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on May 19, at the age of sixty-three. His son Fer- will not take part, either directly or indirectly, in dinand is death-stricken with an incurable malady. the politics of the republic. The four principals, After him the throne will go to Archduke Otto, un. who had been condemned to death, were released less he abdicates in favor of his son Charles, of upon payment of $125,000 each, and Col. Rhodes, whom nothing is known but his youth. Fortunately, brother of Mr. Cecil Rhodes was banished from the Francis Joseph, although he has been on the throne Transvaal. It is significant of the condition to for forty-eight years, is only sixty-six years old- which President Krüger has succeeded in reducing quite a young man as monarchs go. It is to be bis adversaries that this decree should have been rehoped that he may live a long time yet, for his de- ceived with an outburst of gratitude. When Mr. mise would alınost inevitably let loose the winds Krüger, in the old days, arranged for the commuta. which are imprisoned in that cave of Æolus—the tion of the sentences of the Free State burghers, Empire Kingdom.

whom he had compromised by his filibustering

foray, he squared the matter for a five-pound note ; All this changing and installation of The

but nowadays a fine of £2000 and perpetual political Pretender in rulers seems to have spurred the Duc:

disability is held to be a crowning act of mercy for d'Orleans into action. This young man

which the recipients and their friends ought to be Philip VII. of France, as he is de jure, although not

profoundly grateful. The English papers all think de factohas practically dismissed the Royalist

that President Krüger exacts a heavy price for Committee for objecting to his standing as candidate

treason ; but we in America think the Uitlanders are for a rural constituency :

to be congratulated upon their easy escape from a If you thiuk that the French monarchy was constructed scrape which might well have cost them their necks. in the past and can be reconstructed in the future, by the affectation of inert and expectant dignity standing motion

Mr. Rhodes is still occupied in the Mata

Mr. Rhodes less on distants hores because of the greatness of it stradi.

bele rising, and both at Cape Town and in tions, and deeming itself too lofty to mix with men and

London his share in the recent events conthings, we are not of one mind, and I remain the judge of

tinues to be very hotly discussed. The Cape Parliaroyal dignity.

ment, after a long debate, has refused to pass a resoSo the Duc d'Audiffret-Pasquier and the respecta

lution demanding the abrogation of the charter, and ble royalist do-nothings with their“ vain distrust of

this more drastic resolution has been shunted in universal suffrage" are sent to the right-about, and

favor of a proposal to make an inquiry into the share Philip Vll. will henceforth rule by divine right over

the Cape government had in the raid. Mr. Cham his own candidature. He seems to have pluck and

berlain promised that a Paliamentary inquiry shall dash, and in the dreary monotony of Republican take place, but he postponed it until after the issue mediocrity these qualities, even in a pretender, may of Dr Jameson's trial, which means that the inquiry count for more than people imagine.

will not open till next January. More telegrams Strange, almost incredible though it may

have been published by President Krüger, but they appear, the assassination of the Shah has do not advance matters any further than they were not been followed by civil war.

before. Sir Hercules Robinson will be in London cessor so far has not even been threatened with the before these pages see the light, and until he arrives bloody struggle which, according to almost unbroken matters will probably remain pretty much as they tradition, tests the divine right of the new Shah. are at present. Sir William Harcourt made the Russia and England are pulling together at Te- publication of the cipher telegrams the occasion for heran ; but if either one of them were but to hint a vehement attack on the Chartered Company in the that they would prefer another Shah, Persia would

House of Commons, to which Mr. Chamberlain re. be delivered over to the flames of civil war. The

plied not without spirit. death of Cardinal Galimberti removes one of the Papabili, or persons who are in the running for the

Lord Rosebery went down to Newton Papacy on the death of Leo XIII. Readers of M.

and William of Abbot shortly after, and made a speech

Orange. Zola's remarkable study on The Rome of To day

which, so far as South Africa was conwill not need to be reminded of the commotion

cerned, was little more than Harcourt and water. which such a displacement of personality may effect

Lord Rosebery might have been inspired by the in the sacred college.

genius of the place to an utterance which would

have been somewhat less Harcourtian than that in From South Africa somewhat pacific President Kruger

which he indulged. Newton Abbot was the place news has at last arrived. After con- where William of Orange first hoisted his standard Hostages.

siderable fencing and maneuvring, on English soil. The monument commemorating President Krüger has released all State prisoners, this fainous episode in English history stands conincluding the four principals. The fine of $10,000 spicuous in the main street of Newton Abbot close apiece was not remitted, and the punishment of to the place where Lord Rosebery was speaking. banishment remains in force ; but its execution is Newton Abbot therefore represents the union be. suspended in the case of the prisoners who pay their tween the Dutch and English for the pur r. of se. fines and give their written word of honor that they curing liberty and Parliamentary governin si mir an

Other Thrones.

His suc

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Cecil Rhodes


and his

Revival in London.

oppressed majority. And Englishmen are also re. enthusiastic support of the whole teaching profes. minding the Dutch that William of Orange, while sion and lay a firm foundation for the emancipapreparing for his expedition, entered into what the tion of the teacher, who too often at present is comFree State burghers would call a “ bloody complot." pelled to serve as the unhappy Gibeonite of the with a deliberation and a cynical disregard of obli- parson. gations arising out of the coinity of nations, to an extent which throws the worst that can be alleged The Commercial

The long continued winter of com.

mercial distrust seems to have disapagainst Mr. Rhodes into comparative insignificance. If James II. had been as prompt to deal with the in

peared in England, and in “ the City' vasion as President Krüger was to settle acounts

they have entered once more upon period of comwith Dr. Jameson, we should probably have had

pany-promoting and financial speculation. Strikes William of Orange and his fellow conspirators

are recurring here and there, which are a certain branded as the greatest criminals of history. For

sign of a change, either upward or downward; and tunately for England, however, the Dutch filibuster

if the government should hurry through its Light succeeded, and by virtue of his success became one

Railway bill, there is reason to believe there would of the national heroes of Great Britain. Some day

be no lack of money for carrying out schemes alstatues to Cecil Rhodes may be erected in the streets

ready projected for bringing the light lines into the of Pretoria by the descendants of the men who have

heart of the English counties. The bicycle industry now exhausted the resources of the Taal in holding

has at last been firmly established on the London him up to popular execration.

Stock Exchange, and if Parliament passes the bill

authorizing the use of horseless carriages, there will In English home affairs there is but lit- be another great stimulus given to a form of enterProgress

tle to record. The ministers have used prise that could hardly fail to give new life to many by Closure.

the closure somewhat relentlessly in a district which by the growth of great towns and order to thrust the Education bill and Rating bill great railways is left stranded. through the House of Commons. In the case of the Rating bill, a continuous sitting of twenty-two and

Nothing fresh is reported from the Nile,

Sepoys a half hours-during which Mr. John Dillon, Mr.

for where cholera is raging; but the original Lloyd George and several other members were sus. Suakim.

scheme of garrisoning Suakim with Se. pended—was the practical method by which the op

poys is being carried out, notwithstanding the position manifested their dislike to the dragooning

veiled menace of the extension of the Russian railmethods of Mr. Balfour. It is, however, only natural

way toward Herat. On the other side of Africa, in that the Ministers having a majority, and a big one,

the Congo Free State, the trial of Major Lothaire for should feel that they would be forgiven a good deal

the judicial murder of Mr. Stokes has resulted in his of high-handedness in using it, while they would

acquittal. An appeal will probably be lodged, and never be forgiven a lack of capacity to wield the

it remains to be seen whether the superior court weapon which constituencies have placed in their

will approve of a decision which seems to set at hands.

defiance both law and justice. In Abyssinia the The objection

The Education bill, notwithstanding Italians are retiring within limits which can be de

the large majority with which the fended without a ruinous expenditure of men and Education Bill.

second reading was carried, has not money, while the victorious army of King Menelek gained in popularity as its provisions are discussed. has been experiencing reverses which will probably The ecclesiastics are no doubt supporting it, but tend to make it less difficult to deal with when the there is a strong feeling among the teachers in op- final settlement comes. position to a measure which is certainly not calculated to improve their status or to improve educa

The Ottoman Empire is like a smouldertion. Even Mr. Diggle and his reactionary follow- Trouble ing heap of burning refuse. It reeks all ers on the London School Board are revolting against

over with smoke, and sometimes when the bill, and when it comes to be considered in com- the wind blows it bursts into flame. But as no one mittee it will probably be found that great changes, can say on what side of the rubbish heap the wind chiefly in the way of omission, are indispensable. will play, so no one can predict where the flame will But if it is to be successfully attacked it will have appear. All the provinces smoulder with disconto be assailed from the educationalists' standpoint, tent, and every now and then, under some unseen innot from the point of view that is taken up by the fluence, that discontent leaps forth into active in. more active Nonconformists, who by advocating surrection. Last month it was the turn of Crete, what they call the teaching of undenominational where there has been blooody work by the Turks in religion in the Board schools, have put themselves Canea, apparently by way of reprisals for the insurout of court. If the Liberals were to concentrate rectionary movement of the Christians in the hills. their efforts upon securing the teachers from arbi- It is more dangerous to kill Greeks than Armenians; trary d

sal, in the same way that workhouse Crete, moreover, is accessible to warships, and the officia safeguarded against injustice on the Sultan has therefore been sternly told that Europe part o. oard of Guardians, they would secure the will stand no nonsense in the Mediterranean. It is

to the


in Crete.

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The Late

rather hard upon the local Mussulmans, who will ciology, and political science. Throngh his long life feel themselves most cruelly deprived of privileges he was a consistent Republican. He was a member which their brother True Believers enjoy to the full of various cabinets, besides serving as prime min. in Anatolia; but necessity knows no law, and how- ister for awhile some twenty years ago. He was ever disagreeable it may be, the Sultan will have to one of the most eminent members of the French stop the massacre in Crete.

academy, and, like the late Léon Say, was an ex

pounder of the accepted English ideas of political The eminent French statesman and

economy. M. Simon was at the very centre of the Jules Simon. scholar, Senator Jules Simon, died on

best influences in French politics and French statesthe 8th of June in his 83d year. More

manship, and his death is a loss to his country and chan sixty years ago he was a professor of philos

to the world. cphy in the normal school at Paris and a rising young leader in the intellectual world. He soon be

The death in Hawaii of Miss Kate Field

Death came a professor in the Sorbonne, where he re

of has been made the occasion of many

Kate Field. mained for a dozen years. He entered active polit

tributes to the memory of this gifted ical life just fifty years ago, and during all this half American woman. Miss Field was possessed of re. century has at no time been without marked polit- markable versatility, and was the foremost woman ical influence. His pen was active during a period journalist of this generation. Her convictions were of more than sixty years, and besides a vast volume clear and strong, and her courage unshakable. For of contributions to French journalism and periodical many years she had contended against ill health and literature, he has left behind him a shelf full of val- had borne burdens which nothing but her unconuable works in the fields of philosophy, ethics, so- querable will could have sustained.

(From May 18 to June 18, 1896.)


MAJOR J. W. THOMAS, President of Tennessee Centennial.

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UR daily record of the doings of Congress (see RE

VIEW OF REVIEWS for January-June, 1896) closed last month on May 16, and is continued below to June 11, the date of final adjournment of the first session of the Fifty-fourth Congress. This was the shortest "long "session of Congress in thirty years. Comparatively few measures of great importance were passed. Much of the time was devoted to the discussion of international questions. The tangible results of this discussion were the creation of the Venezuelan Boundary Commission and the passage of resolutions recognizing the belligerent rights of the Cuban insurgents, but these latter had no further effect than to voice the sentiments of the Senate and House of Representatives on the Cuban question.

Of some economic importance were the bills repealing that clause in the Wilson tariff act which gave a rebate on alcohol used in the arts, and providing a tax on "filled" cheese ; both of these bills passed, and received President Cleveland's approval.

There was considerable legislation affecting the Terri. tories. Prize-fighting is now forbidden in the 'Territories by federal statute, and a year's residence is made a prerequisite to obtaining a divorce in a Territory. Bills for the admission of Arizona and New Mexico as States were favorably reported, and will probably be called up during the next session.

The House passed bills providing an educational test for immigrants, establishing a Labor Commission, and defining acts of bankruptcy. The Senate will probably deal with these measures next session.

Of the money bills, those which attracted most attention were the fortification and river and harbor bills. The latter was passed over President Cleveland's veto in the last days of the session.

The following table shows the appropriations made at this session, in comparison with those made at the last session of Congress.

Amount this Amount last Title,


session. Agriculture.

$3,255,532.00 $3,303,750.00 Army.

23,278,402.73 23,252,608.09 Diplomatic and consular.

1,642,558.76 1,574,458.76 District of Columbia..

5,905,082.48 5,745,443.25 Fortification....

5,397,888.00 1,904,557.50 Indian..

7,390,496.79 8,762, 751.24 Legislative, etc.

21,518,834.71 21,891, 718.08 Military Academy.


464,261.66 Navy

30,562,739.95 29,416,245.31 Pension...

141,3:28,580.00 111,381,570 00 Post Office.

92.571,564.22 89,545,997.86 River and harbor.

12,621,800.00 Sundry civil.

33,031, 152.19 46,568,160.40

Total.. Deficiencies..



$373,811.522 15



$396,280,660.49 $383,636,896.97 Miscellaneous (estimated for this session)...


297,667 37 Total, regular annual appropriation..

$396,705,660.49 $383,934,564.34 Permanent annual appropria

119,054,160.00 113,073,956.32 Grand total, regular and

permanent annual ap

propriations...... $515,759,820.49 $ 197,008,520.66 Net increase this session over last session......... $18,751,299.83


HON. TIMOTHY E. BYRNES, OF MINNEAPOLIS, Who managed the great convention at St. Louis in the

capacity of Sergeant-at-Arms.

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May 18.–The Senate decides against an investigation of the Alabama elections of 1895. ... The House passes' numerous minor bills under suspension of the rules.

May 19.–The Senate passes the District of Columbia appropriation bill (about $7,000,000).... The House discusses bills for the restriction of immigration.

May 20.— The Senate passes the fortifications appropriation bill ($10,763,888) and the amendment offered by Mr. Hill (Dem., N. Y.) to the copyright law, to prevent the piracy of dramatic and musical works.... The House passes the bill to place an educational restriction on immigration by a vote of 195 to 26.

May 21— The Senate agrees to the conference report on the sundry civil appropriation bill.... The House, by a vote of 196 to 47, passes a private pension bill over President Cleveland's veto.

May 22.— The Senate adopts the conference report on the river and harbor bill, and debates the bill of Mr. Butler (Pop., N. C.) to prohibit bond sales without the consent of Congress.... The House agrees to the conference report on the river and harbor bill.

May 23.—The Senate votes to table several revenue measures introduced as amendments to the "filled cheese" bill.... The House agrees to the conference report on the legislative, executive and judicial appropriation bill ($21,520,8:22).

May 25.— The Senate passes the general deficiency appropriation bill (about $10,000,000).... The House debates the bill to repeal the tariff rebate on alcohol used in the arts and sciences.

May 26.—The Senate debates the "filled cheese” bill

and the bill to prohibit bond sales.... The House, by a vote of 165 (104 Republicans, 56 Democrats and Populists) to 69 (60 Republicans and 9 Democrats), passes the bill to repeal the clause in the Wilson tariff law which provides for free alcohol in the arts and manufactures.

May 27.—The Senate rejects the amendment to the “ filled cheese " bill putting an extra tax of 75. cents a barrel on beer, ale and porter, by a vote of 34 to 27.... The House, by a vote of 111 to 97, concurs in the Senate amendments to the general deficiency appropriation bill appropriating money to pay the French claims and war claims.

May 28.–Both branches pass a resolution authorizing government aid to the people of St. Louis.

May 29.- The Senate passes the bill to repeal the free alcohol section of the Wilson law, and the bill to amend the list of fruits from which brandy may be distilled under the regulations.... The House considers the contested election case of Johnston (Rep.) against Stokes (Dem.)

June 1.–The Senate debates the Indian appropriation and the Butler bond sales bill.... The House decides that no legal election was held to fill the seat for the Seventh Virginia District.

June 2.—The Senate, by a vote of 32 to 25, passes the Butler bond bill.... The House passes the river and harbor bill over the veto of President Cleveland by a vote of 220 to 60. The contest of James M. Mitchell (Rep.) against James J. Walsh (Dem.) for the seat representing the Eighth New York District is decided against Walsh on the ground of bribery at the election.


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