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on May 19, at the age of sixty-three. His son Ferdinand is death-stricken with an incurable malady. After him the throne will go to Archduke Otto, un. less he abdicates in favor of his son Charles, of whom nothing is known but his youth. Fortunately, Francis Joseph, although he has been on the throne for 'forty-eight years, is only sixty-six years oldquite a young man as monarchs go. It is to be hoped that he may live a long time yet, for his demise would alınost inevitably let loose the winds which are imprisoned in that cave of Æolus-the Empire Kingdom.

All this changing and installation of Pretender in rulers seems to have spurred the Duc France.

will not take part, either directly or indirectly, in the politics of the republic. The four principals, who had been condemned to death, were released upon payment of $125,000 each, and Col. Rhodes, brother of Mr. Cecil Rhodes was banished from the Transvaal. It is significant of the condition to which President Krüger has succeeded in reducing his adversaries that this decree should have been received with an outburst of gratitude. When Mr. Krüger, in the old days, arranged for the commutation of the sentences of the Free State burghers, whom he had compromised by his filibustering foray, he squared the matter for a five-pound note ; but nowadays a fine of £2000 and perpetual political disability is held to be a crowning act of mercy for which the recipients and their friends ought to be profoundly grateful. The English papers all think that President Krüger exacts a heavy price for treason ; but we in America think the Uitlanders are to be congratulated upon their easy escape from a scrape which might well have cost them their necks.

Mr. Rhodes is still occupied in the Mata

bele rising, and both at Cape Town and in Charter.

London his share in the recent events continues to be very hotly discussed. The Cape Parliament, after a long debate, has refused to pass a resolution demanding the abrogation of the charter, and this more drastic resolution has been shunted in favor of a proposal to make an inquiry into the share the Cape government had in the raid. Mr. Cham berlain promised that a Paliamentary inquiry shall take place, but he postponed it until after the issue of Dr Jameson's trial, which means that the inquiry will not open till next January. More telegrams have been published by President Krüger, but they do not advance matters any further than they were before. Sir Hercules Robinson will be in London before these pages see the light, and until he arrives matters will probably remain pretty much as they are at present. Sir William Harcourt made the publication of the cipher telegrams the occasion for a vehement attack on the Chartered Company in the House of Commons, to which Mr. Chamberlain re. plied not without spirit.

Mr. Rhodes
and the

d'Orleans into action. This young man Philip VII. of France, as he is de jure, although not de facto-has practically dismissed the Royalist Committee for objecting to his standing as candidate for a rural constituency :

If you thivk that the French monarchy was constructed in the past and can be reconstructed in the future, by the affectation of inert and expectant dignity standing motionless on distants hores because of the greatness of it stradi. tions, and deeming itself too lofty to mix with men and things, we are not of one mind, and I remain the judge of royal dignity.

So the Duc d'Audiffret-Pasquier and the respectable royalist do-nothings with their“ vain distrust of universal suffrage are sent to the right-about, and Philip VII. will henceforth rule by divine right over his own candidature. He seems to have pluck and dash, and in the dreary monotony of Republican mediocrity these qualities, even in a pretender, may count for more than people imagine.

Strange, almost incredible though it may
appear, the assassination of the Shah has

not been followed by civil war.
cessor so far has not even been threatened with the
bloody struggle which, according to almost unbroken
tradition, tests the divine right of the new Shah.
Russia and England are pulling together at Te-
heran ; but if either one of them were but to hint
that they would prefer another Shah, Persia would
be delivered over to the flames of civil war.

The death of Cardinal Galimberti removes one of the Papabili, or persons who are in the running for the Papacy on the death of Leo XIII. Readers of M. Zola's remarkable study on The Rome of To day will not need to be reminded of the commotion which such a displacement of personality may effect in the sacred college.

From South Africa somewhat pacific President Kruger

news bas at last arrived. After conHostages.

siderable fencing and maneuvring, President Krüger has released all State prisoners, including the four principals. The fine of $10,000 apiece was not remitted, and the punishment of banishment remains in force ; but its execution is suspended in the case of the prisoners who pay their fines and give their written word of honor that they


Other Thrones.

His suc

and his

Lord Rosebery went down to Newton
Cecil Rhodes
and William of Abbot shortly after, and made a speech

which, so far as South Africa was concerned, was little more than Harcourt and water. Lord Rosebery might have been inspired by the genius of the place to an utterance which would have been somewhat less Harcourtian than that in which he indulged. Newton Abbot was the place where William of Orange first hoisted his standard on English soil. The monument commemorating this fainous episode in English history stands con. spicuous in the main street of Newton Abbot close to the place where Lord Rosebery was speaking. Newton Abbot therefore represents the union be. tween the Dutch and English for the pur

ni curing liberty and Parliamentary governi *


of se.

nhir an

The Commercial

Revival in London.

enthusiastic support of the whole teaching profes. sion and lay a firm foundation for the emancipation of the teacher, who too often at present is compelled to serve as the unhappy Gibeonite of the parson.

The long continued winter of com. mercial distrust seems to have disap

peared in England, and in the City they have entered once more upon a period of company-promoting and financial speculation. Strikes are recurring here and there, which are a certain sign of a change, either upward or downward; and if the governinent should hurry through its Light Railway bill, there is reason to believe there would be no lack of money for carrying out schemes already projected for bringing the light lines into the heart of the English counties. The bicycle industry has at last been firmly established on the London Stock Exchange, and if Parliament passes the bill authorizing the use of horseless carriages, there will be another great stimulus given to a form of enterprise that could hardly fail to give new life to many a district which by the growth of great towns and great railways is left stranded.

oppressed majority. And Englishmen are also reminding the Dutch that William of Orange, while preparing for his expedition, entered into what the Free State burghers would call a “ bloody complot, with a deliberation and a cynical disregard of obligations arising out of the cornity of nations, to an extent which throws the worst that can be alleged against Mr. Rhodes into comparative insignificance. If James II, had been as prompt to deal with the invasion as President Krüger was to settle acounts with Dr. Jameson, we should probably have had William of Orange and his fellow conspirators branded as the greatest criminals of history. For: tunately for England, however, the Dutch filibuster succeeded, and by virtue of his success became one of the national heroes of Great Britain. Some day statues to Cecil Rhodes may be erected in the streets of Pretoria by the descendants of the men who have now exhausted the resources of the Taal in holding him up to popular execration.

In English home affairs there is but lit. Progress

tle to record. The ministers have used by Closure.

the closure somewhat relentlessly in order to thrust the Education bill and Rating bill through the House of Commons. In the case of the Rating bill, a continuous sitting of twenty-two and a half hours-during which Mr. John Dillon, Mr. Lloyd George and several other members were suspended—was the practical method by which the op. position manifested their dislike to the dragooning methods of Mr. Balfour. It is, however, only natural that the Ministers having a majority, and a big one, should feel that they would be forgiven a good deal of high-handedness in using it, while they would never be forgiven a lack of capacity to wield the weapon which constituencies have placed in their hands. The objection

The Education bill, notwithstanding

the large majority with which the Education Bill.

second reading was carried, has not gained in popularity as its provisions are discussed. The ecclesiastics are no doubt supporting it, but there is a strong feeling among the teachers in opposition to a measure which is certainly not calculated to improve their status or to improve education. Even Mr. Diggle and his reactionary followers on the London School Board are revolting against the bill, and when it comes to be considered in committee it will probably be found that great changes, chiefly in the way of omission, are indispensable. But if it is to be successfully attacked it will have to be assailed from the educationalists' standpoint, not from the point of view that is taken up by the more active Nonconformists, who by advocating what they call the teaching of undenominational religion in the Board schools, have put themselves out of court. If the Liberals were to concentrate their efforts upon securing the teachers from arbitrary d sal, in the same way that workhouse officia safeguarded against injustice on the parto. oard of Guardians, they would secure the

Nothing fresh is reported from the Nile, Sepoys for

where cholera is raging; but the original Suakim.

scheme of garrisoning Suakim with Se. poys is being carried out, notwithstanding the veiled menace of the extension of the Russian railway toward Herat. On the other side of Africa, in the Congo Free State, the trial of Major Lothaire for the judicial murder of Mr. Stokes has resulted in his acquittal. An appeal will probably be lodged, and it remains to be seen whether the superior court will approve of a decision which seems to set at defiance both law and justice. In Abyssinia the [talians are retiring within limits which can be defended without a ruinous expenditure of men and money, while the victorious army of King Menelek has been experiencing reverses which will probably tend to make it less difficult to deal with when the final settlement comes.

to the

The Ottoman Einpire is like a smoulderThe Trouble ing heap of burning refuse. It reeks all in Crete

over with smoke, and sometimes when the wind blows it bursts into flame. But as no one can say on what side of the rubbish heap the wind will play, so no one can predict where the flame will appear. All the provinces smoulder with discontent, and every now and then, under some unseen influence, that discontent leaps forth into active in. surrection. Last month it was the turn of Crete, where there has been blooody work by the Turks in Canea, apparently by way of reprisals for the insurrectionary movement of the Christians in the hills. It is more dangerous to kill Greeks than Armenians; Crete, moreover, is accessible to warships, and the Sultan has therefore been sternly told that Europe will stand no nonsense in the Mediterranean. It is


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rather hard upon the local Mussulmans, who will ciology, and political science. Throngh his long life feel themselves most cruelly deprived of privileges he was a consistent Republican. He was a member which their brother True Believers enjoy to the full of various cabinets, besides serving as prime min. in Anatolia; but necessity knows no law, and how ister for awhile some twenty years ago. He was ever disagreeable it may be, the Sultan will have to one of the most eminent members of the French stop the massacre in Crete.

academy, and, like the late Léon Say, was an ex

pounder of the accepted English ideas of political The eminent French statesman and

economy. M. Simon was at the very centre of the The Late

scholar, Senator Jules Simon, died on Jules Simon.

best influences in French politics and French statesthe 8th of June in his 830 year. More

manship, and his death is a loss to his country and chan sixty years ago he was a professor of philos to the world. ophy in the normal school at Paris and a rising young leader in the intellectual world. He soon be

The death in Hawaii of Miss Kate Field came a professor in the Sorbonne, where he re

of has been made the occasion of many mained for a dozen years. He entered active polit

tributes to the memory of this gifted ical life just fifty years ago, and during all this half

American woman. Miss Field was possessed of re. century has at no time been without marked polit markable versatility, and was the foremost woman ical influence. His pen was active during a period journalist of this generation. Her convictions were of more than sixty years, and besides a vast volume clear and strong, and her courage unshakable. For of contributions to French journalism and periodical many years she had contended against ill health and literature, he has left behind him a shelf full of val had borne burdens which nothing but her uncon. uable works in the fields of philosophy, ethics, so querable will could have sustained.


Kate Field.

(From May 18 to June 18, 1896.)


MAJOR J. W. THOMAS, President of Tennessee Centennial.

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UR daily record of the doings of Congress (see RE

VIEW OF REVIEWS for January-June, 1896) closed last month on May 16, and is continued below to June 11, the date of final adjournment of the first session of the Fifty-fourth Congress. This was the shortest "long "session of Congress in thirty years. Comparatively few measures of great importance were passed. Much of the time was devoted to the discussion of international questions. The tangible results of this discussion were the creation of the Venezuelan Boundary Commission and the passage of resolutions recognizing the belligerent rights of the Cuban insurgents, but these latter had no further effect than to voice the sentiments of the Senate and House of Representatives on the Cuban question.

Of some economic importance were the bills repealing that clause in the Wilson tariff act which gave a rebate on alcohol used in the arts, and providing a tax on "filled" cheese ; both of these bills passed, and received President Cleveland's approval.

There was considerable legislation affecting the Terri. tories. Prize-fighting is now forbidden in the 'Territories by federal statute, and a year's residence is made a prerequisite to obtaining a divorce in a Territory. Bills for the admission of Arizona and New Mexico as States were favorably reported, and will probably be called up during the next session.

The House passed bills providing an educational test for immigrants, establishing a Labor Commission, and defining acts of bankruptcy. The Senate will probably deal with these measures next session.

Of the money bills, those which attracted most attention were the fortification and river and harbor bills. The latter was passed over President Cleveland's veto in the last days of the session.

The following table shows the appropriations made at this session, in comparison with those made at the last session of Congress.

Amount this Amount last Title,


session. Agriculture.

$3,255,532.00 $3,303,750.00 Army.

23,278,402.73 23,252,608.09 Diplomatic and consular.

1,642,558.76 1,574,458.76 District of Columbia..

5,905,082.48 5,745,443.25 Fortification....

5,397,888.00 1,904,557.50 Indian..

7,390,496.79 8,762, 751.24 Legislative, etc.

21,518,834.71 21,891, 718.08 Military Academy.


464,261.66 Navy

30,562,739.95 29,416,245.31 Pension...

141,3:28,580.00 111,381,570 00 Post Office.

92.571,564.22 89,545,997.86 River and harbor.

12,621,800.00 Sundry civil.

33,031, 152.19 46,568,160.40

Total.. Deficiencies..



$373,811.522 15



$396,280,660.49 $383,636,896.97 Miscellaneous (estimated for this session)...


297,667 37 Total, regular annual appropriation..

$396,705,660.49 $383,934,564.34 Permanent annual appropria

119,054,160.00 113,073,956.32 Grand total, regular and

permanent annual ap

propriations...... $515,759,820.49 $ 197,008,520.66 Net increase this session over last session......... $18,751,299.83


HON. TIMOTHY E. BYRNES, OF MINNEAPOLIS, Who managed the great convention at St. Louis in the

capacity of Sergeant-at-Arms.

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May 18.–The Senate decides against an investigation of the Alabama elections of 1895. ... The House passes' numerous minor bills under suspension of the rules.

May 19.–The Senate passes the District of Columbia appropriation bill (about $7,000,000).... The House discusses bills for the restriction of immigration.

May 20.— The Senate passes the fortifications appropriation bill ($10,763,888) and the amendment offered by Mr. Hill (Dem., N. Y.) to the copyright law, to prevent the piracy of dramatic and musical works.... The House passes the bill to place an educational restriction on immigration by a vote of 195 to 26.

May 21— The Senate agrees to the conference report on the sundry civil appropriation bill.... The House, by a vote of 196 to 47, passes a private pension bill over President Cleveland's veto.

May 22.— The Senate adopts the conference report on the river and harbor bill, and debates the bill of Mr. Butler (Pop., N. C.) to prohibit bond sales without the consent of Congress.... The House agrees to the conference report on the river and harbor bill.

May 23.—The Senate votes to table several revenue measures introduced as amendments to the "filled cheese" bill.... The House agrees to the conference report on the legislative, executive and judicial appropriation bill ($21,520,8:22).

May 25.— The Senate passes the general deficiency appropriation bill (about $10,000,000).... The House debates the bill to repeal the tariff rebate on alcohol used in the arts and sciences.

May 26.—The Senate debates the "filled cheese” bill

and the bill to prohibit bond sales.... The House, by a vote of 165 (104 Republicans, 56 Democrats and Populists) to 69 (60 Republicans and 9 Democrats), passes the bill to repeal the clause in the Wilson tariff law which provides for free alcohol in the arts and manufactures.

May 27.—The Senate rejects the amendment to the “ filled cheese " bill putting an extra tax of 75. cents a barrel on beer, ale and porter, by a vote of 34 to 27.... The House, by a vote of 111 to 97, concurs in the Senate amendments to the general deficiency appropriation bill appropriating money to pay the French claims and war claims.

May 28.–Both branches pass a resolution authorizing government aid to the people of St. Louis.

May 29.- The Senate passes the bill to repeal the free alcohol section of the Wilson law, and the bill to amend the list of fruits from which brandy may be distilled under the regulations.... The House considers the contested election case of Johnston (Rep.) against Stokes (Dem.)

June 1.–The Senate debates the Indian appropriation and the Butler bond sales bill.... The House decides that no legal election was held to fill the seat for the Seventh Virginia District.

June 2.—The Senate, by a vote of 32 to 25, passes the Butler bond bill.... The House passes the river and harbor bill over the veto of President Cleveland by a vote of 220 to 60. The contest of James M. Mitchell (Rep.) against James J. Walsh (Dem.) for the seat representing the Eighth New York District is decided against Walsh on the ground of bribery at the election.


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