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were badly demoralized. When a treated to a graphic picture of ship"case" was out of “sorts" he would wreck, by newspaper artists who have the boys use anything that never saw either the ship nor the came handy. He thought the figure locality of the wreck. I a good substitute for a lower case When there was a dearth of genu"T" and a cap "O" and a cipher wereine or “faked” sensations he kept synonymous. So a lower case p, d, his presses and his "patterers” busy b, and q would do duty for each by issuing ballads, like "Poor Bessy other by inversion, and if Roman was a Sailor's Bride," "Jack Junk of letters gave out italic was always at Wapping Old Stairs," "John Anderhand. His receipts were almost en- son my Joe,” “Fair Phæbe and her tirely in pennies, and these he trans- Dark-eyed Sailor,” “My Pretty ported to the Bank of England in Jane," "The Bleeding Heart,” etc., sacks in a hackney-coach. His all “illustrated.” Christmas carols neighbors were fearful of contagion were also in order, with what now if they accepted his coin until he hit seem to be horrible caricatures of upon the expedient of boiling in a sacred subjects. Gothic churches solution of copperas and vinegar, and people in modern costume were making them look as bright as not incongruous to his patrons with when newly coined. He paid shis New Testament stories. workmen in pennies, and a week's Catnach retired from business in wages required the assistance of 1839, after more than a quarter of a wives and children to take them century of industrious and succesful home, their weight being largely in effort, and he died soon afterward excess of the present coinage. He leaving a considerable estate. He had trouble, too with counterfeits, was so in love with the stock and these accumulated so that he phrases out of which he had coined paved a back-kitchen floor with money, or else he had a grim sense them, imbedded in cement.

of humor, for he headed his last will Illustrations were not easily pro- and testament with “The Last Dycured in Catnach's day, and he be- ing Speech of James Catnach, etc.” came his own designer and wood- His biographer has this to say of his engraver. Quite a collection of his work: wood-cuts is given in the “memorial

"It is gratifying to be able to record that volume.” As compared with mod

what the late Mr. Catnach was to the ern processes of illustration it is not masses in the way of news provider some easy to decide whether his poetry forty years ago, the penny papers are now,

with this exception, that the former tended or his pictures were the more crude

to lower and degrade their pursuit after and exasperating. His use of cuts knowledge, while the latter on the conwas on a par with his use of type,

trary improve and elevate them, while

they amuse and instruct each one who and one picture served often to il peruses their contents. With the march of lustrate quite dissimilar stories. He intellect, and the thirst for knowledge soon learned, besides, that certain

blended with the desire for truth, out went

to a great extent the penny broad-sheet. crimes and tragedies were likely to Several persons made the attempt to reoccur from time to time and he pre

vive it long after the death of the great pared for them by a combination of

original Jeremy Catnach, but without suchis imagination and his graver's tools, just as nowadays we are The morbid mentality of the public was the condition that made Cat- Among the stock material to be nach's success possible. He had worked off when there was no availonly to bring out a sheet with a few able sensation, one of the most popglaring lines—“Murder, one penny,” ular was “The Perpetual Almanack, “Horrible,” “Barbarous,” “Love, one or gentleman soldier's prayer book," penny,” “Coal Cellar," "Pool of a story of a soldier who was arBlood,” “Former Crimes,” “Nine rested for playing cards in a church, Children," "Mysterious,” etc., to and his ingenious defence that he catch the public eye and ear, and used the cards as an almanac, a their loose pennies as well. In time prayer-book and an epitome of biblithe crying of these wares became an cal history. This creed has become art, and writers of both prose and a classic, in a way, and makes peren"poetry” were enlisted to dress the rial appearances in various "notes story thus hinted at in the most and queries” receptacles. gruesome form. One of these effu- One of Mr. Catnach's characterissions begins thus:


tic effusions, which was found

among his papers after his death "Now, my friends, here you have, just consisted of nineteen stanzas each printed and published, the life, trial, char

capped by an explanatory note of acter, confession behavior and condemnation of that unfortunate malefactor Rich which the following are detached ard Wilberforce who was executed on samples: Monday last for the most horrible, dreadful and wicked murder of Sarah Spriggens, a lady's maid. young and handsome. It's The hero claims the attention of virtuthe most foul and horrible murder that ous persons, and leads them to anticipate ever graced the annals of British history. a painful disclosure. Here, my customers, you may read his execution on the fatal scaffold. You may

Draw hither now good people all, also read how he met his victim in a dark And let my story warn; and lonesome wood, and what he did to For I. will tell to you a tale, her-for a half-penny; and further you What will rend them breasts of yourn. read how he brought her to London, and after that comes the murder, which is

The revelation of his name and profesworth all the money! And you read how

sion; and subsequent avowal of his guilt. the ghost appeared to him and then to her parents. Then comes the capture of the

James Guffin is my hated name, villain; also the trial, sentence and execu

And a footman I'm by trade; tion, showing how the ghost was in the

And I do confess that I did slay, act of putting his leg on one side, and 'the

My poor fellow-servant mail. old gentleman' a pulling the other, waiting He is led away by passions. for his victim (my good friends excuse

X my tears) etc., etc."

I thought Sarey Leigh warn't true to me,

So all pity then despising, This was followed by some forty Sure I was tempted by the devil lines of doggerel describing the

To give to her some p'isin. event. The wicked man says:

Remorse and self-examination.


Oh! why did I form of Sarey Leigh "And justice followed every step,

Such cruel unjust opinions,
Though often I did cry;

When my young master did her find
And the cruel Judge and Jury

Beneath the bed of inions.
Condemned me for to die.

His last words convey a moral lesson. And in a cell as cold as death

I always was afraid,

Take warning, then, all you as would For Sarah she was with me

Not die like malefactors;
Although I killed her dead-

Never the company for to keep
For only a half-penny.” Of them with bad characters.

The records of the time indicate these are "The House that Jack that "literature” was not particu- Built," "The Death and Burial oi larly remunerative. “I gets," says Cock Robin,” “Jack and Jill,” “Litone of the fraternity, “I gets a shill- tle Tom Tucker," "Jack Sprat,” ing a copy for the verses written by “The Life and Death of Jenny the wretched culprit the night previ- Wren," "Old Dame Trot and Her ous to his execution.” Another says, Comical Cat,” “Mother Muggins "Its the same poet as does 'em all, and Her Dog Trap,” “Jumping and for the same tip; no more nor Joan,” “The Old Woman of Stepa bob for nothing." This seems ney," "Jack Jingle,” “Old Mother hardly fair to genius, in view of the Goose and the Golden Egg," "Punch enormous sales of some of the pub- and Judy,” “Simple Simon,” “Cinlications of this class of work. Thus derilla,” “The Children in the the following schedule of sales of Wood," "The Forty Thieves,” etc. the most notorious stories of crime The period covered by this volof the period shows that more ume is not remote, but the story it might have been afforded:

tells and illustrates seems antique.

The world has moved with rapid Of Rush's murder 2,400,000 copies strides. Public taste has in some Of the Mannings


measure advanced, and the printer Of Courvoisier

1,606,000 Of Greenaere

1,650,000 "

and illustrator have more than kept Of Corder (Maria Martin) 1,166,000 “ pace with the improved taste, but.

the thoughtful observer will discover Catnach had a steady trade in that sensationalism and the love of coarsely printed and more coarsely horrors is not dead, nor is the facillustrated literature for children, of ulty of inventions of “tales of blood which there are generous selections and worms" yet passed into a stage in the memorial volume. Among of innocuous desuetude.

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Grandma's Surrender


RANDMA DAWSON sat on have been so lonesome for me after U the side porch paring apples father died; but then, they're both

for an old-time concoction in glory and I thank the good called "pan-dowdy.” Her lips were Lord.” moving, but gave no sound. . Grandma was about to begin

“I'm glad I went for these apples singing her favorite hymn of praise, myself and got the right kind. The “All Hail the Power of Jesus' pork is just right too, and John cer- Name,” when her attention was tainly will enjoy the pan-dowdy like arrested by the voices of her he used to when he was a boy daughter-in-law and her intimate He's picked up a great deal since I friend, Mrs. Jones. They had just came and cooked things we had returned from a missionary meetthen.”

ing. Her visit had lengthened from “Oh! yes,” said John's wife, in the proposed three weeks to three response to some remark of her months and once in a while she friend, "she does potter around a cheerfully announced the intention good deal, but I don't call it helpof staying until spring.

ing. I have to keep a girl all the "Why, of course, mother," John same, and Bridget finds a good would say, "you can just as well as deal of fault about having two misnot. Your house is closed and tresses. She has coddled John uncousin Amos and Martha have the til he thinks he's almost an invalid, tenant house now and the farm will and she spoils Benny petting him. be cared for."

She worries the girls about taking Grandma was no pessimist and care of their clothes, and fusses at never on the alert for slights and Angeline and Lorena about putting insults. She did not notice that on aprons as soon as they come John's wife failed to second his cor- home from school. She's dreadful dial invitation and John generally close. She would wear an old bomavoided her remonstrating gaze. bazine dress to church last Sunday

"I've had a beautiful time,” mused because it looked like rain. We she. “I see how everything has were really ashamed of her. turned out for the best, though it “Stephen Porter is waiting on was pretty hard for father and me Sybil, you know; he can't get away to give up the idea of John staying from his business in Dexter often on the farm and coming here to be and generally comes Saturday a store-keeper. We both saw he evenings and grandma always wasn't stout enough for farm work comes in the room with her knitand this opening was providential. ting and tells stories about old If only Miriam had lived, it wouldn't times. The other evening when

the clock struck ten, Stephen said out of the closet and began packhe didn't know it was so late and ing it. She laid Benny's mittens, he would have to run to catch the and the half dozen pairs of stocktrain. Grandma went with Sybil ings she had knit for John, on the and him to the door, and told how bureau. “Good warm ones, with much she enjoyed his visits.”

long legs, like he used to have at Grandma held her knife and apple home,” she said to herself. suspended. She almost gasped at Supper was a quiet meal. Bridget the idea of Sybil thinking of mar- had been scolding about having so riage. Then she remembered that much to do and threatened to leave, Sybil was nineteen years old, and which depressed John's wife greatly. she herself was married at eighteen. As John was returning to the store

"Are you going to alter your after supper, he turned to give home?" inquired Mrs. Jones.

Benny a letter for grandma, which "We intended to make the room he had forgotten. grandma occupies into a parlor. We Cousin Amos had written to tell thought of putting in a bow window of a storm that created havoc at the on the south side and getting new farm and wanted grandma to come furniture. The girls need a par- home to see about repairs. She was lor; but it's uncertain now, for dressed in her travelling costume grandma wants to stay till spring.” when she appeared at breakfast,

"Well, I must go,” said Mrs. and announced her intention of Jones. "I hope you won't be as taking the early train for home. unlucky as Mrs. Ross. Her mother. She created some consternation by in-law came on a visit and had a informing John that she should shock and has been bedfast for have to ask him to pay the last five two years. These old people are hundred dollars she had loaned him. liable to give out any time.”

The prospect for the bay window "Old !” thought grandma, “sixty- and new furniture faded in the dim five isn't old," and she straightened distance. up more erect than ever and re- Grandma's spirits rose and her sumed her work. She was almost cheerfulness returned as she seated dazed, but notwithstanding the pan- herself in the train. “Thank the dowdy was a success.

good Lord, I've a home of my own "It must be true,” she concluded, and am independent,” thought she. “that listeners never hear any good Her heart gave a joyful bound as of themselves. I'm a meddling old the old mountain appeared, and woman and have been making mis- grew lighter as she recognized chief ever since I've been here." familiar landmarks.

John seemed preoccupied at din “There,” she said, almost auner; evidently something had gone dibly, “if Deacon Woodbury hasn't wrong at the store. He simply painted his house pea-green, and said the pan-dowdy was good, in Captain Sanders has built a new answer to his mother's question. fence!” After dinner, grandma went to her She was in a quiver of excitement room, instead of going to the kitchen as the train stopped at the little to help Bridget wash the dishes. station. It was a mile to the farm: She drew her trunk mechanically but after giving some directions

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