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the Continent to conform their standard of hours TRANSPORTATION ON THE GREAT LAKES. of labor to that of English workingmen show how keen is the contest, and that the better informed of

N the current number of the Journal of Political the English working classes realize that the inevi.

Economy Mr. George Tunell publishes some table tendency of unrestricted competition is bound

interesting statistics of traffic on the Great Lakes. to reduce labor to that economic condition in which

One of the most striking facts in the history of lake

navigation is the recent very rapid substitution of wages are constantly being pressed to the limit of

steam for sails as a motive power. We quote from subsistence."

Mr. Tunell's account of this transition: JAPAN AS AN EXPORTER OF MANUFACTURED GOODS. “ In 1862 there were in the waters of the Great Mr. Young calls attention to the fact that Japan,

Lakes 350 steam vessels with a measurement of 125,with her limited area, produces nearly enough food

620 tons, and 1,152 sailing vessels with a measureto feed her forty millions of people, and to the

ment of 257,689 tons. The sailing tonnage was thus a large proportion of manufactured goods to raw ma

trifle more than double that of the steam tonnage. terials in her export trade. He draws a significant The relative importance of these two classes of ves. deduction from the fact that in the total Japanese

sels changed very slowly during the next 20 years, export trade of $56,982,957 in 1894, the manufac

and it was not until 1884 that the steam tonnage tured goods amounted to $17,604, 304. “If we bear

exceeded the sail tonnage. Since 1884 the sailing in mind that after a century of attention to manu- tonnage has remained about stationary, being 307,933 facturing the people of the United States have only

tons in that year and 300,642 tons in 1895. The steam succeeded in making the proportion of their manu

tonnage, on the other hand, has increased with great factured exports to the exports of the rude products rapidity since 1884, and is now almost three times as of the soil reach 23 per cent., and that the Japanese great as the sailing tonnage. But even this ratio in scarce a score of years have reached the propor

does not fully reflect the favor in which these two tion of 31 per cent. of manufactured to rude prod- types of vessels are at the present time held, for the ucts in their exports, the importance of this obser:

last two reports of the Commissioner of Navigation vation will be recognized.”

show that the steam tonnage constructed on the

Great Lakes during the last two fiscal years was THE PRODUCTS OF JAPANESE INDUSTRY.

somewhat more than four and one-half times that of Mr. Young ends his article with a catalogue of the the sail tonnage. manufactures actually produced and exported by “ Circumstances decidedly favor the substitution the Japanese in sufficient quantities to be noted. His of steam for sails; steamers are operated on the list includes many exports not mentioned by Mr. Great Lakes under conditions the most favorable to Mills.

steam navigation. Good steaming coal can be According to the official reports the Japanese bought in the ports of the lakes at a very low price. in 1894 exported bamboo ware, beverages, books, And the voyages are very short in comparison with boots and shoes, carpets, cotton manufactures, fans, the long ocean voyages, a fact which makes it drugs, furniture, glassware, hats and caps, ivory unnecessary to carry a great amount of dead freight ware, jinrikishas, lacquer ware, lanterns, leather in the form of coal.” and ware, imitation paper, matches, mats, metal The lessened danger of wrecking in heavy gales is ware, brass wire and ware, bronze and ware, an additional reason for the change from sails to copper wire and ware, gold and silver ware, paper, steam on the Great Lakes. Mr. Tunell mentions paper ware, screens, silks, soaps, straw braids, another important development in ship construction tortoise shells, cigarettes, umbrellas and wooden on our inland waterways. ware. These different articles the Japanese exported

STEEL SHIPS. to the value of $17,604, 304 in 1894. An inspection of the list shows that with few exceptions they are “ The increased size of the ships and the substitusuch things as come in direct competition with tion of steam for sails, two of the three radical similar ware manufactured in Europe and this changes we have to consider, have rendered necescountry. We are told by trustworthy observers sary, in order to secure strength, the third changethat they display extraordinary skill in the manu- namely, the substitution of steel for wood as the facture of all these articles, and that they have material of construction. The preference for steel taken advantage of their unrivaled powers of imi- has become very decided in the last decade, and now tation to copy some of our most valuable patented only those exceedingly conservative persons who machinery, there being no international agreement never become adjusted to a new order of things perwhich would restrain such an act. The circum- sist in using wooden vessels. Lieut. Charles C. stances here presented and an infinite quantity of Rogers, U. S. N., in writing of the changes which equally strong evidence convinces the writer that have marked the construction of the lake fleets, says: Sir Edwin Arnold was not visionary when he de- * The history of marine architecture does not furnish clared that Japan had a better chance in the race another instance of so rapid and complete a revolu. for the commercial supremacy of the world than tion in the material of floating equipment as has any other nation."

taken place on the Great Lakes since 1886. In 1886 there were but six steel vessels, with an aggregate rushes after many a flimsy mining share far surnet tonnage of 6,459 tons, afloat on the lakes; but by passing what was witnessed last summer." So Mr. 1890 the number had increased to 68, with an aggre- Wilson sits himself by the wayside and croons his gate net tonnage of 99,457 tons. Since 1890 the old song as to the terrible dangers that are lying in construction of steel vessels had gone on with even wait for England -just around the corner. Imagine increased rapidity, and for the fiscal year 1895 steel what would happen in the city of London if a real was the material used in the construction of two- crisis were to break out, such as would be produced thirds of the tonnage built in that year.'

by the downfall of the Turk. Before summer is NATURE OF THE LAKE TRAFFIC.

over Crete and Macedonia may have compelled the Mr. Tunell shows that the great bulk of the freight

reluctant western powers to intervene. moved on the Great Lakes consists of iron ore, coal,

INTERVENTION MAY MEAN WAR. grain, flour and lumber, that east-bound greatly preponderates over west-bound traffic, and that the The more successful England is in the Soudan, local business is insignificant as compared with the

the more her dangers will increase in imminence. through business.

India is not contented, hunger and famine are devouring the vitals of its millions, and Russia is creep

ing to England's borders to give discontent courage. CANADA AND THE BRITISH EMPIRE.

Troubles seein brewing in Persia. The situation in RINCIPAL GRANT replies, in the National Afghanistan is very unstable. War is destined to Review, with some gravity and warmth, to

break out again between China and Japan, posMr. Goldwin Smith, to whose foreboding prophecies sibly between Russia and Japan, and in that about Canada recent events have given a conclusive war Mr. Wilson thinks Great Britain must be preanswer. Principal Grant says:

‘pared to take part, or see her commerce in that “ Last Christmas, when Mr. Cleveland's message

region destroyed. The Venezuela question is not threatened invasion in connection with the Vene

settled. If war breaks out between Great Britain zuela dispute, doubtless we could have arranged by

and the United States, Canada would be bankrupt negotiation for peace with the States, and have kept in a moment, and the delicate fabric of banking in entirely out of the quarrel. The thought did occur

England would be smashed to pieces. If the United to one man, and he was quietly ignored. I know of States side with the Cubans, England might not only only two newspapers, among our thousands, which lose money invested in the island, but might have advocated separation. The tone of those two was as

to take sides with Spain. France and Germany are stout and calm as that of all the others. Like the

hotbeds of revolution. Austro-Hungary would go Scots round their King at Flodden, no one failed to pieces with the death of Francis Joseph. The the Old Mother. Every man and woman accepted

Italian Government is hopelessly bankrupt. So Mr. the necessity, and without a word of complaint

Wilson sings his melancholy song, finishing up as began to prepare for war. Homes in England were

follows : 66

Speculate, gamble if you will, but resafe, and ours in peril. What of that! Britain had

member that the wealth the gambling seems to probeen threatened, and therefore we, as part of the duce would disappear like gunpowder in a fire at British Empire, accepted our responsibilities. Al.

the sound of the first cannon shot discharged in a war ready the scare has cost us three millions of dollars,

between two great European powers. How many and no one has uttered a murmur against the ex.

British banks, we wonder, would stand the strain penditure."

for six weeks of a war between England and the United States. So let the prudent man, if any such

reinains alive in these times, gamble with caution ADVICE TO WOULD-BE GAMBLERS OF THE

and sometimes think of the morrow." STOCK EXCHANGE. R. A. J. WILSON devotes the first article in the Investor's Review for July to a disquisi

BOSTON'S SALOONS AND THEIR COMPETITORS. tion on “ The Fever of Speculation and its Risks.” HE so-called Committee of Fifty, which was He has had his innings-good man. From the time

appointed two or three years ago to study the of the Baring crash down to the end of 1894 the liquor problem in the United States, is destined public inind was oppressed with a sense of coming eventually to provide us with material which will tribulation, and the gamblers in stocks and shares throw most hopeful light upon the best ways to lay low. But now speculation has revived, and Mr. deal with the great social evil. The officers of the Wilson sees that it has by no means reached its comunittee

Seth Low, president; Charles full development. “ Extravagant though prices ap- Dudley Warner, vice-president; Francis G. Peabody, pear in every department, yet there is room for

secretary; William E. Dodge, treasurer; John S. them to go higher. For anything the money mar- Billings, chairman of Physiological Committee; ket indicates to the contrary, we might see many a Charles W. Eliot, chairman of Legislative Commithome railway stock brought to pay less than two tee; Jacob L. Greene, chairman of Ethical Commitper cent. before twelve months are over, and greedy tee; Francis A. Walker, chairman of Economic





Committee. As a fragment of the preliminary inquiries conducted under the auspices of this distinguished Committee of Fifty, Dr. Francis G. Peabody, Professor of Social Science at Harvard University, contributes to the Forum for July an article upon the Boston saloons and the places in Boston which may be considered as substitutes for the saloon. The inquiry has been made with care and with candor.

THE DRINKERS. “ The first fact made plain, even by statistics confessedly lacking in accuracy, is the prodigious dimensions of the drink habit. According to the census of 1895, the city of Boston contains 496,920 inhabitants, men, women and children. It appears, therefore, according to the best judgment procurable, based on the daily and almost hourly observation of patrolmen, that an army equal to about half the entire population of the city, or no less than 236,752 persons, patronizes the bars of the city every day. This estimate, as has been said, reckons every patron every time he enters. The number of distinct drinkers is, therefore, reduced by the large number of repeaters.

There is to be reckoned, moreover, in this great multitude, the very large number of drinkers in Boston who are residents of other towns, and especially in adjacent towns under a no-license policy. On the other hand, this overestimate of the drink habit among residents is in a large degree corrected when we recall the many resorts not here enumerated where residents daily drink. Whether the patronage by city dwellers of the bars of hotels, the private licensed clubs, the licensed grocers and the unlicensed resorts is sufficient to balance the bar-room drinking by non-residents, is a question inviting to speculation. It is at any rate a suffi. ciently serious fact that, wherever the patronage comes from, it pours at such a rate into the Boston saloons."

“ Calculation becomes interesting as to the amount of money which this patronage contributes to the saloons, and various competent judges have been consulted as to the average amount spent by each patron at each visit. Some experts regard 8 cents as a probable average; but the balance of opinions leads to the belief that the average patron does not escape without spending 10 cents. If this estimate be not excessive, then there is daily spent in the Boston saloons the sum of $22,675, or in a year of 300 days the prodigious sum of $6,802,500; or an annual gross income of about $10,000 for each of the 606 saloons. The total running expenses of the Boston public school system for 1894 95 was $2,061,160. The total expense of the Boston Fire Department for the same year was $1.041.296. The total bill for the Police Department was $1,318, 186. The total expense for the city park system was $2,241,814. All these formidable expenditures taken together amount to a smaller sum than was spent during the same year in the bar-rooms of the city.”


An interesting table reproduced herewith from Dr. Peabody's article shows what the daily average patronage last year was of the Boston saloons in comparison with the Boston pool-rooms, coffeerooms, lunch-rooms, reading-rooms and clubs.

We observe that substitutes for the saloon already exist in Boston in considerable numbers and have a reasonable degree of attractiveness. Summing up all the resorts enumerated, the total average daily patronage is approximately 98,918, or, without pool-rooms, 76,268; so that it may not unreasonably be affirmed that the proportion of attendance is as 1 to 2.5. It is to be noticed also that while the patron. age of the saloon is greatly increased by non-resident drinkers, the patronage of the substitutes for saloons,

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being for the most part in the evening, is almost profits in two specific instances. The reason alleged wholly of city dwellers, so that the proportion of for being temporarily unable to earn more than 2 attendance, considered only as among residents, per cent. in the single exceptional case was a certain becomes still more favorable for the substitutes.' prejudice against the appearance of the building, When one considers the inadequacy of many of these which workingmen thought looked too much like a resorts, their meagre provision for sociability and barrack or public institution. This notion bids fair comfort as compared with the splendor of the saloons, to pass away, since families who came to live there and the disadvantage under which some of these show a tendency to remain. substitutes are put, by regarding sociability as sec- “Of the two American semi-philanthropic housing ondary to moral or religious influence, one may be corporations mentioned, both earned up to the fixed encouraged to believe that the desire among working limit-viz., 4 per cent—and in addition from 24 to people for the satisfaction of the social instinct, 192 per cent. for reserve. without the compulsion to drink liquor, must be “In Europe but three out of the twenty-nine comserious and general.”

mercial housing enterprises failed to earn at least 4 HOPEFUL CONCLUSIONS.

per cent., while nineteen earned 5 per cent. and Dr. Peabody draws many interesting conclusions,

upward. One of the three delinquent corporations the general purport of which are that the chief hold

was too lavish in construction and so was handi. of the saloon upon the community does not proceed capped; the second, which paid 3% per cent., caters wholly or chiefly from the thirst for drink, and that

exclusively to the very poor. There is no satisfactory saloons are resorted to chiefly because the poor man

explanation for the third. Among the fourteen is moved by the social instinct to find that which in

semi-philanthropic organizations in European cities some sense shall satisfy his desire for companionship

about which facts are recorded, two may he set under inviting surroundings. The thing to do, there

down as having failed to pay as well as they should. fore, Dr. Peabody would say, is to satisfy the social

There are adequate reasons in one of these instances. instinct by providing attractive places of resort

Ten of the fourteen companies earned 4 per cent. which are free from the accompanying risk of intoxi

and upward. The significance of these facts is cating liquor. In conclusion Dr. Peabody says:

more easily grasped when stated percentually. The * The saloon is a degrading form of social enjoy. successful enterprises constitute 88 per cent. Six ment, but it is a real form. It offers so much to the

per cent. earned a savings bank rate of interest, life of the poor that at least one skilled observer in while the remaining 6 per cent. failed to do so well. Boston has remarked, in the course of this investi

“ It is noteworthy that this success has been gation, that if it were a question between the saloon achieved under favorable sanitary conditions. Aland no poor man's club he would wish the saloon to most uniformly there has been the most ample stay. The substitute for the saloon, in order to

provision for light and ventilation, a provision far survive, must give more resources of sociability than in excess of legal requirements. Thus as a rule only the saloon gives, and compete with it on its own

from 50 to 65 per cent. of the plots of ground has terms. There must be no hint of patronage or of

been covered with buildings. The construction has missionary zeal. There must be the same tone which

been durable, while rents as a general thing are prevails in the rich man's club--a sense of proprie

slightly lower than for fairly simple accommodatorship, a comfort which tempts to patronage,

tions in the neighborhood. resources of athletic life, games which are of real “ By going a little more fully into details and interest, literature which is not discarded rubbish selecting representative block buildings belonging of the benevolent, light and liberty, and self-govern- to some of the best known housing corporations, rement; and for this form of institution there are sults of equal significance can be shown. Such an already among the working classes obvious and often analysis is more convincing when not carried beyond pathetic signs of long suffering expectation and our own country, because any amelioration which desire."

may be attempted in American cities must neces. sarily face American not European conditions."

After analyzing this varied experience at home THE ECONOMICS OF IMPROVED HOUSING.

and abroad, Dr. Gould concludes that 5 per cent. in ‘HE financial profit derivable from wisely di- dividends and a safe reserve can be earned on

rected enterprises to improve the housing of model tenement dwellings anywhere, charging the people is the subject of an article by Dr. E. R. customary rents, provided the total cost of the comL. Gould in the last number of the Yale Review. pleted property does not exceed $500 per room. The showing made of dividends paid and net profits Among the conditions essential to success in such earned by commercial and philanthropic schemes of experiments, Dr. Gould mentions cheapness of land this kind is interesting.

(five dollars per square foot as an outside limit), “ In America, out of the avowedly commercial convenience of access, recognition of the income of enterprises engaged in furnishing improved housing prospective tenants in fixing rentals, and careful and facilities, but one paid less than 5 per cent. ; 9.96 tactful superintendence. This is not philanthropy; and 10 per cent. represent the maximum of net it is business.



MEXICAN VS. AMERICAN CRIMINAL TRIALS. a view to prevent the failure of justice, that if, in EÑOR ROMERO, the Mexican Minister to the the opinion of the presiding judge, the verdict was United States, contributes to the North Ameri

clearly against the evidence, be should so report to can Review for July a very instructive article upon

the higher court, with a motion to set that verdict criminal jurisprudence, in which he points out

aside, and, if the higher court should sustain his the differences between the methods employed in

opinion, a new trial should be granted, unless eight Anglo Saxon countries and those which belong to

jurors had concurred in the verdict, in which case it the countries which base their systems upon the old

should be final and could not be set aside. These Roman law. Señor Romero shows that the condi.

provisions were somewhat changed by an act issued tions under which our jury system originated have

on the 24th of June, 1891, which provides that the long since passed away, and that the jury is by no

jury shall be composed of nine jurors, that a majormeans so important or significant an institution as it ity of them shall render a verdict, and that the

decision of the jury shall be final if given by seven once was. AN OPINION OF THE JURY SYSTEM.

votes. Even with all these alterations in the system,

I have seen cases in Mexico where criminals have “While I should not like to express any decided

gone unpunished, because through the eloquence of convictions on this subject, I may safely say that the

their attorneys the jury has been influenced in their conditions under which the jury system was estab

favor.” lished or adopted do not prevail at the present time,

PRELIMINARIES IN MEXICAN COURTS. even in the country of its supposed origin; cannot, therefore, have the importance it once had. The

“Under the system of criminal jurisprudence insufficiency of this system to punish criminals is prevailing in the federal district of Mexico, all the made evident, I think, by its practical results, which preliminary proceedings in a criminal trial, such as have unfortunately brought about what is commonly

the examinat:on of the accused, the taking of testicalled lynch law, and by the fact that these in mony, etc., take place before the judge who presides their turn have given rise to a practice which is

over such proceedings without a jury; when this has based upon a defect in existing law, and which been completed and the case is ready to be submitted, therefore comes to be in fact the complement of

the jury is empaneled and the evidence is read to it criminal proceedings under the Anglo-Saxon system.

as set forth in the record already formed; the prose. “ The jury system as applied to criminal cases is

cuting attorney then presents the charges, the deundoubtedly more favorable to the accused than to

fense is heard and the witnesses of both parties are society. That it has faults is evident from the fact

examined and cross-examined; thereupon the jury that some of the States of this Union, like Maryland,

renders its verdict, adjudging the accused either for instance, have enacted statutes allowing the

innocent or guilty, following substantially the prac. accused to select whether he shall be tried by jury

tice under the common law of England and of the or by a judge, and this notwithstanding the consti

United States. In most of the Mexican states pre. tutional provision of the subject. I regard that pro

vails the old Spanish system of criminal jurispruvision as the first step to undermine the jury system.


“I often hear it asserted in this country that the MODIFIED JURY SYSTEM OF MEXICO.

proceedings under the Roman law are secret, and “But the force of example, and the great credit that the accused does not know what the witnesses which Anglo-Saxon institutions have attained in the have testified against him. This assertion is entirely world on account of their respect for individual incorrect, and often leads to very grave misunder. rights, have induced some of the American nations standings. One of the difficulties that the Spanishof Latin origin to adopt the jury system, and we American countries have to contend with at Washhave done so in Mexico. Señor Mariscal, our present ington, in cases where citizens of the United States Secretary of State, who lived in the United States are tried by the local judges in any of those coun. from 1863 to 1877, as Secretary of the Legation up tries, is the great difference between their criminal to 1867, and afterward as Minister from Mexico in legislation and procedure and the system prevailing Washington, and who is an eminent jurist, a thor in this country.'' ough student, and a careful observer, made a special study of the jury system in the United States, and According to the Roman system, every criminal when he went home and became Secretary of Justice trial is divided into two stages. During the sununder President Juarez's administration, he estab mary (sumario), which is the first, and the purpose lished, in 1869, the jury system in the feủeral dis of which is to ascertain the facts connected with the trict of Mexico for criminal cases, changing it some case, the testimony of the accused is taken down, what so as to adapt it to the peculiar conditions of sometimes without his knowing who may be the the Mexican character. He provided, for instance, witnesses testifying against him or the crime with that a majority of the eleven jurors composing our which he is charged. During the plenary (plenario). jury should render a verdict, while under the Anglo or second stage, all the proceedings of the summary Saxon system the unanimous vote of the twelve are made known, and thereafter all the proceedings jurors is required. It was provided, besides, with are public, the accused enjoying the same rights


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