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negotiated the sale of the road to the Delaware & Hudson Co., including a perpetual lease of the Rutland & Whitehall road. These railroads place Rutland in easy communication (except on Sundays), with all sections of the United States and Canada.

The original village of Rutland was the center of some of the most exasperating of the land title troubles. As has been previously stated, Governor Wentworth had granted a charter for Rutland Township in 1761, and in 1771 Governor Dunmore, of New York, issued the patent of Socialborough, practically covering the same territory, and one Cockburn sent to survey the land, but he did

not find the people a bit sociable; in fact, he

over Vermont being admitted as a state, in consequence of the land title quarrels, Rutland was one of the capitals of the state, and the building shown in our illustration is the old state house, built about 1775, said to be the oldest public building in the state. Part of the exterior has been renewed, and it is now used as a residence.

Otter Creek, which enticed settlers to this section at the earliest period of Vermont history, enters the county about the middle of the south line and leaves near the middle of the north line, winds its way through the valley, furnishing valuable water power privileges besides adding much beauty to the scenery. When seen from the mountains, Rutland with its white buildings looks like a white setting midst



MILLS OF THE VERMONT MARBLE COMPANY, CENTER RUTLAND, VT. made an unpleasant acquaintance with the green of a great basin, and with Otter Remember Baker, Seth Warner, Mead and Creek winding its way through the valley Johnson.

of green verdure it makes an enchanting " The first white settler in Rutland was scene, while one standing in Rutland sees Captain James Mead, 1769, and in 1770 a great ring of mountains, seeming to enThomas Rowley was in Rutland surveying tirely encircle the city,—the Marble Range lots.” In 1774 Rutland contained thirty- to the west, and Killington, Pico, Shrewfive families, three of whom were of those bury, East Mountain and Ball Mountain, proclaimed outlaws and a price set on their to the east. Killington Mountain rising heads. During the Revolutionary War 4,242 feet above sea-level; others standing Rutland was the frontier town, aud two somewhat nearer look almost as high. The forts were erected in its defence. It was writer standing in Rutland has seen the the most northern town in the state that clouds butting against these great mounwas not depopulated by the advance of tains, though the mountains are green to Burgoyne after the occupation of Ticon- their very tops, and when they are snowderoga in 1777. It was made the capital of capped, the valley still dressed in green Rutland County in 1781, and from 1784 to makes a scene that must appeal to every 1804, during the period of the controversy lover of nature.

Vermont is rich in minerals—slate, soapstone, iron, etc., but the chief mineral is the widely-known Rutland marble, of varied colors and great value.

Childs, in his history of Rutland, says that the valley at the foot of West Moun. tain in 1838 was a dreary swamp land that one would scarcely believe worth a song. But in that year William F. Barns began a limekiln, calcining the marble into quicklime. Soon the idea struck him that this limestone might be used in the manufacture of tombstones, and he struck a bargain for this barren swampy land, including a portion of the hill, giving in exchange an old horse worth not to exceed $75. This land contained nearly all the famous quarries of West Rutland, which before his

The engines used to drive the compressors are said to be the same that were used in the construction of the Hoosac Tunnel.

Entering Rutland from the south by the Bennington & Rutland, the west by the Delaware & Hudson, or from the north by the Rutland Railroad, marble is to be seen in great quantities. More than two-thirds of all the marble quarried in the United States is taken from these quarries, most of which is found in Rutland and the adjoining county of Addison, the principal quarries being at West Rutland, Center Rutland, Proctor, Pittsfield, Middlebury and Brandon. The marble from these quarries varies from the purest statuary quality to that in which black or dark veinings are increasingly abundant and that which is


MARBLE YARDS, VERMONT MARBLE COMPANY, WEST RUTLAND, VT. death he sold for $130,000, and the bottom very dark or almost black. There are also land is now covered with residences, owned quarries of serpentine, verd antique, and or occupied mostly by the quarrymen. other varieties, but these are only worked

Another authority says: A quarry was to a limited extent. Between twenty and opened at Sutherland Falls but a short thirty million dollars are invested in this distance from Rutland, where Otter Creek industry, and the annual production passes through and falls over a bed of mar- amounts to between five and six million ble 18 feet thick, as early as 1830. This dollars, is now owned by the Vermont Marble In our illustrations will be seen the Company, which has several great plants diamond drills which will bore into this in the vicinity, and in the long buildings solid mass about six inches per minute, may be seen hundreds of yang saws cutting also the channeling machines which are the great blocks into desired dimensions. worked by compressed air, which cut The mill machinery is operated by water trenches to the depth desired, the deep power, the falls being harnessed for the mines showing the layers of the stone. purpose, and the drills and channeling ma- These, together with ihe mills and larger chines are operated by compressed air. views of the marble yards, may give some

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conception of this great industry, but to be really appreciated it must be visited and if possible go down into one of these great holes out of which thousands of tons of marble have been taken and yet seem to be but a spattering of the great beds that are to be found here.

Other manufacturing interests are quite extensive in Rutland, the one probably best known is that of the Howe Scale Company. The original inventors of the scale were F. M. Strong and Thomas Ross, who secured patents in January, 1856. In 1857 John Howe, Jr., bought their patent and commenced building scales at Brandon, but in 1877 moved the plant to Rutland where it has grown to great dimensions,

Rutland has good hotel accommodations, besides good home hostelries for summer tourists, and having an altitude of 562 feet above sea level gives it a pleasant mean temperature, with drinking water unsurpassed for purity. From here there are many places of interest to visit, with short drives, and an abundance of fishing and hunting in season, but the point of most interest is unquestionably Killington Peak, 4242 feet above sea-level. “To reach the peak, the most direct route leaves Rutland by way of Killington avenue, driving to the top of what is called the notch, a point from whence Rutland lies at your feet; thence to the left to the half-way house, near one of the prettiest waterfalls in the country.


DIAMOND DRILLS USED IN THE MARBLE QUARRIES. and the Howe scale has found buyers in It is ten miles to the summit, and if one almost every country.

desires he can leave the horse and walk Combination car wheels, channeling the last three miles, which is not only good machines, iron works of various kinds, health-giving exercise, but will insure a foundries, boiler works and a large line of good appetite for a hearty dinner at the other manufactories, together with its being Killington House. As you make the asa railroad center makes Rutland the greatest cent, the air gradually becomes more raricommercial city in Vermont.

fied; beech, birch and hemlock give place Rutland has a fine water supply of pure to mountain ash, spruce and balsam, and mountain water. The reservoir situated the giant trees met with at the start grow upon the side of the mountain gives 180 smaller and smaller as you near the top, feet head to the system, and hose attached until at the summit they are little more to any hydrant will throw water a sufficient than dwarfed specimens. height to reach the highest buildings. If on the way up the mountain side you Rutland also has a well-equipped fire de- may find yourself in the clouds, which partment, of which Brother Geo. Dunton is is very likely, but wait patiently, for chief, who is a member of Otter Creek when the mist lifts and the sun Div., 347, B. of L. E., Rutland.

forth the whole surrounding looks brighter

comes can

and the mountain scene is both majestic northwestern part of Massachusetts. The and magnificent. The crest of the moun- road runs from Boston, Mass., to Troy, tain is 350 yards from the hotel and is N. Y., and is now operated by the Boston reached by steps built in the rock. When & Maine Railway. at the summit, where stands the U. S. “The first question of tunneling the Signal Service pole, one

see with

Hoosac Mountains was raised in 1825, when the naked eye from the Canadian border a commission was appointed to examine on the north to the Massachusetts line on the feasibility of building a canal between the south, and from the White Mountains Boston and the Hudson, but the project beyond the Connecticut on the east to the was abandoned when railroads were introAdirondacks beyond Lake Champlain on duced. Experimental work was begun in the west. The prospective from this point 1851, but no actual tunneling, until 1856. is superbly grand. At this point one may In 1862 the state took possession, and the stand in the bright sunlight and witness work was completed in 1873. The tunnel the approach of a thunder storm hundreds is a little over 434 miles long, and is made of feet below, and see the great carpet of large enough for two railway tracks. The clouds which for the moment obscure the greater part of the rock penetrated is mica



CHANNELING MACHINES AT WORK IN THE RUTLAND, Vt., MARBLE QUARRIES. valley and as they reach the mountain ceous schist, exhibiting, however, widely divide and take separate ways, the valley variant conditions and characteristics in again coming into view with its verdure different portions of the length. A working brighter by its bath.

shaft 1,028 feet deep which was sunk near Hunting and fishing in season are looked the center of its length, is an important aid forward to with great anticipation, the in the ventilation of the tunnel. The cost of mountains affording an abundance of the tunnel was about $12,000,000." Our game, bear, deer and fowl for the marks- illustration shows one of the entrances to man and fish for the angler.

the tunnel, and the locomotive then named the N. C. Munson was the first

engine that drew a passenger train through Hoosac Tunnel.

the tunnel, Feb. 9, 1875. The man stand

ing in front of ihe locomotive is Major The Fitchburg Railroad runs through Norman C. Munson, the contractor, who the south west corner of Vermont, and the completed the tunnel, and he manipulated Hoosac Tunnel is but a short distance from the throttle on that occasion. Bro. W. F. the border of the state in the extreme Bucknam, a member of Div. 61, Boston, to

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