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thing needful is full and clear knowledge of the changed conditions, and of the probable results of a given line of action. More and more we shall accept the idea that the vast undertakings of a government like ours must be based upon scientific knowledge. And far from grudging what it costs to make investigations and collate facts as preliminary to important decisions, we shall realize that such outlays are the best and most economical of all public investments.

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A case in point is the gathering and Importance of the Census collection of statistical facts, such as Work.

or expensive. A permanent census office would actually save money, while securing better results than are possible by the present method.

The work of the census of 1900 is Census Data. exceptionally well advanced, and its

principal tabulations will be completed next summer,—two years after the enumeration was made. In previous census-takings, from four to six years has been required for collating and finally publishing the immense mass of data collected concerning population, agriculture, and other matters of clief inquiry. Few people have paused to consider how vast are the computations necessary to arrive at what would appear to be simple and summary conclusions. Two or three thousand people are still at work in the census office at Washington tabulating the reports sent in by the local enumerators and agents. From time to time the Census Bureau completes and sends out bulletins covering some particular inquiry. Up to the beginning of November, there

has been performed through the Cen. sus Bureau. Such work is simply indispensable ; its results are in demand at every turn. We should insist upon its constant improvement in scope, method, and accuracy. To that end the Census Bureau should not be reëstablished for each decennial period, but should have a continuous existence.

A great army of subordinate employees is, of course, needed for a comparatively short period ; but the nucleus of the organization should not be allowed to disappear. There is work of first-class importance for the census office to do through every working day of every year of the decade, as well as in the tenth year, in which there must be a counting of heads. This idea of a permanent census bureau has been un. der discussion for ten or twelve years. Congress ought now to adopt it in principle, leaving details to be worked out in the light of experience. The creation of a permanent bureau is the necessary starting point. It need not be very elaborate


(Chief statistician for population.)

had been issued 106 of these brochures. Thus, No. 103, issued on October 10, contained tables summing up the population of the country by sex, general nativity, and color. Number 106, issued on the last day of October, summarizes the population by school, militia, and voting ages. These bulletins contain information of the utmost value. Thus, the statistics show in an encouraging way the assimilative power of the United States as respects its foreign elements of


population. In 1900, only 13.7 per cent. of the total population was foreign-born The native population had increased 22.5 per cent. in the decade, as against 12.4 per cent. for the foreignborn. The school-age tables reveal the interesting fact that for the entire country 95.4 per cent. of the population between the ages of five and twenty years is native-born, and only 4.6 is for. eign-born. In the Southern States, as a rule, the foreign-born population of school age is only a small fraction of 1 per cent. In the State of New York it is 12 per cent., in Massachusetts 15.9, and in Connecticut 12.7. In New York, it is chiefly to be found in the metropolis, where the problems of education are on that account of a peculiar nature.

Taking the country at large, it is obEvidences vious that with sufficient energy and of Progress.

intelligence applied to the work of ele. mentary education it would be entirely possible to take the children of foreign-born parents and train them into thoroughgoing Americans, with a good use of the English language and a proper sense of the meaning and value of our citizenship. A careful examination of these population statistics in detail must greatly assist in the comprehension of the educational work that constitutes the principal task of our generation in this country. The race statistics show that the white population continues to grow appreciably faster than the colored. The mortality statistics, though confessedly far from accurate, for reasons beyond the power of the census oflice to control, show at least beyond a reasonable doubt that the general conditions of health improve from decade to decade, and that the average duration of life in this coun. try is steadily increasing. Such data lend en. couragement to further efforts in the direction of medical investigation and intelligent sanitary rules and regulations. Gradually improved meth. ods as respects sewers, water supply, control of infectious diseases, inspection of milk and food supplies, and improved knowledge of private as well as public hygiene, are working a profound revolution. The careful application of statistical tests proves such progress, and enables one community to profit by the experience of another.

count of the two classes. The man who can merely write his name and read a few words may, for all practical purposes, be as uneducated as the man who happens not to have learned to sign his

According to this report, of the entire body of negro men above the age of twenty-one in the United States, 52.7 per cent. are literate and 47.3 are illiterate. As showing the results of American schools in the Northern States where the foreign-born population chiefly exists, it is well worth while to note the fact that, whereas 11.5 per cent. of the foreign-born white male population above the age of twenty-one is illiterate, only 2 per cent. of the men of voting age who were born in the United States of foreign parents are classed as illiterates ; while of all the white men of voting age in the country born of native American parents, 5.8 per cent. are illiterate. Taking the negro males in the Southern States of voting age, the illiterates are 61.3 per cent. in Louisiana, 59.5 in Alabama, 56.4 in Georgia, 54.7 in South Carolina, 53.2 in Mississippi, 53.1 in North Carolina, 52.5 in Virginia, 49.5 in Kentucky, 47.6 in Tennessee, 45.1 in Texas, 44.8 in Arkansas, 42.7 in Delaware, 40.5 in Mary. land, 39.4 in Florida, 37.8 in West Virginia, and 31.9 in Missouri. In New York, on the other hand, where there are a good many negro men of voting age, the percentage of illiteracy among them is only 11.3; while in Pennsylvania it is 17.5. In Kansas, whither a good many negroes have gone, the percentage among them of adult male illiteracy is 28.1. In the District of Columbia, which has a large negro population in fairly good economic circumstances, the percentage of male illiteracy is 26.). The negro colony of Massachusetts numbers 40,000 souls, and only about 10 per cent. of the adult males are unable to read and write.

Where the negro element is relative. Changes in Relative Race ly small, as in the Northern States, its Population. educational progress would seem to be very considerable. It is to be noted incidentally that in some of the Northern States the negro element is growing by migration froin the South. Thus, there are now just about as many negroes in Pennsylvania as in Missouri, although twenty years ago there were almost twice as many in Missouri as in Pennsylvania. The negroes of New Jersey, whose adult males show an illiteracy of only 18.3 per cent., have almost doubled in numbers in the past twenty years.

There are now more negroes in Massachusetts than in Dela ware, although twenty years ago there were 50 per cent. more in Delaware.

In the past twenty years the white population of Maryland has increased nearly 230,000, while the negro

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in the Far


population has increased less than 15,000. Vir

In Alabama, —where a little more ginia in twenty years has gained 312,000 white Constitution than 14 per cent. of the adult male people, and has gained only 29,000 negroes.


whites of American parentage are re. North Carolina in the same period has gained, ported as illiterate, while 59.5 per cent. of the in round figures, 400,000 white people and only male negroes of voting age are illiterate, -it is 93,000 negroes.

Tennessee has gained 400,000 declared that the new constitution was adopted white people and only 77,000 negroes. Missouri by popular vote on November 11 ; and under the has gained 922,000 white people and less than operation of the clauses relating to the franchise 16,000 negroes. Kentucky has gained almost this entire mass of negro illiteracy will be at once 500,000 white people and only 13,000 negroes. excluded from the voting privilege. Most of the

white illiterates will probably be able, under exThese figures show well enough that ceptional clauses, to place their names on the reg. Negro Density

the race problem is not destined to be istration books. But after a limited period the

a very formidable one, --whether from system will work with practical equality, and the political, the social, or the industrial point of every man of whatever race who knows enough view,-in the former slave States of Virginia, to be morally entitled to exercise political privi. North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mis. leges will be allowed to register and vote. These souri. The negro element in those States remains Southern franchise systems,—viewed broadly in relatively stationary, while the white population their main features rather than narrowly in their is growing rapidly. If the negro communities in minor details,—bid fair to be of advantage to the Northern States like New York, New Jersey, both races. They supply the most powerful inPennsylvania, and Ohio are tending to increase centive to education and personal improvement. by a considerable percentage, they are still very They create at once a bold and sweeping division inconsiderable in comparison with the immense between the enfranchised and the disfranchised, general growth of these prosperous States. It is but they do not erect an arbitrary or difficult in the States farther South that the negroes are barrier. An object-lesson in the disadvantages making their principal gains. The State of of illiteracy will be constantly before the eyes of largest negro preponderance ten years ago was the rising generation of both races. The children South Carolina, where there were 149,117 ne of native-born Americans will be impelled to fol. groes to every 100,000 white people. This low the example of the American-born children relative proportion has fallen in ten years to of foreign parents and acquire the rudiments of 140,249. It is altogether likely that within an ordinary education. twenty-five years the whites will outnumber the blacks in South Carolina. But in Mississippi,

These new franchise laws come at a

Fresh Zeal for where ten years ago there were 136,287 blacks Southern Edu- time when the most thoughtful and for every 100,000 whites, the proportion has in

intelligent people of the South are creased to 141,552. These are the only two more than ever determined to improve public. States now in which the negroes outnumber the school facilities and promote in every way the whites, although in Alabama and Florida the cause of education. In pursuance of plans set relative proportion of negroes has increased. In on foot at the Southern Educational Conference, Louisiana, on the other hand, the relative de held last spring at Winston-Salem. N. C., a crease of negroes has been very marked. Thus, small gathering, composed principally of the ten years ago there were 100,143 negroes to each members of the executive board of this move. 100,000 whites, whereas the new census shows ment, was held in New York last month, and only 89,199 negroes to 100,000 whites. In Geor: was attended by some of the most prominent gia, the proportions of the races have remained educators of the South. This meeting was so almost stationary, there being now 87, 600 for timed as to coincide with the meeting of the every 100,000 whites, whereas ten years ago there directors and officers of the Peabody Fund and were 87,781. In Alabama, there are now 82,636, the Slater Fund ; and the work proposed to be and in Florida 77,600, blacks for every 100,000 carried on will be in harmony with these. Unwhites. All this points toward the concentra like the Peabody and Slater boards, this new tion of the colored population in the relatively Southern Education Board will not have funds low and warm regions of South Carolina, Georgia, to apportion in direct aid of schools, but it will Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. gather facts, distribute information, and wage a There has also been a greater proportionate in deliberate and continuous propaganda in favor of crease of blacks than of whites in Arkansas ; but educational progress. It will do everything in the whites are almost three-quarters of the popu. its power to persuade communities to tax them. lation, and the negro gain is unini portant.

selves for schools, and it will interest itself in


by the

The Modern


New Movement.

plans for the provision of competent teachers. generosity to the work of Southern white eduoaIt will be prepared to show philanthropists and tion. It is essential, furthermore, from this time men of wealth how great is the need of money on that Northern men in their educational work for educational work in the South, and it will in the South for negroes should secure the constant also show how little of the educational benefi sympathy, coöperation, and advice of the best cences of the rich men of the country have gone Southern men in the States or communities to that portion of the United States where the where the schools in question are located. It is need and the desert are greatest. For the rela gratifying to learn from many sources that the tive poverty of the South, the responsibility institutions for negroes founded in the South by belongs, not to that section, but to the entire Northern philanthropists are constantly growing country; and it is equally true that the peculiar in favor, and that the motives and spirit of their buruens and problems imposed upon the South work are much better understood among

the presence

there of millions of negroes be Southern white people than in former years. long, of right, to the entire country,—since the North as well as the South was concerned in

More and more such institutions are the origin of those burdens and problems.

Trend of Edu- adapting themselves to the real situa

tion. Many of them have fairly Leaders and

Dr. J. L. M. Curry, of Richmond grasped the idea that the purpose of education Aims of the and Washington, who is the execu for the negro is to make him as good and useful


representative of the Peabody and a negro as possible rather than to make him an Slater funds, will be the general supervising di imitation white man. But the main fact is that rector of the work of the new Southern Educa the whole business of education, North and South, tion Board, Mr. Robert C. Ogden, of New York, East and West, —whether for white men, black being chairman of the board, Mr. George Foster men, or red men,-is becoming transformed by Peabody treasurer, and Dr. Charles D. McIver, new ideas to mean something much more and of North Carolina, secretary. The work of in better than mere text-book stuffing. The busivestigation and of the dissemination of printed ness of education is to make capable citizens, matter is to be carried on under direction of decent and bappy homes, good neighbors, and President Charles W. Dabney, of the University useful and efficient members of a workaday world. of Tennessee, at Knoxville. Coöperating as active According to the new educational ideas, the directors in the field with Dr. Curry are President young negro who knows some Latin and algebra, E. A. Alderman, of Tulane University, at New but who does not know how to plow corn with a Orleans ; President McIver, of the State Normal mule, is not only an absurd and ridiculous object, and Industrial College, at Greensboro, N. C., and but is probably not so well educated in the deep Dr. H. B. Frissell, principal of the Normal and

the word as his illiterate rothe who Agricultural Institute, at Hampton, Va. This actually understands plain farm work and has the movement is in hearty sympathy with all useful moral character to work faithfully. But a cerand valuable forms of education for both races, tain amount of book learning is not incompatible but it recognizes especially the necessity for radi with practical training and economic efficiency, cal improvement in the public schools for the and these things should all go together. children of all the people. It believes that the right kind of education is desirable for every body,

The most important of the November

Republican and that the best future of our democratic institu Victories in elections was that of New York City, tions calls for universal education more than for

in which local issues alone were conany other one thing. It believes especially in cerned and party politics not involved. The those kinds of education that fit men and women State elections showed no falling off in the presfor practical life,-those that promote progress in tige and strength of the Republican party. agriculture and industry. It believes that the Tnis was to have been expected, for several reaworst thing that can possibly happen to the negro

One of these was the assassination of race in the South is to have any large proportion President McKinley. The circumstances attend. of the white race kept low in the scale of human ing Mr. McKinley's death so impressed the counadvancement through ignorance. The South is try with the loftiness of the President's charac. fortunate in having active and enthusiastic edu ter that honor and credit were reflected upon the cational leaders of high accomplishments, broad party of which he was the leader ; while all the views, and unselfish devotion. The North has words and deeds of Mr. Roosevelt, as successor contributed a great deal of money and much to Mr. McKinley, were so thoroughly approved noble effort to the work of negro education in the by the country as in their turn to strengthen the South, but it ought also to contribute with like position of the party in power.

Another con


the West.




dition favorable to Republican success was the ments to the State constitution of Pennsylvania continuance of general business prosperity, in were ratified at the polls, these amendments hav. spite of the partial failure of the corn crop. ing been originally prepared by the Municipal And still another ground for Republican victory League of Philadelphia, and their purpose being to lay in the fact that the Democratic party had pave the way for a personal registration law. The not yet recovered from the factional differences chief obstacle to municipal reform in Philadel. caused by its alliance with the Populists under phia hitherto has been the impossibility of getting Mr. Bryan's leadership. The Democrats of Iowa an honest vote. According to the statements of and Nebraska adhered this year to Bryanism, the reformers, corroborated from time to time with the result that

by admissions on the part of their opponents, Mr. Bryan's own

election frauds on an enormous scale are reguState was carried by

larly perpetrated in Philadelphia in the interest the Republicans,

of a mercenary political organization that is far while the Republican

worse than Tammany has ever been in New York. majority in Iowa was

These election frauds are difficult to prevent, be. unusually large for

cause of the lack in Pennsylvania of any such an off year. The

system of advance registration of voters, with acnew Iowa Legisla

companying safeguards, as exists in New York ture will contain

and other States having large cities. In order about 125 Republi

to provide proper election laws it was found cans and 25 Demo

necessary to amend crats. The plurality

the Constitution. of the Governorelect, Hon. Albert

The New B. Cummins, was

State Elections Jersey about 88,000. The

Repub Ohio campaign was

licans elected, by a (Gov.-elect of Iowa.) quiet to the point of

plurality of more apathy. Governor Nash was reëlected by a plu.

than 17,000, their rality over his Democratic opponent of nearly

excellent candidate 68,000. The Republicans carried Hamilton

for the governorship, County (Cincinnati), but the Democrats were suc.

Hon. Franklin Mur. cessful in Cuyahoga County (Cleveland), this

phy. In Massachu. being due to the energy with which Mayor Tom

setts, Gov. William L. Johnson infused tax questions and other local

Murray Crane was issues into the campaign.

elected fo: the third

time by a large maIn Pennsylvania, the campaign was

jority, Hon. Josiah

(Gov.-elect of New Jersey.)
rendered very
unusual and important

Quincy being the Pennsylvania.

by reason of the fact that the Demo. Democratic candidate. The campaign was pocrats had formed a fusion with independent Re. litely conducted, with compliments as weapons, publicans in order to wage a campaign on purely like a battle of roses. In Connecticut, the State and local issues, with the object of reforming principal matter of interest was the election the corrupt conditions that have made Pennsyl. of a constitutional convention. This convenvania's political reputation so unsavory.

tion will meet in Hartford early in January. not, however, a fortunate year in which to fight The rural townships will rule it, and will be relucthis particular battle, because the general and tant to give the cities fair representation.

The national considerations which were favorable to Republicans of Rhode Island elected their State Republican success elsewhere came to the rescue ticket, but the Democrats were successful in of the regular Republican ticket in Pennsylvania. electing a mayor in Providence. The Democrats The plurality, however, of about 50,000 was a were thoroughly successful in Virginia, electing small one in view of the huge Republican major Hon. Andrew Jackson Montague to the gov. ities that Pennsylvania generally gives. The ernorship, and securing all but about ten seats in reform movement in the Philadelphia local con the Legislature. The negroes quite generally abtest was not successful, but it is left in good stained from voting. The Democrats of Kenposition for the greater contest of next year. ,tucky have secured a majority in the next LegisMeanwhile, the Philadelphia reformers are very lature, and will elect a Democrat to the seat in much gratified by the fact that certain amend the United States Senate now held by Hon. W. J.



Results in

It was

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