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ARTICLE X.

TEACHERS' QUALIFICATIONS, CERTIFICATES AND CONTRACTS.

Section 265. Superintendent to determine teachers' qualifications

266. Qualified teacher.

267. State certificates.

268. Examination for state certificates.

269. College graduates' certificate.

270. Endorsement of foreign diplomas and certificates.

271. Temporary licenses.

272. Normal school diploma.

273. Instruction of teachers in universities and colleges.

274. Other certificates.

275. Special qualifications.

276. Revocation of teachers' authority.

277. Additional grounds of revocation.

278. Notice of revocation.

279. Teachers' contracts.

280. Limitations on agreement.

281. Teachers' wages; when payable.

282. When wages not a district charge.

283. Teachers' record of attendance.

284. Dismissal of teacher.

[General note.-- This article contains what is intended to be a complete revision of the law relating to teachers' qualifications, certificates, and contracts. The jurisdiction of the superintendent is declared in the first section, and it is believed that he should have exclusive supervision of this subject. As the head of the department of public instruction he is responsible for the

conduct of the schools and for the qualifications of teachers selected therefor. His jurisdiction and supervision as to the. qualifications of teachers and granting licenses to teach should be absolute and exclusive. The subject of certificates has been rewritten, and an effort has been made to make a more complete classification thereof. The authority conferred by normal graduate certificates has been enlarged and a new provision inserted in relation to the education of teachers in universities and colleges.]

$265. Superintendent to determine teachers' qualifications.

- The superintendent has exclusive jurisdiction to determine the

qualifications of teachers in the public schools. The merit and

fitness of candidates shall be ascertained so far as practicable

by examinations, which, so far as practicable, shall be competi

tive. The superintendent shall prescribe rules relating to exami.

nations and certificates or other authority to teach.

[New.]

$ 266. Qualified teacher.- A qualified teacher is one who holds

the certificate, diploma or license authorized by this article, and

which has not been revoked or annulled.

[Con. School Law, tit. VII, part of $ 38, as amended by L. 1896, chap. 264, rewritten without intended change, except the limitation as to the age of persons who may be qualified to teach is included in § 275 of revision.]

(Page 45, $ 38.)

§ 267. State certificates.- The superintendent may grant a cer

tificate of qualification to teach. Such certificate shall be known

as a state certificate.

It entitles the holder thereof to teach in

any public school without further examination or requirement.

[Con. School Law, tit. I, part of § 10, rewritten without intended change.]

(Page 7, § 10.)

$ 268. Examination for state certificates.--A state certificate

can be granted only after an examination of the applicant. The

superintendent shall determine the time, place and manner of

such examination, and may designate persons to conduct the

same and report the result to him. An examination for a state

certificate shall be held at least once in each year, and publio

notice thereof shall be given by the superintendent.

[Con. School Law, tit. I, part of g 10, rewritten without intended change.]

(Page 7, § 10.)

$ 269. College graduates' certificate. The superintendent may

grant a certificate to a graduate of a registered college or univer

sity who has had three years' experience as a teacher, authorizing

him to teach in such schools and for such time, not exceeding

ten years, as may be fixed therein. Such certificate is known as

a college graduate's certificate. Such a certificate may be re

newed from time to time by the superintendent.

[Con. School Law, tit. I, part of $ 10, rewritten without in. tended change, except that we prescribe the time a college graduate's certificate is to continue in force subject to the power of the superintendent to revoke the same.]

(Page 7, § 10.)

$ 270. Endorsement of foreign diplomas and certificates.—The

superintendent may endorse:

1. A diploma issued by a state normal school in another state;

2. A certificate issued by a state superintendent of public in. Such endorsement confers on the holder of such diploma or

struction or state board of education in another state.

certificate the privileges conferred by law on the holder of a

normal school diploma or state certificate issued in this state.

[Con. School Law, tit. I, part of § 10, rewritten without intended change.]

(Page 7, § 10.)

$ 271. Temporary licenses.—The superintendent may issue a

temporary license to teach for a period not exceeding six months,

limited to a particular school or commissioner district.

[Con. School Law, tit. I, part of § 10, rewritten without intended change.]

(Page 7, § 10.)

§ 272. Normal school diploma.-A diploma granted by a state

normal school, when signed by the superintendent, the chair

man and secretary of the local board, and the principal of the

school, entitles the holder thereof to teach in the public schools,

without further examination.

[L. 1866, chap. 466, § 6, rewritten without intended change.] (Page 141, $ 6.)

$ 273. Instruction of teachers in universities and colleges.-- If

a university or college in this state maintains an education depart

ment or teachers' training class, and the course and period of in.

struction therein are approved by the state superintendent, he

shall, after satisfactory examination under his direction, issue to

every graduate of such department or class a certificate of qualifi

cation to teach in any public school, valid for a period of three

years; and after a holder thereof shall have had three years' suc

cessful experience in teaching, the superintendent may grant to him a certificate which shall entitle him to teach in any publio

school without further examination or requirement. The super

intendent may at any time visit and inspect such education de

partment or training class.

[New.]

$ 274. Other certificates. The superintendent may also pro

vide other certificates, to be issued to teachers after such examin

ation, on such conditions, and for such time not exceeding five

years, as he may prescribe. Such certificates may be classified

by grades or by schools or otherwise.

[New.]

$ 275. Special qualifications.- Power to grant authority to

teach is subject to the following limitations:

1. A person cannot be authorized to teach in the public schools

who is under eighteen years of age; or

2. Who has not passed a satisfactory examination in physiology

and hygiene, with special reference to the effects of alcoholic

drinks and stimulants upon the human system.

3. In a city authorized to employ a superintendent of schools,

a person shall not be employed or licensed to teach in the primary

or grammar schools who has not:

a. Completed a four years' course in and graduated from a high

school, academy or other institution of learining of equal or

higher rank having a course of study, approved by the state super

intendent, and subsequent to such graduation graduated from a

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