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of his countrymen's acuteness in selling condemned in the college at Vaunes, which he entered in 1827, provisions, arms, ammunition, shoddy uniforms, two professors who had taught there in 1793. and blankets to the Cubans at the highest prices. “In the first story of the college, full of mysteriAmerica, in fact, does not send fighting-men to ous objects which had been shut up there for Cuba; she sends professional ruffians and atrocity twenty years, was a physical cabinet where no one mongers to levy blackmail by processes unknown to ever entered and where everything was covered with any civilized state. The point arises--and Cánovas the venerable dust of time. To utilize all these might well consider the advisability of making it in wonders the departmental council desired to procure an Identical Note-whether Europe has not a com the services of a professor. An annual stipend of mon interest in protesting against this form of Yan four hundred francs was voted, and M. Jéhanno ran kee barbarism. One syllable from Europe-one around to all the doctors in the town to propose this word from France and England-and the vast ma fine plan and to offer them this magnificent salary. jority of law-abiding citizens would put a speedy It was refused by all. In conclusion, the invitation close to lawless proceedings carried out by specu was extended to a justice, noted for the compliancy lators and winked at by demagogues who exploit of his character and the feebleness of his mind. He the ignorance of the average voter.

Until the con alleged with hesitation that he knew nothing of trary be proved, the bulk of Americans must be held physics, but M. Jéhanno replied triumphantly that innocent of any complicity in the crimes aforesaid. he could learn it, and the board of education preBut it is high time that they knew what is commit sented him with a copy of the ‘ Elements of Physics.' ted in their name. Meanwhile, in Cuba, Spain is written in the preceding century by the Abbé Nolacting scrupulously within her rights; behind the let. The fact that this amazing professor never had Spanish Ministers stand the men of all parties, the more than five or six auditors in a college where the unanimous representatives of a renowned, a heroic, other classes numbered from eighty to a hundred and an unvanquished people.”

pupils, demonstrates the good sense of the people of Brittany.


Such being the condition of my college at JULES SIMON'S COLLEGE LIFE.

Vannes when I entered in 1827, it may practically "HE late Jules Simon's account of “A French be said that my student years fell toward the middle

College Sixty Years Ago,” which appears in of the seventeenth century. The character of this the August Forum has an autobiographic interest. college admitted of no change; a century and more

M. Simon begins with a brief description of his ago the methods and curriculuin of study were library-a collection of 25,000 books, to which, he identical. Latin was well taught; beyond Latin we says, he can go with eyes closed and find each vol learned nothing at all. Our professors consented,

“While surveying my books in a certain indeed, to read us portions from obscure historians fashion I review my life, for my library and I de who were brought to my remembrance at Rome veloped together."

before the inscription: ‘Here Romulus and Remus M. Simon then reviews the condition of education were suckled by the she-wolf.' Of the study of in France just after the Revolution, and pictures physics and our cabinet I have just given an accuthe degeneracy of the colleges and other higher in rate description. Our professor of philosophy, who stitutions.

was looked upon as a great man and who afterward “ The universities, as well as the convents, were became a deputy, had in his possession three massive destroyed, and the majority of their members, who volumes, the ‘Philosophia Lugdunensis' (* Lyon's were priests, suffered a common fate with others of Philosophy ’), the property of his predecessors and their profession. The colleges were without in which he in turn was to transmit to his successors. structors and there would have been no pupils--for In the first volume were treated the various forms the colleges were closed by order and the faculties of argumentation: syllogism, dilemma, etc. The suppressed by law. Diplomas were forbidden to be second volume treated of metaphysics. I recall this given, since no one was to be privileged above an definition of ' idea': 'I ask you, Monsieur, what is other. The schools were closed or converted into an idea ?' And the pupil replies: 'An idea is the hospitals or barracks. The larger number of the clear representation of an object really present belibraries were plundered or given over to the mu fore the mind.' The third section of 'Lyon's Phinicipalities. The books, transferred from the uni losophy'treated presumably of theology, but was in versity or the convent to the town hall, were packed reality a development of the catechism. Our masin bales and lay there in the garret. I have myself ter knew that philosophy had become modified since seen similar bales-containing perchance rare treas the writing of his text books. He had heard of ures—which had lain undisturbed since the Reign of Condillac, who applied the theory of the ‘ idea' by Terror."

the illustration of the cover of a pot filled with hot On the reopening of the colleges, in the era of the water; and of a young man, Cousin by name, who Restoration, some of the old instructors returned to enjoyed a modicum of fame at Paris, and whose their chairs. M. Simon had among his instructors misfortune it was to talk much without saying any


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thing. Following this declaration he would read seemed to review my whole life which I thought aloud some pages from the · Philosophical Frag. then already finished, whereas in fact it had only ments' of which we did not understand a single begun.” word and which provoked us to Homeric bursts of laughter; then, inspired with renewed confidence, we would return to the ancient philosophy of our


WO good articles appear in the magazines on HOW SIMON PAID HIS WAY. By far the inost interesting part of M. Simon's article is his account of the financial difficulties

MR. WARNER'S ESTIMATE OF UNCLE TOM'S CABIN. under which he labored in pursuing his college In the September Atlantic Monthly Mr. Charles course, and the way in which he met them.

Dudley Warner tells “The Story of Uncle Tom's At Vannes I passed from triumph to triumph. Cabin,” and gives his judgment on the much disI was not allowed to compete for the prizes in phi cussed literary value of the book. He attributes the losophy; I was given a prize of honor superior to all success of Uncle Tom to an undoubted quality of the rest. But in the midst of these honors my life genius. “The clear conception of character (not of

one of difficulties. My family, completely ear-marks and peculiarities adopted as labels), and ruined while I at the age of fourteen years was still faithful adhesion to it in all vicissitudes, is one of at the high school at Lorient, and unable to defray the rarest and highest attributes of genius. All the the expenses of my education, had resolved to ap chief characters in the book follow this line of absoprentice me to a watchmaker. Notwithstanding, lutely consistent development, from Uncle Tom and an effort was made which enabled me to enter at Legree down to the most aggravating and con. Vannes, whither I went on foot, and where I passed temptible of all, Marie St. Clare. The selfish and through the third class as a boarder at reduced rates hysterical woman has never been so faithfully dein a little seminary maintained by a Lazarite, Father picted by any other author. Daudet. At the end of three months, when about “ Distinguished as the novel is by its characterto enter the second class, my father declared he drawing and its pathos, I doubt if it would have could do no more, his last resource being exhausted. captivated the world without its humor. This is of But in this excellent school there existed, among the old-fashioned kind, the large humor of Scott, other relics of the past, a custom which saved me. and again of Cervantes, not verbal pleasantry, not The praiseworthy pupils of rhetoric in the second the felicities of Lamb, but the humor of character in class gave lessons to their comrades in the fifth and action, of situations elaborated with great freedom, sixth classes, at a most absurd charge, it is true, but and with what may be called hilarious conception. which none the less helped them to earn their daily This quality is never wanting in the book, either for bread. I told my story to the principal, requesting the reader's entertainment by the way, or to him to find me pupils. I was not fifteen years old, heighten the pathos of the narrative by contrast. but I was the glory of the college. The principal, The introduction of Topsy into the New Orleans desirous to see me remain, with the greatest diffi household saves us in the dangerous approach to culty procured me six pupils whom I united in a melodrama in the religious passages between Tom small class. I devoted to them an hour in the morn and St. Clare. Considering the opportunities of the ing and again an hour in the evening, receiving in subject, the book has very little melodrama ; one is payment from each boy the sum of three francs a apt to hear low music on the entrance of little Eva, month. The manager of the Shallette accepted me but we are convinced of the wholesome sanity of the as a boarder at eighteen francs a month. The col. sweet child. And it is to be remarked that some of lege passed a resolution exempting ine from pay the most exciting episodes, such as that of Eliza ment for lessons ; the board of education presented crossing the Ohio River on the floating ice (of which me with two hundred francs. In this way I was Mr. Ruskin did not approve), are based upon authenenabled to finish the two years' course of study. tic occurrences. The want of unity in construction

Carrying a small lantern in my hand, I might of which the critics complain is partially explained be seen every morning at six o'clock passing down by the necessity of exhibiting the effect of slavery the Rue de Chanoines, dressed in an ordinary calico in its entirety. The parallel plots, one running to jacket, under which I wore a woolen waistcoat. I Louisiana and the other to Canada, are tied together may say that I was adopted by the entire town and by this consideration, and not by any real necessity that every one showed me the greatest kindness. to each other.

I once saw one of my old pupils again. His “There is no doubt that Mrs. Stowe was wholly name was Du Pontavice. He died, as have most of possessed by her theme, rapt away like a prophet in my pupils, before me. At the time we met he was a vision, and that, in her feeling at the time, it was superintendent of schools at Blois, and I was then written through her quite as much as by her. This minister. The prefect presented the superintendent idea grew upon her mind in the retrospective light who, in tears, asked me if I had forgotten him. I of the tremendous stir the story made in the world, embraced him very heartily; and in that instant I so that in her later years she came to regard herself

brother of the original Lewis, a well-known character in Boston, employed in the office of the assistant treasurer, affirms stoutly that his kinsman is alive in Lexington. The whole matter is one of the difference between Tweedledum and Tweedledee, and would have no interest were it not that a letter from one of Mrs. Stowe's daughters, which has been printed, has been interpreted to deny the existence of such an impostor as Lewis Clark of Lexington. In fact, the letter did nothing of the kind ; it only declared that a rumor about a certain Lewis Clark, printed in a periodical in 1891, was untrue, so far as it had any connection with Mrs. Stowe.”


SOME BICYCLE TOPICS. *HE Century, too, in its September number, suc

as a providential instrument, and frankly to declare that she did not write the book ; ‘God wrote it.' In her own account, when she reached the death of Uncle Tom, 'the whole vital force left her.' The inspiration there left her, and the end of the story, the weaving together of all the loose ends of the plot, in the joining together almost by miracle the long separated, and the discovery of the relationships, is the conscious invention of the novelist.

" It would be perhaps going beyond the province of the critic to remark upon what the author considered the central power of the story, and its power to move the world, the faith of Uncle Tom in the Bible. This appeal to the emotion of millions of readers cannot, however, be overlooked Many regard the book as effective in regions remote from our perplexities by reason of this grace. When the work was translated into Siamese, the perusal of it by one of the ladies of the court induced her to liberate all her slaves, men, women and children, one hundred and thirty in all. 'Hidden Perfume,' for that was the English equivalent of her name, said she was wishful to be good like Harriet Beecher Stowe."

The Original of Uncle Tom. In the September Century Mr. Richard Burton, a fellow townsman of Mrs. Stowe, has a short sketch of the novelist in which he explains the origin of the character of Uncle Tom. He says :

** It has been emphasized of late that in 1849 a certain colored man was brought a number of times to the Stowe house at Walnut Hill, Cincinnati, where he told his piteous story of escape, capture and cruel privation, and this man is pointed to as the prototype of the hero in the great novel. The • original' Uncle Tom and the original' Topsy seem to some to be of supreme importance. Concerning this Uncle Tom of Walnut Hill, it is sufficient to say that while no doubt such a man appeared there, talked with the mistress, and moved her to pity for his misfortunes, his story is by no means that of the character immortalized by the writer. The simple truth is that this incident, like many another, acted as a suggestion to Mrs Stowe, as she brooded over her work ; it is a misconception of her methods of literary labor (and, indeed, of almost all such labor which proves potent) to imagine that her Uncle Tom was starkly taken from life. In the same way, discussion has arisen concerning Lewis Clark of Lexington, Ky., a venerable colored man, describing himself as the original study for George Harris in the tale. That Mrs. Stowe did make use of one Lewis Clark in limning the charac ter of Harris may be ascertained by any one who reads her · Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin,' a book written explicitly to show the sources whence she drew the data for her fiction. The only question is, then, whether the Clark spoken of in the ‘Key' is the Kentucky Clark, with whom an alleged interview has recently been published. It is not only possible, but probable, that they are one and the same. A

cumbs to the fascinations of bicycle discussion. Isaac B. Potter, a high official of the L. A. W., contributes an article on “The Bicycle Outlook.” He suggests that cycling may revive the old stagecoach inns.

A few days ago Mr. Edison was quoted in a daily newspaper as saying that within the next decade horseless carriages will be the rule. It may be, therefore, that, with the general improvement in road vehicles, and the general improvement of the public roads, without which no vehicle can become really efficient, the volume of road travel will be so increased as to bring to life the old inn of early days, but not, I think, the primitive and picturesque type that marked the stopping places of the old which, in the years following the Revolution, used to make the distance between Boston and New York in six days Nor will the rejuvenated inn bring back the old-time back-log festivals at which the Knickerbockers and Quakers so often came together when the fast coach known as the • Flying Machine' whirled its passengers between New York and Philadelphia in the astonishing space of two full days The railway has largely superseded common road travel, and our swift business methods will give the preference to railway travel until a swifter means shall take its place. But though the great inajority will travel by rail, it must be borne in mind that the great and growing body of cyclists who travel by road is not greatly less in point of numbers than the entire population of the colonies when the old inns were in vogue ; and the marked effort on the part of hotel proprietors to secure the patronage of the wheelmen shows how fully the value of this new element is being appreciated. About 7,000 official League hotels have been selected and granted official certificates by the League of American Wheelmen within the last five years. The proprietor of each of these hotels is required to sign a contract in which he undertakes to supply good food anā clean, comfortable lodgings to all travelers, and to accord a certain per centage of discount or rebate from regular prices to


all members of the League of American Wheelmen sive, and, the cost being generally contributed by on presentation of membership tickets for the cur the wheelmen themselves, no tax for this purpose is rent year. In exchange for this concession, the

placed upon the public at large. Whether this League publishes a list of all official hotels in the

should be so is a question that will stand some dis. road books, tour books, and hotel books issued for cussion ; but thus far the cyclists have sought only the use of wheelmen ; and in this manner the

to impose a small assessment upon actual users of patronage of the hotels is encouraged ; the wheel the wheel when money has been needed to con. men are brought together at common stopping

struct cycle-paths. Two years ago Mr. Charles T. places, and a direct benefit is secured to the organi Raymond of Lockport, N. Y., one of the pioneers in zation."

cycle-path construction, declared that what is used

by all, and needed by all, should be paid for by all,' One of the most valuable parts of Mr. Potter's

and this rule has commanded approval among discussion are the paragraphs relating to bicycle

wheelmen who have taken up the work of cyclepaths and the duty of insisting on good roads. He path making. Under favoring conditions, cyclesays : “A cycle-path is a protest against bad roads. paths cost from seventy-five to one hundred and We are not a nation of road-makers, and every year,

fifty dollars per mile. The surface width of the for weeks at a time, our country traffic and travel path should not be less than four feet, and need not are paralyzed by the presence of a simple mixture be more than seven feet, except in rare cases. The of dirt and water. Our country roads have cost us paths are generally laid out on the grass-grown road. thousands of millions of dollars in labor and money,

side, parallel with the wagonway. The grass is first very little of which has been spent in a sensible cut close to the ground, after which the material way. Skillful road work is planned in the brain,

(soft coal, cinders, or screened gravel) is put on in a wrought by skill, and finished by rule and reason.

thin layer, and so shaped and packed as to slope Every cyclist knows how unfit for human travel are

downward from the centre to each side. The grade in the miserable streaks of rooted soil that run for hun. most cases follows closely the original surface of the dreds of miles through our most populous counties,

ground. Material may generally be had at lower and all the horses and all the mules know it.

cost, and hauled at less expense, during the winter “ The undoubted duty of every road officer to keep

months ; and this is an important point to bear in the public highway in a condition fit for the use of

mind, since the item of haulage alone is likely to conevery vehicle having the lawful right to travel is stitute more than half the expense of construction.'' not well understood. Cycling has come upon us apace, and the country road-maker, whose official tenure is often short-lived and capricious, and

CLUB LIFE VERSUS HOME LIFE. whose ambition is likely to be restrained by a short


and parsimonious constituency, way scarcely V A factor in our social organization are urged by

be condemned if he fails at times to provide for the old conditions or to anticipate the new. The cyclist and the road commissioner are fast getting more closely in touch with each other, and the wheelman's influence at the state capital is certain, in the end, to secure the aid and supervision of the state in the making and maintaining of good country roads. Pending the time when this shall be accomplished, I believe that the making of cycling-paths along lines of popular road travel should be encouraged. In the state of New York the legislature has made special provision for the construction of cycle-paths in several of the interior counties ; and the local subdivisions of the League of American Wheelmen will doubtless combine to push the work of cycle path building, so as to lighten and brighten the journey of the cycling tourist between points where the common roads are in bad condition. We may look for a time in the near future when a cycling route from the Atlantic to the Pacific will be made and mapped, and when good roads and good cycle-paths will be so connected in a continuous chain between the two great oceans that a cross-continent journey awheel will be the popular ten weeks' tour of every cyclist whose time and purse will permit.

As commonly made, cycle paths are not expen

G. S. Crawford in the August Arena. The pith of these objections is contained in the following paragraphs which we quote from Mr. Crawford's article:

“ One of the chief objections to the club is the separation of the sexes which it brings about. It must, however, be admitted that normally consti. tuted women would be quite as much bored as men by constant intercourse with the opposite sex; the renewal of contact being one of the principal sources of the charm and refreshment which men and women get from each other's society. On the other hand, a mother who has the welfare of her family at heart naturally wishes for her sons and daughters the advantages of agreeable and improving associates. She can secure at her fireside the presence of superior

It is, however, more fitting that the head of the house should introduce its male visitors; but if, instead of bringing his companions to his home, he seeks their society at the club, the family circle loses the beneficial effects of contact with men whose opportunities for knowing life it may be presumed are both varied and instructive. Without this class of influence the home cannot be a true school of manners or accomplishments."



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benevolence is restricted to religious exhortation “The morally healthy man uses his club with the and eleemosynary services. same degree of moderation that he does the other “ The mission of Hull House is simply one of pure accessories to the pleasures and comforts of life; neighborliness. It assumes at the outset that there but there are a large number of men who cannot, is to be an exchange of kindly offices and mutual strictly speaking, be called healthy or unhealthy,

benefits. It sits down in the midst of its humble but may be made the one or the other by the influ- neighborhood with the idea of sharing the influence ences to which they are subjected. When the club of its larger opportunities with those whose lives are is regarded, as is sometimes the case, not only as a defrauded of the light and beauty that belong substitute, but even as a compensation for the ab- equally to all. It has no cumbrous theories to sence of a home, it cannot be otherwise than detri. which it is bound to conform, but is ruled only by mental to the best interests of society. Its influence a loving intelligence that constantly seeks the best upon unmarried men especially would seem to be good of the community of which it has, by free unwholesome, if for no other reason than because it choice, become an important and a responsible accustoms them to a degree of luxury and an exag- part." gerated standard of living difficult to attain, even

“ From first to last there has been no partial, oneif it were desirable, in the ordinary household. It sided effort in special lines of reform, but an earnest, furthermore encourages a class of celibates who in thoughtful consideration from many standpoints of the absence of family ties lose the strongest incen

the widest assistance that could be given the neightives to unselfish and noble exertion.”

borhood as a whole. And the whole, in the view of "The question before society is as simple as it is these philosophical workers, includes the settlement important. Our civilization rests upon the educa- itself; for whatever is accomplished in the elevation tion of the home; the good gained from the house- of the people with whom they have freely cast their hold cannot be won elsewhere. Whatever advan- lot, is believed to rebound, to revitalize and enlarge tages the club,may afford for political training, it the mental and spiritual perceptions and activities cannot compensate for the evil it does in debilitat- of all who feel themselves a part of the life of the ing the life of the fireside. It is the duty of all who recognize these obligations to struggle, as the keep

The men and women who have been drawn to ers of the best winnings of society, for the elevation the gratuitous work of the social settlement by the of household life. This end can best be reached by pure force of its human claims are of the generously a clear understanding of the dangers that attend cultured class who are conscious of a need to exthe removal of the pleasant offices of the home to pend their energies in wider and more satisfactory places where the family as a whole is not admitted. uses than are found in the polite and sometimes All the material gains of our time will be as nothing hypocritical amenities of a society that exists for if the household is not maintained as the chief seat itself alone. So far, by the mere bent of their de. of social interest and pleasure.”

sires, they are adapted to the molding influences of a co-operative work in which each must be willing

to renounce personal pet theories and assimilate so THE MISSION OF HULL HOUSE.

far as possible with the larger plan that includes HE work of Hull House, the remarkably suc- and directs all activities to the best results.

cessful “ social settlement in Chicago, is de “Hull House is no place for reformers with one scribed by Annie L. Muzzey in the August Arena. idea, or for riders and hobbies of any sort whatever.

“ The names of Jane Addams and Hull House It is in itself a school of large and varied culture, a have become familiar not only to the residents of school that is not ready to announce its full and abChicago, but to all readers interested in sociological solute solution of the social problems with which it studies and experiments. But there is with the deals, but which, with earnestness and humility, is general public a misapprehension of motives and feeling out its way to the truest methods, by united uses which does injustice to the broad spirit and endeavor, of bringing the two extremes of city social purpose of the founders and sustainers of this noble life into harmonious and helpful relationships that social settlement. It is crudely supposed that a shall in different ways equally benefit both. woman, or a company of women, going voluntarily “In this altruistic scheme there are ample and into an ignorant, impoverished, and alien com- manifold opportunities for each to follow the line of munity, must be acutated solely by motives of charity his or her aptitudes in the diversity of uses developed and self-sacrifice, or by a pious longing to give and by the work in its continuous progress. One of the be given for righteousness' sake, taking credit and remarkable things about the settlement is the fervor great satisfaction for their praiseworthy effort to and swiftness with which response has been made to save the lost and convert the sinning.

its needs, the army of resident and non-resident " But it is especially desired by Miss Addams that workers showing how strongly the spirit of Christ Hull House shall not be regarded as a philanthropy is seeking, on the borders of the twentieth century, in the sense of conferring charitable benefits from to embody itself in broader and diviner expressions the high altitude of a superior order of beings whose of love and human fellowship.”

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