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THE SHADE OF WARREN HASTINGS (loquitur): “I added India to the Einpire, and was impeached by Burke ; you must never turn aside, Afric's hope and Afric's pride. Make the Empire greater yet. Let resignation wait."

From Fun.


200 000 000 SHARES of 1 o o Ench

ANOTHER “SPLENDID OFFER.” “Mr. Ziman, a London mine-company promoter now in Maoriland, offers to contribute £1,000 toward the cost of a £500,000 battleship for the British navy. The entire cost of the vessel to be subscribed by the Australasian public.”—CABLE.

"Mein gootness ! Isuk, think of der moral effect upon der British investor !"

From the Bulletin (Sydney).

AN UNEQUAL GAME. CHAMBERLAIN TO KRUGER: “Who can play against such cards ?"

From Picture Politics.





The Roses traced back to a Puritan ancestor who went from England to Holland with his coreligionists and followed the Pilgrims to America. The McKinleys are of the vigorous and prolific Scotch-Irish stock that has left as broad and permanent an impress upon the middle belt of the United States as the Puritan stock has left upon the northern belt, from New England to Oregon. The Scotch-Irish element never has had its full due at the hands of historians. Too much stress has been placed upon the influence of the New England element in the formation of our national character. In New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, central and southern Ohio and Kentucky it is from the Scotch. Irish strain of blood that has come a very large proportion of the statesmen, jurists and successful men of affairs. The dominant traits of this virile stock are industry, thrift, strong religious convictions and serious views of life. It is a large boned, muscular, long-lived race and it has kept up its fecundity to our own day, whereas the New England stock has become so barren that in its original home it hardly keeps its numbers good.

The grandfather of William McKinley, Senior, was a revolutionary soldier named David McKinley, who campaigned in eastern Pennsylvania and whose record is in the Pension Office at Washington. He was for a long time on the Revolutionary pension roll and died at an advanced age at the home of his grandson in New Lisbon, Ohio. The biographers of Governor McKinley all dwell upon the paternal line of ancestry in seeking for the currents of hereditary tendency which have gone to the making of the famous statesman and pay small attention to the maternal line ; yet a very slight acquaintance with the Governor's mother, who is now in her eighty-seventh year is enough to convince one that

it is froin her and not from his father that he gets From a new photo. for San Francisco Wasp.

his leading traits of character. He resembles her

strongly in face, in manner and in many mental ILLIAM McKINLEY, SENIOR, the father peculiarities. She was an Allison, of Scotch Cor.

of Governor McKinley, was cne of the pio- enanter stock. There were Allisons among the vic. neer ironmasters of eastern Ohio. Beds of rather tims of Claverhouse's dragoons, and there were other lean iron ore here and there, lying in close proximity Allisons who after long imprisonment for conscience to seams of bituminous coal, led to early attempts sake left their homes in the Lowlands and sought at iron making in the eastern counties of the State, religious freedom in the American colonies. Nancy where the pig metal could be hauled in wagons to Allison McKinley is an exceedingly competent, the Ohio River or shipped on the canals constructed strong brained woman. She is the mother of nine in the thirties and early forties. The elder McKinley children, all of whom lived to maturity and seven seems to have inherited his bent for metal working of whom are still living. The rearing and educafrom his maternal grandfather, Andrew Rose, who tion of this large family, and the struggle with the was sent home to Bucks county, Pennsylvania, from straitened circumstances incident to life in the early the Revolutionary army, to make bullets and can- days in Ohio, absorbed her energies and developed

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Ohio. Mrs. McKinley set her mind on Poland as a good place to rear her large family and when the boy William was two years old she persuaded the father to make the important move. In Poland the McKinleys established themselves in a large whitepainted wooden house, with green blinds, of a style of architecture very common on the Western Reserve and brought from New England by the first settlers. There was an L for the kitchen, and in the gable, which faced the street, was the customary rising sun device of painted slats. Maple trees stood in the yard and a white picket fence separated the little domain from the sidewalk. This house is still standing, but the birth-place house in Niles was recently demolished. In the Poland house young McKinley grew to manhood.

Poland the southeastern township of the Western Reserve. The original settlers came from New England, and although on the south and east the population was largely of Pennsylvania Dutch and “ Pennamite," or Pennsylvania English, stock, the Poland people preserved all the dominant characteristics of their New England ancestry. Until the great development of manufacturing in our own day, the Western Reserve was an offshoot of New England life that was more purely and peculiarly Yankee than Massachusetts or Connecticut. The

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The senior William McKinley, born in 1807, lived to be eighty-five. He was only twenty years old when he married Nancy Allison, aged eighteen. He was interested in furnaces and foundries in Columbiana county for many years and most of the children were born at New Lisbon, but in 1843, when his seventh child was born, he was managing a furnace at Niles, in Trumbull county. The family lived in a long, low two-story frame building, in one end of which a country store was kept. The sojourn in Niles was of but short duration. The mother, al. ways the guiding spirit in the household, was anxious about the education of the children, and Niles was only a petty village of ironworkers and its sole educational equipment was the country district school. About twenty miles to the south, down the Mahoning Valley, was the village of Poland, which possessed a seminary for boys and girls of the type of the New England academy-a type reproduced in many of the towns on the Western Reserve of

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Drawn for the World.



people were keenly interested in the intellectual, ples, based on the rejection of all creeds and the acreligious and reform movements of the time. They ceptance of the Bible as the only rule of faith and were much given to religious controversy, but conduct. The Mormons built their first temple at neighbor to the most devout Congregationalist or Kirtland and then moved off in a body to Nauvoo, Methodist would be found the so-called infidel, or Illinois, under the lead of their prophet, Joseph the “come-outer," who had left his church because Smith. Each of the old Protestant sects had grave it sanctioned sla ry and who had dropped the Bible doubts as to the salvation of the other sects. One for the study of Thomas Paine's “ Age of Reason. branch of the Presbyterians thought it wicked to The early anti-slavery agitators, Garrison, Pillsbury, sing anything but psalms in churth, The MethoHenry C. Wright, Stephen and Abby Kelly Foster, dists called their churches meeting houses and put made annual tours through this region, preaching no steeples on them. They objected to jewelry and liberty for the negroes of the South. Salem, about to all finery in dress and denounced dancing and twenty miles from Poland, was a centre for the ab card-playing as devices of the devil. The Baptists olition movement and sustained a newspaper called would fellowship with no one who had not been the Anti-Slavery Bugle, which was a Western dipped in the water. The Dunkards washed each

other's feet az a religious rite. Near Poland was a strong community of Germans called Omish, who wore no buttons and fastened their coats and trousers with hooks and eyes and strings for conscience sake. Over all the strife of the warring sects the Quakers exercised a benign influence. At sixteen, William McKinley, Junior, joined the Methodist Church, the church of his parents, and he has remained in its communion ever since. He is as tenacious of his religious opinions as of his view on a protective tariff, and here is shown the influence of his strain of Scotch Covenanter blood. To change his belief because of the changes in the currents of modern thought would not be a possibility for him.


I like to dwell upon the environment echo of Garrison's Liberator. The anti-slavery of Western Reserve life which helped to form the orators frequently visited Poland while McKinley character of the future statesman. I was myself born was a boy and in Poland was supposed to exist a sta upon the Reserve, some forty miles from McKinley's tion on the “ Underground Railroad," where fngitive » Poland home, and I remember vividly the religious slaves from Virginia were concealed and helped controversies, the anti-slavery agitation, the first along on their way to Canada under cover of the movement for woman's rights advocated by Lucretia darkness of night. McKinley was eight years old Mott, the numerous temperance revivals, the signing when the Fugitive Slave law of 1850 was passed of the pledge as a boy, the debating club at the by Congress, and he remembers well the excitement Centre,”

,” where the farmers wrestled with the that prevailed and the meeting held in Poland to questions of the day, the influence of Horace Greewhich Ben Wade came from his home in Ashtabula ley's Weekly Tribune, great bundles of which came county, and which adopted resolutions declaring to every country post-office, the ardent desire of the that “come weal, come woe, come stripes, impris- boys and girls for higher education than the disonment or death," the people of that village would trict schools afforded, and the wholesome, patient, not obey the law and would continue to give food self-denying life of the farms and villages. This and shelter to the poor slaves fleeing from oppression. region has produced a long list of men who have Thus young McKinley came in his boyhood under made their mark in our national history. the same influences of agitation against slavery To Poland Seminary came ambitious young men which Garfield felt in his early manhood and of and young women from the neighboring farms, eager which Joshua R. Giddings and Benjamin F. Wade for the book-learning of the schools and believing were the leaders on the Reserve.

that its possession would open broad highways to In the forties and the fifties the Reserve was the success in life. Some engaged rooms and board at scene of much sectarian contr ersy. Alexander the rate of two dollars week and others reduced Campbell made frequent missionary tours in this this very modest cost of living by taking rooms region from his home in the neighboring Panhandle alone and eating the victuals sent in to them weekly of Virginia, building up his new sect of the Disci by their parents. None of these bright young peo

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