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THE PERIODICALS REVIEWED.

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THE HOLIDAY MAGAZINES.

Thu er," the Century has probably made a more ex'HE December, or Christmas, issues of the Ameri

tensive use of colored illustrations than has been seen can illustrated magazines show for 1901 a tend

in any previous issue of a magazine.

Four contributions to the December Scribner's are ency to depart somewhat from the more conventional forms of celebrating this season with contributions of

brightened with colored pictures, the most notable, Mr. distinctively Christmas stories and Christmas poems,

Andrew Castaigne's drawings for the poem “Thyreus." and the stereotyped reproductions of famous Madonna

Mr. Ernest C. Peixotto, in his drawings accompanying

the travel sketch, “A Forgotten Pilgrimage," aids his themes in art. To take the place of these time-honored insignia of the holiday season, the magazines have be

sketches of a picturesque corner in the southwest of

France with tint work ; Miss Jessie Willcox Smith uses fore them the new resources of color illustration, which is becoming a regular feature of several of the higher

brilliant hues to brighten the pictures for Mr. William priced monthlies.

Henry Bishop's fairy tale, “The Last of the Fairy

Wands,” and the charming drawings from photographs THE CENTURY, SCRIBNER'S, AND HARPER'S.

accompanying Mr. John R. Spears' nature study, The chief use of color work in the illustration of mag

“When the Snow Falls in the Adirondacks," are glisazines of extensive circulation is seen in the pages of

tening cold in a blue-green background. The opening the Century, Scribner's, and Harper's. One rarely

article in the Christmas Scribner's is an essay on finds a number of these magazines nowadays which

“American Portraiture of Children,” with half-tone redoes not have some more or less novel adaptation of

productions of the best-known of the portraits of Cecilia color illustration, and in the advance Christmas sheets

Beaux, John S. Sargent, Sergeant Kendall, William M. before us this feature is especially elaborate and promi.

Chase, John W. Alexander, George De Forest Brush,

and others. nent. The most marked innovation is introduced by the December number of Harper's Magazine in the

M'CLURE'S. brilliantly colored romantic pictures by Albert Sterner illustrating Mr. Maurice Hewlett's story, “The Heart's

Even the magazines sold at ten cents are beginning Key.” These full-page pictures are printed on a heavy

to avail themselves of the brightness of color work, and paper of a texture analogous to Japan paper and inserted

the Christmas McClure's uses a striking straw tint to in the magazine, producing a highly novel and piquant soften the photographs of the masterpieces of Michel effect. Harper's Magazine also gives a number of

Angelo, illustrating Mr. John La Farge's story of the brightly colored illustrations from Mr. Smedley's pen,

greatest of known artists, with which the magazine in Bret Harte's new story, “A Ward of Colonel Starbot opens. Mr. Stewart E. White begins his story of adtle's ;” and the third feature embellished with bright

venture in the forests about the Great Lakes, under the colors is Mr. E. S. Martin's “Other People's Children,”

title “ The Forest Runner.” A fairy story by Herminie while a delicate tint aids to heighten the effect in the

Templeton, “Darby Gill and the Good People,” adds a appreciation of pictures by Rosa Bonheur.

holiday flavor to the number, and there are other short The Century for December begins with the printing

stories by Ray Stannard Baker, George M. Martin, and of Milton's “L'Allegro," with the most striking col

H. A. Crowell. Mr. William Allen White's character ored full-page illustrations from drawings by Max

sketch of Thomas C. Platt we quote from in another field Parrish,-four of them,-forming, in their dense

department. masses of strong color and the bold composition of this

TIIE COSMOPOLITAN'S CHRISTMAS SUGGESTION. artist, quite the most noticeable effort of this sort in the magazines of the month. Madame Blanc's account Mr. John Brisben Walker opens the Christmas numof “Chistmas in France” is embellished with pictures ber of his Cosmopolitan with a suggestion that the by Boutet de Monvel, printed in a weird yet delicate people of the United States should "give their Christtint; and the elaborate Christmas poem, “The Steeple mas Day a tone of active Christianity” by sending a Builders,” by Anita Fitch, has also the help of color petition to “our English brothers” to join with us in in its full-page designs. Elizabeth C. Waltz's Christ. asking the appointment of the President of the United mas story, “The Mystery Play,” is aided by the clever States and the Queen of Holland as arbitrators to line drawings of Charlotte Harding to bring out the whose judgment should be committed the settlement quaintness of the rural characters ; and these draw of all questions affected by the South African dispute, ings, too, are aided with splashes of color wherever

and that meanwhile hostilities shall cease. Mr. Walkthese may serve an artistic purpose. With Clinton er's appeal is followed by an article by Allen Sangree Scollard's illustrated poem, “The Christmas Angel,” on “ The Boer War to Date," which concludes with the printed on a delicate straw background; the tinted il. opinion that the final chapter of the South African lustrations by Frederic Remington for Mr. Hough's struggle will tell “either of a united South Africa or of chapter iix “ The Settlement of the West," the colored a struggle desperate as of a victim and executioner, pictures for Miss Edith Thomas' “ How the Christmas hatred unquenchable, no quarter,' and death.” Mr. Tree Was Brought to Nome,” with still more color Gustav Kobbé writes of the artist Helleu under the work in Mr. James Grant Wilson's article, “ Thack. title “An Etcher of Beautiful Women,” C. D. Hess eray in the United States," and Charles Dexter Allen's gives an account of “Early Opera in America," and discussion of book plates, and in the illustration for Bret Harte has a story of “The Adventures of John Mr. Frank R. Stockton's story, “Blackgum Agin' Longbowe, Yeoman."

THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW.

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THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY. In the December Atlantic Monthly, after his discussion of “Expansion Through Reciprocity,” Mr. John B. Osborne concludes that "reciprocity is, therefore, the only safeguard against a war of retaliatory tariffs, destructive to commerce and prejudicial to international comity.” Mr. Thomas Walker Page shows how the phrase “Judge Lynch" originated, and how the name of a simple Quaker gentleman, a brave pioneer, a righteous judge, a good soldier and statesman, now stands for organized savagery. Mr. Remsen Whitehouse considers the question “Will Italy Renew the Triple Alliance ?" and thinks there is ample ground for the Italian doubt whether Italy may not find a more advantageous political and commercial combination. There is a Christmas poem by Julia C. R. Dorr, an essay on “The Literature and the Civil War,” and other contributions of fiction and belles-lettres.

THE WORLD'S WORK. The most considerable article in the December World's Work is the account of “The Rebuilding of New York," the making of a new city of steel founded upon a rock, the digging of the greatest subway in the world, and the huge bridges, tunnels, reservoirs, parks, piers, boulevards, sky-scrapers, and vast apartmenthouses that make New York, according to the World's Work, the most convenient city in the world. W. F. McClure describes the process of “Making Long Trolley Lines,” and considers the possibility of through trolley cars from New York to St. Louis. Mr. Frederic Emory writes on the commercial expansion of the country as a social force and the building of a new American civilization on the foundation of the new industrialism. Mr. H. H. Lewis tells A Day's Work of a Locomotive Engineer,” and there are other articles on “ The Romance of the Fur Trade” and “The Boer War to Date,” and a brief character sketch of Mr. George W. Perkins, the forceful young American who has recently become a partner in the great banking house of J. P. Morgan & Co. We have quoted in another department from the World's Work's sketch of President Roosevelt at work.

'HE November number of the North American

Review opens with an article on “Conquered Territory and the Constitution” by ex-Minister Hannis Taylor. Regarding the government of the Philippines, Mr. Taylor directs the attention of Congress to recent European experience in Africa. Many European governments have established African protectorates, which differ from colonies in that the protected community neither becomes an integral part of the protecting state nor surrenders, except to a certain extent, the right to exercise internal sovereignty. If the United States should proceed on such lines in dealing with the Philippines, Mr. Taylor is of the opinion that we should be saved from many of the burdens that would result from any attempt to establish a more strictly organized system. Our occupation, he thinks, should be limited to the coast cities, where the navy could be most effective, and where the problem of government could be reduced to the maintenance of a few municipal systems.

LEO'S LONG PONTIFICATE. In an article on “The Next Conclave," Signor De Cesare, a member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, brings out some interesting facts regarding Leo XIII. It seems that 136 cardinals have already died during Leo's pontificate, a number not equaled during any preceding pontificate. Four of these 136 cardinals were created by Gregory XVI., 60 by Pius X., and all the others by Leo XIII, himself. It is said that no other Pope has ever witnessed the death of so many cardinals of his own creation. He was crowned Pope more than twenty-three years ago, and is now ninety-one years of age. He is the only Pope who has ever exceeded the age of ninety, and one of the very few who have rivaled St. Peter himself in length of rule. Among the 203 Popes the Church has had, Leo's length of reign has been exceeded by those of only two,-Pius Vl, and Pius IX. ; but within a year, if he lives, he will have exceeded the pontificate of Pius VI. Signor De Cesare thinks it possible that he will survive the three remaining cardinals of Pius IX., one of whom is sixty-eight years of age, another is seventy-three, and the third is seventy-nine.

WHAT TO DO WITH ANARCHISTS. Writing on the subject of “Detective Surveillance of Anarchists,” Mr. Robert A. Pinkerton advocates the establishment on one of the Philippine Islands of an anarchist colony, “a place where every person who wants anarchy can have it.” This colony should be thoroughly equipped with appliances for tilling the soil and with all necessary conveniences, and it should be left altogether to the resident anarchists to govern themselves, or, as Mr. Pinkerton says, refrain from governing themselves, as they see fit. Care should be taken, however, that the anarchists remain on the island. This might be assured by establishing a system of patrol boats around it. SHOULD TIIE UNITED STATES INTERVENE IN TURKEY?

M. Urbain Gohier, the French journalist, contributes an article in which he advises the United States Gorernment to assert itself forcibly at Constantinople, and to pay no further attention to the sensibilities of the European powers, nor to the jealousies of those powers on the subject of intervention in Turkey. The European

OTHER DECEMBER MAGAZINES. Everybody's Magazine for December gives a most beautiful example of the resources of photographic illustrations for a magazine, especially in the articles on “The Vast Business of Flower-Growing,” “Hezekiah's Third Wife," and "The Haunts of the Beaver.” In the last-named article, by Mr. Dugmore, there is the most fascinating photographic illustration we have ever seen of the life and work of a very shy and rare species of animal.

Frank Leslie's is full of color work in pictures for Mr. Bostock's account of wild animals in captivity, “The American Diary of a Japanese Girl," and various Christmas stories and poems.

The handsome issue of the Ladies' IIome Journal for December tells of “The People Who Help Santa Claus" and “What a Girl Does at College," shown in remarkably fine photographs; and there are Christmas stories by Elizabeth McCracken, John Fox, Jr., and Elliott Flower. Mr. Rudyard Kipling is the bright particular story-teller of the number, in his neolithic fairy tale, “ How the First Letter Was Written." Whatever one may think of “Kim," one cannot fail to delight in this pretty bit of child play.

“An Italian View of Humor.” In another department we have quoted from Senator McLaurin's paper on “The Commercial Democracy of the South."

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THE FORUM. N the opening article of the November Forum, on

President Roosevelt, Mr. A. Maurice Low calls attention to the facts that, although the youngest President, Mr. Roosevelt has a more comprehensive and more intimate knowledge of the country than had any of his predecessors; that he is one of the very few Presidents possessing a proficient knowledge of foreign languages, and that he is the only President who served an apprenticeship in one of the great departments.

DELAWARE'S EMPTY SENATE SEATS. Mr. Willard Saulsbury contributes an article on the Delaware situation entitled “Preserving a State's Honor.” Speaking of the two vacant chairs of that State in the United States Senate, Mr. Saulsbury declares that the people of Delaware “point with pride, as silent but irrefutable witnesses to the purity, incorruptibility, and steadfast honor of our people, willing to withdraw from the high places of distinction rather than barter their State's good name. These chairs may remain a long time vacant; this fight will go on until we are victorious or overpowered. We have been accustomed to claim great credit for our State because she has honored those who by their valor, worth, integrity, courage, and ability reflected back that honor upon her, and have written their names high among their contemporaries upon the roll of patriots and statesmen; and no one has cared, after time has mellowed the feeling personal clashes have produced, whether they were Federalist or Republican, Whig or Democrat. But now we are in a dogged, determined, handto-hand contest for a semblance of clean political life, and there need be no fear that there will be a surrender by the respectable elements of society in Delaware.”

CUBA'S SUGAR. In his article on “Sugar and the New Colonies," Mr. C. A. Crampton shows that the sugar industry in Cuba is slowly reviving, the acreage having been increased 25 per cent., and the yield for next season is estimated to reach between 600,000 and 700,000 tons. In Mr. Crampton's opinion, the entire abrogation of the duty on Cuban sugar would mean practically a free gift of more than the crop itself is worth. He thinks that American growers are quite justified in opposing such action. On the other nd, such a concession as is allowed the British West Indies by the terms of the proposed reciprocity treaties—1244 per cent.-would be a matter of the plainest equity, and the very least that should be considered by the friends of Cuba. A differential of 25 per cent., involvincea reduction of fourtenths of a cent per pound upon sugar of average polarization, could not be regarded as anything more than a very modest demand ; while a reduction of 33% per cent., or a half-cent per pound, would allow Cuba but one-third of the advantage granted to Hawaii and Porto Rico, and would cost less than $1,000,000 in duties.

powers having declined to intervene and punish the Sultan for the Armenian massacres, M. Gohier asks why it would not be a worthy endeavor for the United States to attempt what Europe has declined to do. In his opinion, there would be no ambiguity in such an intervention, for the disinterestedness of the United States would be manifest. " And the name of war need not even be pronounced. The American navy is powerful, while a Turkish navy scarcely exists. Where is, then, the possibility of war? There must be two to make a fight. To show the blood-stained Sultan some battleships, and to warn him that every human head that falls under the knives of his assassins will be paid for by the destruction of one of his palaces,—this would not be the work of a conqueror, but the action of a noble heart."

THE ETHICAL VALUE OF FOOTBALL.

President Charles F. Thwing writes of football in its ethical relations and functions. He formulates five points of what he terms “the ethical Calvinism of football." These are: (1) Football represents the inexorable, embracing things that must be done at specific times, places, and in specific ways; (2) football illustrates the value of the positive in the building of character ; (3) it represents the value of a compelling interest; (4) football embodies the process of self-discovery; and, finally, it develops self-restraint.

President Thwing admits that, as played in American colleges, the game is subject to very serious evils ; but these evils, in his view, relate rather to the conduct of the game and to incidental conditions than to its essential elements.

SHOULD THE CHINESE BE EXCLUDED ?

Apropos of the fact that the Chinese exclusion act will expire by limitation in May next, and that Congress will be asked to renew it, Mayor Phelan, of San Francisco, raises the question whether there has been in the past ten years any change in the nature of the evils attending Chinese immigration or in the sentiments of the people. He affirms that on the Pacific coast there has been no change, but that, on the contrary, the lapse of time has made still more evident the non-assimilative character of the Chinese and their undesirabilty as citizens. He declares that the exclusion of the Chinese has had no appreciable effect on the trade between the two countries. The resident Chinese here import for their own consumption dried fish, pickled vegetables, and rice. These commodities, according to the custom-house records, have not fallen off since 1881. The same is true of other imports. When the Chinese come to this country they know little else than manual labor, but, according to Mayor Phelan, they soon acquire a skill which enables them to compete with the trained American working man. In his view, therefore, the Chinese become the great potential danger to skilled labor.

OTHER ARTICLES.

M. Jules Roche writes on “The National Debt of France ;” Mr. Hamilton W. Mahie on American Opportunities and Education ; " Mr. Anthony M. Brady on “The Services of Electricity,” and Mr. O. P. Austin, of the United States Bureau of Statistics, on the threatened European war against American manufactures. Mr. W. G. Wells contributes his sixth paper on 'Anticipations," and Mr. W. D. Howells his second on

ETHICS OF ANCIENT AND MODERN ATHLETICS.

Mr. Price Collier institutes a comparison between the codes of honor in ancient and modern athletics, taking as a basis Virgil's famous account of the games in the

fifth book of the Æneid. Mr. Collier concludes that the standards of to-day are far higher than those of ancient times. Sport now ministers to the moral and mental, as well as physical, development of our young men. Mr. Collier inclines to the opinion that the ancient Grecian athlete has been overlauded.

THE SMALL COLLEGE AND THE LARGE.

Readers of the sketch of Dr. Pearsons, “the friend of the American small college,” in the November number of this REVIEW, will be interested in President C. F. Thwing's discussion of the comparative advantages and disadvantages of small and large colleges in the November Forum. President Thwing thinks that no positive affirmation of the superiority of either the large or the small college can be safely made. “To ask which is superior is like asking whether one prefers purple or golden sunsets. The answer arises from the personal equation.” President Thwing, however, is not blind to the facts of the situation, and while he hesitates to make an affirmation on the subject, he does not hesitate to ask "whether the small college is not better fitted to make thinkers, and the large to make scholars ; the small better fitted to teach men, and the large better fitted to teach subjects ; the small better fitted to train the individual, and the large better fitted to discipline the democracy; and the small better fitted to improve and enrich personal character, and the large to disseminate truth."

ism, based, as it is, on private property and supported by class or private law," as in itself anarchy pure and simple. The root of the whole trouble is in materialistic conceptions of self-interest, fostered by false economic teachings. The antidote is to be found in “selfgovernment, self-knowledge, and self-expression."

The Rev. James Hoffman Batten contributes an essay on “The Failure of Freedom” in which he draws a pessimistic picture of our modern political life, dominated by corporate interests. A much more hopeful view is taken by Prof. Frank Parsons in his article on “Causes of the Political Movement of Our Time." Professor Parsons believes that the movement toward “democracy, union, and civilization” will continue because the underlying causes of the movement—"commerce, invention, thought development and diffusion, love of liberty and justice, sympathy, and sense of right”-are more potent to-day than ever before.

“The Futilities of Reformers" is the subject of a suggestive paper by Mr. Joseph Dana Miller. He closes with this reflection :

“ We will have corrupt government as long as people do not understand that the true function of government is not the reformation of the individual, but the protection of rights. Every man feels instinctively that he has a right to drink as he likes, to spend his money as he likes; he resents the impertinence of government interference--and in the main he is right. Grown men will be not better men, but worse, and public administration more corrupt, by every renewed attempt to suppress or regulate the inevitable vices and follies of men, nearly all of which spring from misgovernment and the denial of man's inalienable rights."

TAXES ON STREET-RAILWAY FRANCHISES.

THE CRIMINAL NEGRO.

Recent utterances of Mayor Tom L. Johnson, of Cleveland, on the granting of franchises to street-railway companies, have called attention to the benefits to the community derived from the spread of improved transportation facilities. The argument against taxation of street-railway franchises is presented by Mr. Walter S. Allen in this number of the Forum. Mr. Allen shows that in return for the right to occupy the streets the railway gives compensation in the form of increased opportunities for the improvement of the condition of the working man and the relief of congested populations in our urban centers.

OTHER ARTICLES.

The Hon. Martin Dodge writes on “The Government and Good Roads ;” Mr. Karl Blind on “Crispi and Italian Unity ;” the Hon. Charles Denby on “Agriculture in China ;” and Mr. W. C. Jameson Reid on “The Political and Commercial Future of Asia."

In this number, Miss Frances A. Kellor concludes her series of articles on “The Criminal Negro.” Her investigation shows that, with reference to climate, soil, food, and economic and social conditions in general, the negro is more disadvantageously placed than any other class in America; that Southern penal institutions are conducted with a view to revenue rather than to lessening crime ; that the physical and mental conditions of the race should not discourage educational effort, and that the environment in the South is favorable to the commission of crime by negroes.

DEATHS IN RAILROAD ACCIDENTS. The editors comment on the facts brought out in the last report of the Interstate Commerce Commission regarding the waste of human life on the railroads of the United States during the year covered by the report. They say :

" The fact that 7,865 persons were killed in a year and over 50,000 were injured by the railways of this country ought to call forth an indignant and persistent protest from millions of Americans-a protest so determined and pronounced that the Government would come to the rescue of the public, and especially of the employees on the railroads, and compel the management to provide ways and means for the material diminution of this frightful slaughter."

THE ARENA. HE November Arena is especially strong in polit

with a discussion ofnarchy—"the gospel of destruction.” Dr. Felix L. Oswald treats the subject in its evolutionary aspects, and hints at a moderate course in dealing with the disease. He thinks that the sincerity of the exponents of anarchism should be recognized, and that they should be reasoned with and made to see the error of their ways. The chief fallacy of anarchism, in his view, is contained in the idea that “the privileges of primitive barbarism” can ever be transferred to so complex a social state as that in which we now live.

Mrs. Evelyn Harvey Roberts, in prescribing a cure for anarchy, attacks the whole system of individual

OTHER ARTICLES.

Mr. J. Buckley Bartlett writes on “Ethics of the Land Question,” Mr. Stanton K. Davis on “The Office of the Preacher," and Ella Seass Stewart on “Some Ancient New Women."

PER

of course, tend to lessen the profits of such operations ; and, at some point in the movement, a balance would be obtained which would check a further increment in the supply. Professor Shaler thinks, however, that much disturbance of values would be brought about before this automatic brake would operate. “All debts, though their face value would be unchanged, would be as effectively scaled down as though a despot had for his profit debased the coinage of the civilized world.” Thus, the very results which were predicted by the gold-standard men in 1896 as sure to follow the adoption of free silver may for similar reasons be expected to follow a rapid increase in the volume of the world's gold currency.

M. Marillier writes on “Ernest Renan and the Soul of the Celt,” Prof. Hugo Münsterberg concludes his survey of American democracy, Signor Cortesi contributes A Political Survey of Francesco Crispi,” and Prof. Dana Carleton Munro begins a series of articles on “Christian and Infidel in the Holy Land."

THE INTERNATIONAL MONTHLY. ERHAPS the most timely article in the Interna

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW. HE Fortnightly Review for November contains

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tional Monthly for November is a discussion of “Strikes and the Philosophy of the Strikers," by Mr. Frank A. Foster. This writer's sympathies seem to be quite decidedly with the labor unions. At any rate, his observations have led him to conclude that the tendency of labor unions is to diminish rather than to increase the number of strikes. He says: “Paradoxical as it may seem, there is nothing in the history of trade-unionism to warrant the assumption that the possession of a large strike fund promotes a disposition to enter upon strikes. Responsibility breeds conservatism, and it is notable that the financially strong unions are the most cautious about appealing to the arbitrament of the industrial battlefield, while the more newly organized and less stable unions are apt to precipitate themselves into conflicts for which they are comparatively unprepared.”

EUROPEAN 66 TRUSTS."" In this number, Prof. J. W. Jenks, of Cornell University, presents some material gathered by him in Europe for the use of the United States Industrial Commission on the subject of industrial combinations. Professor Jenks has found that in Germany, England, Austria, Belgium, and France, as in the United States, the tendency toward combination is exceedingly strong; that the movement has advanced much further in Germany, England, and Austria than in France; and that in Italy, Spain, and the Balkan states only the beginnings of such a movement seem to have been made. These facts seem to confirm the general impression that the principle of industrial combination exists in all countries in which industry has passed beyond the primitive stages. Professor Jenks even goes so far as to say that up to a certain point one can almost measure the degree of industrial progress by the extent to which the different industries have become organized into industrial combinations of some form or other.

two articles upon the late Ameer of Afghanistan, one by Sir Lepel Griffin, the other by Colonel Hanna, which are noticed elsewhere.

MILITARY CRIME.

THE FUTURE OF THE GOLD SUPPLY.

Prof. N. S. Shaler, of Harvard, contributes an interesting paper on “The Future of the Gold Supply." Taking into account the rapid improvement in the methods of vein mining, especially through the intervention of power drills, more effective explosives, better hoisting systems, and more efficient methods of treating the ores, Professor Shaler estimates that on the average, in terms of labor, it probably does not at present cost one-third as much to win and treat a given amount of metal from underground mines as it did in 1830. Still further cheapening may be looked for by the application of electricity produced by water powers. Then, too, the chemical improvements, particularly the cyanide process, have operated to increase greatly the field that can be profitably exploited. Professor Shaler ventures the assertion that at anything like the present prices of labor the yield from the underground mines is likely within twenty years to exceed five hundred millions per annum, and to be maintained at this, or an even greater rate, for many decades. A far greater increase in the gold supply is to be looked for, however, from the alluvial deposits. The effect of the augmentation in the production of gold, such as there seems good reason to anticipate, will undoubtedly be an increase in prices. The resulting increase in the cost of mining gold would,

Maj. Arthur Griffiths writes on “ Military Crime and Its Treatment.” He mentions that such crime was most prevalent during the earlier part of the Boer war, and that that was owing to the lenient way in which it was treated. This lenient punishment was soon changed, and after a time offenders were sent home to convict and other prisons. The percentage of courtmartial sentences for serious crimes diminishes steadily every year.

SHOOTING. Mr. Sydney Buxton, M. P., writes on shooting, dealing with many sides of the sport. We quote the following paragraph :

“It may be fairly said that the better the shot, the less the cruelty ; the worse the shot, the greater the cruelty; and, humanly speaking, no one ought to shoot until he can shoot well. The good shot-unless wickedly tempted by his proficiency to fire very long shots -kills far more often than he wounds; the bird flies into the center of the charge. The bad shot, on the other hand, wounds as often as, perhaps more often than, he kills, for he catches the bird with the outside pellets, he hits it behind and below, and not in a vital spot. Moreover, he is more likely to misjudge distances ; or, on the off-chance of killing, to indulge in that gratuitous form of cruelty-the long shot. This comparison holds true, I verily believe, except when birds are coming at a terrific rate down wind ; then, while the bad shot does not touch a feather, the good shot wounds a larger proportion than usual.”

MAETERLINCK AND JUSTICE.

Maurice Maeterlinck, the Flemish mystic, writes an article of a dozen pages upon what he calls “The Mystery of Justice," the essence of which is that there is no providence, that there is no justice in the universe outside ourselves. It is not in things, but in us, that the justice of things resides. We ascribe to the universe,

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