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garrisons. He bore, in fact, a strong resemblance to Philip II. of Spain. They had both been educated for empire, and both possessed considerable talents, natural or acquired. Both were brave, industrious, and sagacious, and both sustained with signal constancy the ills of fortune. But both also were, perhaps from the very fact of their having been bred in the expectancy of vast dominion, far inferior to their predecessors. With less experience and original resources, they were equally despotic and exacting, more self-willed and obstinate, less fit to turn victory to account, and less versatile in retrieving the losses of defeat. Both were cruel from suspicion and resentment, both were bigoted to the faith in which they had been reared, and both sacrificed to their superstitious zeal the affection of their subjects and the security of their dominions. While history, therefore, dwells upon the memory of neither with respect or pity, fidelity to truth requires that their misdeeds should be weighed in the same balance of justice as that wherein the faults of their adversaries are measured ; and if circumstances are to be allowed to aggravate or mitigate reproach, history's duty is to mete out carefully the blame which is due. It is necessary to remind those who really desire to know the truth how distrustfully we are bound to read all that is written in apology or eulogy of triumphant aggression? The beaten are always worthless, the victors always great and good ; a thousand influences of selfishness or sympathy, consciously or unconsciously, combine to tinge the narrative of victory; but where are the annals of the conquered ? who shall bring garlands to the nameless grave ? Of Tippoo Saib we may not err widely if we content ourselves with saying, that from all we have been enabled to glean from out the unfruitful stubble-field of military memoir, we infer that he was not much worse than other men who have been placed in similar situations elsewhere. His indifference to human life was probably about the same as that of Louis le Grand or Nicholas I., of Alba, Strafford, or Radetzky. His reluctance to employ any one holding religious opinions different from his own was probably as intolerant and oppressive as that of the most Christian Ferdinand VII., or the most religious and gracious George III.

Towards the close of 1789 an incident occurred which led to what is called the third war with Mysore. Two forts belonging to the Dutch stood at the mouth of an estuary near the frontier lines of Travancore, and being threatened by Tippoo, their commandant, under the terms of a subsisting treaty, called on the Rajah to aid in defending them, or, if he would not, to become their purchaser. Against this Tippoo protested. The Dutch had no right, as he averred, to alienate a possession for which they paid tribute to the Rajah of Cochin, who in turn owed him fealty. The facts were disputed, and he proceeded to force the lines, whence he was repulsed with serious loss. Mr Holland, then acting President of Madras, proposed to send commissioners to inquire and negotiate. The Sultan did not forbid their coming, but said he had investigated the matter already, and he was confident as to the ground of his pretensions. Not long afterwards General Meadows became Governor, and instead of negotiating, prepared to interpose by arms. Tippoo wrote congratulating the General on his accession to the Government, and deprecating a rupture. “Notwithstanding the bonds of friendship were firmly established, in consequence of the representations, contrary to the fact, of certain shortsighted persons to the Governor, they had caused an army, to be assembled on each side.” As such an event was improper among those mutually in friendship, in order to clear it up Tippoo sent a person of dignity to explain the whole circumstances, that “the dust which had obscured the upright mind of the Governor might be removed.” 1 Meadows replied that he regarded as an insult the attack upon the Rajah of Travancore, who was under English protection ; and they must now abide the issue of war. The Sultan, being wholly unprepared, fell back with his army towards Seringapatam. Autumn was spent in the capture and recapture of places of secondary importance, and in strategic movements without decisive result..

1 Munro sneers at the bigotry of Tippoo in not employing any but Mohammedans in posts of confidence ; somewhat absurd this from an officer in an army where none but those of the orthodox sects of Christians were then eligible to hold command.

It is clear, that to repel the aggression, or, at most, to obtain for Travancore compensation for any loss it might have sustained, did not of necessity imply operations on a great scale, or the formation of a general league for the subjugation of Mysore. But the humiliation supposed to have been incurred by the treaty of Mangalore rankled in the minds of not a few of the military class, and the accounts of what had been achieved by the more daring and adventurous policy of Hastings in the eastern Presidency, stimulated the wish to try issues once more with the aspiring and pretentious Sultan. To vindicate the insulted majesty of Travancore, possession was taken of Baramahalin 1790, and from that hour to the present it has remained a revenue district of the Madras Presidency. We are not left to supposition or conjecture as to the designs with which the war was recommenced. Munro, one of the best and ablest officers engaged during this and the following period in the service, in his confidential letters, written in 1790, argues against the unsatisfactory nature of the attempt to hold a balance of power between the

1 Thornton's British India, p. 191.

native kingdoms. He says plainly, conquest is the true policy; and argues that the British revenue in the East might thereby with ease be trebled. “I do not mean that we should all at once attempt to extend ourselves so far, for it is at present beyond our power, but that we should keep the object in view, though the accomplishment of it should require a long series of years. The dissensions and revolutions of the native Governments will point out the time when it is proper for us to become actors. But it can never arrive while Tippoo exists."} Why not remove so formidable an enemy?

Accordingly, for this purpose, Lord Cornwallis concluded a league with the Mahrattas and the Nizam, identical in substance, and with some curious points of coincidence in phraseology, with that which was signed in 1795 by the sovereigns of Russia, Austria, and Prussia, for the dismemberment of Poland. By the terms of this holy alliance, Nana Farnavis on the part of the Pagans, Nizam Ali on the part of the Mussulmans, and the Viceroy as representative of Christian England, undertook to bring into the field proportionate contingents of troops and guns, and not to make

, peace until half its provinces should have been reft from Mysore and parcelled out amongst them. Baramahal, won and lost in the former war, was again overrun, and this time retained securely. The Viceroy proceeded to Madras, and early in the spring assumed command of the army in person. The whole of 1791 was spent in the reduction of strong places and in conflicts, the most sanguinary of which was that of Arikera, about six miles from the capital, which was not, however, invested until the following year. The outworks were stormed on the night of 6th February, and after losing in killed, wounded, and deserters 20,000 men, Tippoo sub

Memoirs of Munro, vol. i.




mitted to the terms imposed by Lord Cornwallis ; one half his dominions to be ceded to the allies adjacent to their respective boundaries and agreeably to their selection, while three crores were to be paid for the expenses of the

Two of Tippoo's sons were to be detained as hostages for the fulfilment within a year of the pecuniary conditions.

When the preliminaries were signed, and the youthful hostages had been, with great state, conveyed into the camp, they were confided to the care of the Viceroy, who embraced them and gave them the assurance of his paternal solicitude while in captivity. The dramatic incidents of the scene have been preserved by the pencil of Singleton ; and Lord Cornwallis for a few days felt that he was playing successfully the part of Scipio.

But the fine gold of magnanimity soon grew dim. In utter disregard of the terms of the preliminaries, Coorg, on the Malabar coast, containing 2165 square miles, was demanded among the cessions to the Company, in addition to Dindigul and Baramahal. Tippoo inquired in vain to the territories of which of his conquerors it lay near, and scornfully asked why no hint had been dropped of this further humiliation until his children had been parted from him, and a large portion of the war-mulet paid. In his anger he threatened to resume the offensive; and had he known accurately how much sickness and want of stores had weakened his assailants, he might with difficulty have been dissuaded from putting his threat into execution. Coorg had been subdued by his father, and ruled with such rigour by him, that the Rajah, Vira Rajendra, invoked English aid to recover his independence. Lord Cornwallis was obliged to own that the principality did not fall within the

scope of the preliminaries; but he set up in extenuation of the breach of faith proposed that it would be ungenerous

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