Maryland, 217; Delaware and Penn-
sylvania change their laws, 218;
fugitive slaves in District of Colum-
bia, 219; slave-trade in, 220-226;
cotton and, 228; South Carolina on
powers of Congress over, 252; abo-
lition of, in Cuba and Porto Rico
proposed, 443; opposition of Pro-
slavery party, 445 449; Mexico at-
tempts to abolish slavery in Texas,
548, 549.
Slares. Treatment of, in District of

Columbia, 226; tarif increases cost

of clothing of, 243.
Smith, Sydney. Criticism of the

United States, 317-319, 328-330.
Socialism. Robert Owen at New

Lanark, 88; the Rappites at Har-
mony and New Harmony, 89–90;
Owen buys Harmony, 90; lectures
on his community plan, 90-92;

the
Preliminary Society of New Har-
mony, 92-03; the village in 1826,
93; Community of Equality, 93-94;
condition of New Harmony, 94;
dress reform, 95; Declaration of
Mental Independence, 95: effect,
96-96; failure of New Harmony, 96;
Owenlte communities elsewhere,

96; Nashoba, 97-98; Francis Wright,
97; the Nashoba and New Harmony
Gazette, 98; Miss Wright's lectures,
98-99; the Working-man's party at
New York city, 99-104; in Philadel-
phia, 104-105; spread of the Free
Enquirers, 105-106, 107-108.
Society. The Farmers' and Mechan.

ics', 105; Pennsylvania, for the
Promotion of Internal Improve.
ments, collects information as to
railroads, 140-141; American, for
the Colonization of Free Blacks in
Africa, 193, 194, 206, 207, 208; tbe
Manumission, 214; St. Paul's Agri-
cultural, on the tariff, 244; Penn-
sylvania, for Promotion of Manu-
factures and the Mechanic Art,
calls tariff convention, 246; Free
School, of New York, 356; for Free
Instruction of Female Children,
359; Aimwell School, 359; Philadel-
phia, for Establishment and Sup-
port of Charity Schools, 359;
Friends' Association for the In-
struction of Poor Children, 359;
Female Humane Association Char-
ity School, 362; Carpenters' Hu-

mane, 363, Benevolent, 363.
Southard, James L. Appointed Sec-

retary of the Navy, 433.
South, The. Effect' of invention of

cotton gin on, 227, 228; natural re-
sources of, 227; trade of, with
Great Britain, 228, 242, 243; indus-
trial conditions of, 228; contrasted
with the North, 229; opposition of,
to protective tariff, 232-234, 242-
245, 247-249; rejoices over defeat of
tarit, 1827, 242; division of inter-
ests of North and South, 242, 243,
244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 253, 254; re-
sist tariff of 1828, 265-267; exclu.
sion of Northern products proposed,
256–259, 262; protective tariff inju.

rious to, 264, 265.
South American Republics. Early at-

tempt to form a union of, 433, 434;
certain Ministers of, interview
Clay, 434; invite the United States
to Panama Congress, 440, 441.
South Carolina. Lowndes and Cal-
houn nominated for presidency, 56,
60; projected insurrection of slaves,
199-200; Negro Seaman Act, 200
204; on colonization, 207; opposition
of, to protective tariff, 1827, 243-
245; speech of Senator Hayne before
Charleston Chamber of Commerce,
243, 244; resolutions of St. Paul's
Agricultural Society, 1827, 244;
Charleston Chamber of Commerce
resolutions, 244, 245; memorial of
Colleton District, 245; call for
Harrisburg Convention arouses a
renewal or agitation in, 247-249;
speech of Dr. Cooper at Columbia,
247-249; Dr. Cooper's resolutions,
249; Georgetown resolutions, 249;
Senate State rights report, 1828,
252, 253; reply of New Jersey, 254;
memorials of citizens. 254; resist-
ance to the tariff of 1828. 255-267;
anti-tarif meeting at Walterbor-
ongh, 255, 256; secession suggested,
256; legislative boycott of Northern
goods proposed, 256-259; seditious
toasts proposed, 258, note, 261;

speech of McDuffie, 258, 259, 261;
letter in Charleston Mercury, 259;
Union speech of Governor, 259, 260;
nullification and disunion urged,
260, 261; Governor's message tem-
perate, 262; views and resolutions
of Legislature, 262, 263; adopts Cal-
houn's " Exposition of 1828," 263-
267; resolutions of, 266, 267; school
system of, 368; Negro Seaman Act,
200-204; State rights resolutions,

417.
South Carolina College. Students of,

boycott Northern goods, 257.
Southwick, Solomon. Antimasonic

candidate for Governor, 120.
Spain. Delivers Florida to United
States, 2; rebellion of South Ameri-
can colonies, 2; Mexico rebels, 3;
defeat of the rebels, 3-6; Long in
Mexico, 6–7; Mexico rebels, 9; Itur-
bide Emperor of Mexico, 9; the
plan of Iguala, 9-10; loses Mexico,
10; agreement as to slave-trade, 13,
14; Ferdinand VII and the Liberals,
33-34; revolt of colonies, 36-37; re-
bellion in, 37-38; independence of
her colonies recognized by United
States, 41-42; attitude of Great
Britain toward, 43; France invades,
43-44; relations with, instructions
to our Minister to Spain relative to
Cuba and Porto Rico, 434 436;
Adams attempts to mediate to end
war with South America, 436-440;
fear of liberation of Cuba and Porto
Rico, 436, 437; instructions to Min-
ister at Madrid, 437; seeks Russia's
aid, 437-439; French fleet appear of
Cuba, 439; alarm of Mexico, 439,
440; Clay's protest to France, 440.
Sparks, Jared. Early life, 304; edi-
torial work, 304, 305; collects the
" Writings of Washington," 305,
308; other works, 305, 306; compen-
sation of, 304.
Spoils system. Office seekers invade

Washington, 519, 520; demand for
office, 521-523, notes, 525, note;
Jackson's views on patronage, 525,
526; members of Congress appointed
to office, 526, note; inauguration of
the system in the Post-Office De-
partment, 526, 527; wholesale re-
movals, 528; the scramble for office,
528–530; disappointment with ap-
pointments, 530; appointment of
editors, 530, 531; distress caused by
removals, 531: continuance of re-
movals, 531, 532: effect of removal
of postmasters, 532, 533.
"Spy, The." Its success, 298, 299.
State government. During the Revo-

lution, 373-378; colonies apply to
Congress for advice, 374; advice
given, 374; State constitutions
framed, 375; bills of rights, 375;
character of constitutions, 375–378;
suffrage, 376, 377; powers of Execu-
tive, 377, 378; gradual abolition of
religious and property qualifica-
tions, 379, 380; new ideas in, 1810-
'20, 380, 381; new constitution of
New York, 383–388; amended con-
stitution, Massachusetts, 388-390;
Rhode Island, 390; New York suf-
frage amendment, 392; new consti-
tution in Virginia, 392, 393; changes

of half a century, 393, 394; the
Legislatures and the courts, 395–
400.
State rights. South Carolina, 203;
Governor Troup, 205; Georgia on,
205–207; report of the Senate of
South Carolina, 1828, 252-253; Geor-
gia resolutions, 1828, 253; Alabama
resolution, 1828, 253, 254; toasts at
Charleston, 258, note, 261; resolution
asserting, 263; " South Carolina
Exposition on, 266; opposition to
suits against States, 402; resolu-
tions of States, 402, 403; asserted
by Pennsylvania (Gideon Olmsted
case), 403-406; resolutions of Penn-
sylvania and Virginia, 406; New
England resistance to Force Act,
406, 407; resolutions of Delaware,
407; New England States refuse
militia, 407, 408; resolutions of Con-
necticut, 408; speech of Josiah
Quincy on admission of Louisiana,
409 411; Massachusetts opposes Em-
bargo Act, 411; resistance to "Con-
script Bill," 411, 412; State rights
resolutions of Ohio, 1820, 413; manl-
festo in Georgia Senate, 413; Vir-
ginia denies jurisdiction of Su-
preme Court, 414; Kentucky resists
jurisdiction of Federal courts, 415-
417; New York opposes Federal
law, 417; assertion of, by South
Carolina, Negro Seaman Act, 417;
general assertion of, 418; resolu-
tions of Maine and Massachusetts,

473 476.
States, Suits against. Opposition to,

402.
States, The. Influence of, in election

of President by House of Represen-
tatives, 62.
Stay laws. In Illinois, 161; in Ken-

tucky, 162; old-court and new-court
struggles, 162-166.
Steamboats, 130–131, 166.
Stevens, John. Acquires rallroad
charter, 138; letter to Mayor of
Philadelphia, 139; charter from
Pennsylvania, 139-140; circular rail-
road, 143-144.
Stoddard's Louisiana, 306.
Street cleaning in New York city,
124; in Philadelphia, 126.
Strikes. Early, 84, 85.
Suffrage. Negro, 184, 186, 187, 192,
198–199; qualifications for, early
State constitutions, 377; manhood
suffrage, 379, 380: in New York
Convention, 1821, 384-387; in Massa-
chusetts Convention, 1820, 388-390;
New York, manhood, 392: new

qualifications in Virginia, 392, 393.
Surgery. First journal of, 273.
Swartwout, Samuel Jackson's let.

ter to, 492; on office seeking, 529.
Sweden, 13.
Tables. Popular vote, 1824, 75; elec-

toral vote, 76; vote of House of
Representatives in 1825, 81; popn-

lar and electoral vote, 1828, 518-520.
Tariff. Effect of, 1816, 229; demand

for protective tariff, 230; bill de-
feated in Senate, 1820, 231; House
of Representatives opposed to pro-
tective tariff, 1821-23, 231; Mon-
roe's messages favor protection,

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