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especially in view of the history of the western people. Chicago, Milwaukee, Cincinnati, New Orleans, St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, Minneapolis, Den ver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland—are all cities with very great foreign populations. All the States in which these and similar cities are located have large percentages of foreign-born citizens. The gold and silver producing States have from 25 to 50 per cent. of foreign-born voters. Colorado has always been peculiarly in the hands of Englishmen. Most of the mines in all these States are owned in Europe. The markets chiefly relied on by all the great western producers are European markets. In the West, the producers of cotton, corn, wheat, cattle, and the manufactured products growing out of these primary products, such as dressed meats, flour, etc., all have their eyes fixed intently on the European markets.

The eastern manufacturer is looking to the West, but the western producer is looking to the Far East. There, and there only, does he find the chief market for his own surplus.



the West (see REVIEW OF REVIEWS for June), is uttered by Mr. Charles S. Gleed, of Kansas, in the August Forum. It will be remembered that a considerable part of Mr. Godkin's article in the May Forum was devoted to the supposed hostile attitude of the West toward the East. Mr. Gleed now declares that Mr. Godkin is not personally familiar in any broad sense with the people living west of the Alleghanies, and therefore cannot fairly judge of their “attitude."

“He looks at these people through the twisted lens of his own dislike-not to say hatred-of sundry men, measures, parties, and publications which he assumes are representative of the whole West. This assumption is brutal and unintelligent. On the other hand, my own convictions concerning the West are based on a lifetime of close contact with all the larger communities between the Alleghanies and the Pacific, except those of the southern States east of the Mississippi River. I have scrutinized these communities from the points of observation of the student, the editor, the lawyer, the business man, and the general observer. I have taken careful note of the temper, convictions, and general characteristics of the western people, and I assert with positive conviction that there is no such 'attitude' of the West toward the East as that described by Mr. Godkin.

“On the contrary, the attitude of the West toward the East is of the most friendly character. It is natural that this should be so; it is impossible that it should be otherwise. The western people came from the East, or their ancestors did; and almost without exception they are bound to the East by the closest ties of consanguinity. They have taken pains to go East and to sudy the East. To them the East is' back,' while to the eastern people the West is .out.' They are proud of the great interests and institutions of the East. They feel that the East stands between them and Europe, and that thereby our country presents a majestic front to the Old World. They have been principally educated in the East; and their preachers, teachers, physicians, and intellectual leaders generally are of eastern training. Their systems of law and government are from the East. All the literature they read above the local newspaper is from the East; their educational methods are adopted from eastern standards. Every western banker or financier watches the chiefs of his profession in the East as pupils watch their teachers. Western merchants go East for their goods. Western people seeking recreation go East for their rest. There is no possible room, in short, for any such general feeling of hostility as Mr. Godkin describes."


The West is ready to stand by the record it has made, and though it may be in a manner and to some degree ignorant, provincial, isolated, envious, and otherwise bad, it yet remembers that it has given to this country its Lincoln, its Grant, its Shermans, and thousands of others whose services to the country and to humanity have been beyond

It also remembers that it has borne the heat and the burden of the day, in peace and in war, in business and in politics-having always had a preponderance of power since the time when the center of population moved down the western slopc of the Alleghanies into the great valley. The record is a glorious one, and I am glad to feel certain that eastern people generally know it and appreciate ita few of their editors to the contrary notwithstanding."

The Problem of the West. In the September Atlantic, Frederick J. Turner has an article entitled “ The Problem of the West," which attempts to explain the underlying causes of the social and political unrest culminating in the Chicago convention of 1896. He considers the phenomenon a not illogical result of the check to expansion which has necessarily come with the occupation of the Pacific lands and the loss of frontier opportunities.

Mr. Turner says: “This, then, is the real situation : A people composed of heterogeneous materials, with diverse and conflicting ideals and social interests, having passed from the task of filling up the vacant places of the continent, is now thrown back upon itself, and is seeking an equilibrium. The diverse elements are being fused into national unity. The forces of reorganization are turbulent and the nation seems like a witches' kettle :

* Double, double, toil and trouble,
Fire burn and cauldron bubble.'

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“ But the far West has its centres of industrial life and culture not unlike those of the East. It has state universities, rivaling in conservative and scientific economic instruction those of any other part of the Union, and its citizens more often visit the East, than do eastern men the West. As time goes on, its industrial development will bring it more into harmony with the East.”


And How They Got Their Millions.
N American who writes from intimate per-

sonal knowledge, but prefers to remain anony. mous, tells in Cornhill with much sympathy the story of several of our millionaires. He claims that even if the 4,000 millionaires own between them $40,000,000,000 out of the $76,000,000,000 which form the total national wealth, still the balance leaves every citizen $500 per head as against $330 per head forty-five years ago. He argues that millionaires have grown by making other classes not poorer but richer.

THE FIRST VANDERBILT. The wealth of the Vanderbilts is now said to total at least $400,000,000 :

“ Commodore Vanderbilt, who made the first Vanderbilt millions, was born just a century ago. His capital was the traditional bare feet, empty pocket, and belief in his luck—the foundation of so many American fortunes. Hard work, from six years of age to sixteen, furnished him with a second and more tangible capital-namely, $100 in cash. This money he invested in a small boat ; and with that boat he opened up a business of his own-the transportation of vegetables to New York. At twenty years of age he inarried, and man and wife both turned money makers. He ran his boat. She kept a hotel. Three years later he was worth $10,000. After that his money came rapidly-so rapidly that when the civil war broke out, the boy, who had started with one boat, value $100, was able to present to the nation one of his boats, value $800,000, and yet feel easy about his finances and his fleet. At seventy years of age he was credited with a fortune of $70,000,000.”

lions was therefore John Jacob Astor, who, tiring of his work as helper in his father's butcher's shop in Waldorf, went, about one hundred and ten years ago, to try his luck in the new world. On the ship he really, in one sense, made his whole fortune. He inet an old fur-trader who posted him in the tricks of Indian fur-trading. This trade he took up and made money at. Then he married Sarah Todd, a shrewd, energetic young woman. Sarah and John Jacob dropped into the homely habit of passing all their evenings in their shop sorting pelts. In fifteen years John Jacob and Sarah his wife had accumulated $250,000.

A lucky speculation in United States bonds, then very low in price, doubled John Jacob's fortune ; and this wealth all went into real estate, where it has since remained."

FOUR RAILWAY MAGNATES. Leland Stanford, Charles Crocker, Mark Hopkins, and Collis P. Huntington went to California in the gold fever of 1849. When the trans-continental rail. way was mooted these four "saw millions in it," and contracted to make the Union Pacific. “The four men, penniless in 1850, are to day credited with combined fortune of $200,000,000 :"

“One of them, Leland Stanford, had designed to found a family; but ten years ago his only son died, and he then decided to establish a university in memory of that son. And he did it in princely fashion, for while yet ‘in the flesh' he 'deeded' to trustees three farms containing 86,000 acres, and, owing to their splendid vineyards, worth $6,000,000. To this he added $14,000,000 worth of securities, and at his death left the university a legacy of $2,500,000 -a total gift by one man, to one institution of learning, of $22,500,000, which is said to be a world's record.' His wife has announced her intention to leave her fortune, some $10,000,000, to the university."



“ The most remarkable instance of money-making shown in the bistory of American millions" is that furnished by the Standard Oil Trust :

Thirty years ago five young men, most of them living in the small city of Cleveland (state of Ohio), and all comparatively poor (probably the whole party could not boast of £10,000), saw monetary possibilities in petroleum. In the emphatic language of the old river pilot, • They went for it thar and then,' and they got it. To-day the same party of five men are worth $600,000,000. D. Rockefeller, the brain and 'nerve' of this great “trust,' is a ruddy.faced man with eye so mild and manner so genial that it is very hard to call him a 'grasping monopolist.' His ' hobby' now is education, and he rides this hobby in robust, manly fashion. He has taken the University of Chicago under his wing, and already the sum of $7,000,000 has passed from his pockets to the treasury of the new seat of learning in the second city of the Republic."

“The Astor fortune owes its existence to the brains of one man and the natural growth of a great nation, John Jacob Astor being the only man in four generations who was a real money-maker. The money he made, as he made it, was invested in New York City property ; the amount of such property is limited, as the city stands upon an island. Conse. quently the growth of New York City, which was due to the growth of the Republic, made this small fortune of the eighteenth century the largest Ameri. can fortune of the nineteenth century. The first and last Astor worthy of study as a master of mil



After a word of pity for Jay Gould the writer tells to democratic power, and by a patrician indifference of J. S. Morgan, who—“ born in Massachusetts, a to the welfare of the masses. farmer boy first, then clerk in a dry goods shop,

* IF." then clerk in a bank, was able, out of his savings, at the age of thirty.eight, to establish in Boston a com That condition, however, did not exist, so Radical mercial house which soon took the first place in the strategy failed, and recent history since the last ReRepublic.”

form bill affords abundant ground for the belief that At forty three years of age he became partner and

if the class possessing leisure will play their part, the successor of George Peabody in London, and died in electorate will welcome and generally follow their 1890 worth $10,000,000.

lead ; but there is an if" in this, and although our

reviewer is very polite, he cannot disguise the fact THE MAKER OF WINANS' FORTUNE.

that many of the peers come very far short of living The source of the millions of Mr. Winans of Scot. up to their privileges. The danger has not passed tish deer forest fame is next told :

away with the huge majority of nearly one hundred • They were practically the sole product of one

and fifty: man, Ross Winans, who died in Baltimore twenty

“How could it be so, when over against the conyears ago. He was a farmer lad, and made his first spicuous splendor and elaborate luxury of life in the money out of a new plough, which he invented. town and country palaces of the high nobility, Then he turned his inventive genius to railways,

maintained somehow despite agricultural depresand was the first to perfect the manufacture of

sion and Harcourtian budgets, is to be set the world camel-back railway engines, and to suggest the of suffering and of struggle conveyed by Mr. Charles idea of eight-wheel railway car trucks. Russia

Booth's careful estimate that 30 per cent. of the wanted railway communication between Moscow population of London are under the “povertyand St. Petersburg. Winans was sent for by the

line ?'" Emperor, given his own terms, and so he made

LAMENTABLY DEFICIENT ARISTOCRATS. millions which his children have been content to let alone, while they took life by easy stages. This for

Here, for instance, are some plain truths faithtune is now taken as showing a total of $35,000,000.'

fully spoken which it is to be hoped that our peers Charles T. Yerkes, the street railway king, penni.

and peeresses will take to heart : less twenty years ago, is now worth $15,000,000.

“But it must be admitted that, in not a few cases, men of rank, who have had all the advan. tages of those institutions, are lamentably deficient

in the mental equipment required for an adequate ANOTHER SERMON TO THE “SPLENDID comprehension of national questions, whether doPAUPERS."

mestic or external. They know little more of those

problems than may be picked up from the news. HE Quarterly Review publishes an excellent


papers, and are unable to reproduce what they do

know, or such reflections on it as they may have put ish Nobility,” the moral of which is exactly that

together, in a style appreciably superior to the which was set forth at some length in the pages of

average of the speeches in a second-class debating the REVIEW OF REVIEWS when the English aristoc

society in a manufacturing town. This is so poor a racy was treated as part of “The Wasted Wealth of

result of generations of inherited political power King Demos.” The reviewer publishes a letter

that, apart from all considerations of its effect on from the Duke of Rutland, in which he describes

the present and future position of their class, the the part played by the “ Young England Move.

English aristocracy ought to regard it as a reproach ment” in improving the relations between class

to be cleared away as completely and as early as and class, and in ameliorating the condition of the poor. The reviewer marvels that Mr. Lecky should

The people have a right to expect that, in have failed to derive any substantial encourage return for the enjoyment of their inherited estates ment in his anticipations for England from the

and dignities, this class should make a fine art of manner in which the recently enfranchised British

the conduct of public affairs, from the Parish Counvoters have used their power. The total failure of

cil to the House of Lords." Mr. Gladstone's attack on the House of Lords fills him with confidence in the future. The Radical THE OPPORTUNITY OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT. programme, he thinks, was by no means absurd. It The reviewer rejoices to note that the more active was indeed dangerously effective:

and influential county magistrates have been chosen “ It was so broad and vigorous in its general con to be councilors, but he says lugubriously: ception that it would have had a very good prospect “It rests with the younger generation of the no of success, if only one condition had been present. bility and country gentry to decide whether the That condition was a widely-spread disposition adininistration of rural and semi-rural affairs under among the working classes to believe that the nobil. a popular systein of local government shall be wority were animated by a spirit of aristocratic dislike thy of the excellent beginning it has made, and

may be.


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shall present a record of steadily advancing enlight- fessional men from any of the towns within easy enment, or shall decline upon poor and unworthy reach, are quite exceptional. There is no sufficient standards.

reason why this should be so. There are to be found “Nor is it only in the counties that an important in the towns many ladies and gentlemen with a mission demands the loyal acceptance of the English breadth of culture and an ease and refinement of aristocracy. There are many welcome signs of the manner amply qualifying them to associate on terms spread of higher standards, æsthetic and sanitary, of equal mutual pleasure and advantage with the of municipal life in the great towns ; and with this, families and friends of the neighboring nobility. largely causing it, partly caused by it, an increasing It is pure loss all around that such association is readiness on the part of men of education and good still quite rare, and there is an odd perversity about breeding to take an active interest in the conduct of the habits which make it so." local affairs. The improvement may be powerfully aided by the co-operation of the neighboring territo. rial aristocracy. But it is not by any means certain THE OBJECT LESSON IN OUTDOOR RELIEF. that the younger generation of the landed aristocracy, titled or untitled, recognize the duty incum- The Melancholy Experience of St. Olave's

Guardians. bent upon them to take up the succession of such work. It is of great importance that they should do

N the article on Democratic Finance which The work is eminently worthy of the intellect- appears in the July number of the Quarterly ual, moral, and even æsthetic sympathies of all Review, a writer tells the curious story of the result patriotic citizens.'

of an experiment made by the Poor Law Union of But it is not enough that dukes and earls should St. Olave's in dispensing outdoor relief. serve as mayors, as ornamental appendages of Brit

A LABOR-YARD AT TRADES-UNION WAGES. ish municipal institutions : “ All this is well ; but if the aristocracy are to

“The Metropolitan Poor Law Union of St. Olave's retain that confidence in their fitness for parliament

enjoys the privilege of possessing a democratic ary and municipal responsibilities which the masses

board of guardians. The task of administering the appear ready to repose in them, it can only be by

Poor law is admittedly a difficult one, but it is one resolute application of their energies to the duties

on which a vast amount of experience has been which they undertake. A merely ornamental dis

accumulated and put on record. But, like the em. charge of parliamentary or municipal functions,

peror who was super grammaticam, the St. Olave's coupled from time to time with expressions of sym

board was a law unto itself. They resolved to dispathetic interest in the welfare of the masses, will

pense with those salutary tests of destitution which not serve and ought not to serve."

experience has shown to be necessary, and which in

the case of the able-bodied are actually prescribed SOCIALIZE THE DUCAL CASTLE.

by law and by the orders of the Local Government Nor will this impatient reviewer be contented Board. During the winter of 1894-95, this board even if the peer grudges its mayoral functions, like

opened a labor-yard for the relief of the able-bodied, the galley slave at his oar. He must not only pre- but, neglecting the advice that applicants are to side over his councilors in the town, he must invite

receive not wages but relief proportioned to their them and their wives to his country house. No necessities, the guardians determined to pay their doubt, he hastens to remark, it is much easier for a relief on the scale of trades-union wages. great lady to fill her house from year to year with

THE RESULT : FOUR SHILLING'S WORTH OF WORK people who need little or no looking after, than to

FOR £7. make judicious selections of guests representing different social atmospheres and modes of life, but “ The labor-yard remained open from January 7 if they took the trouble they would find the game to March 28. During that period 61,617 days of well worth the candle :

employment were given at a cost of £10,782, exclu“ The fruit of such work, if well done, would be sive of cost of management. The total expenditure twofold. It would ensure a lasting and progressive was about £18,000. The stone broken cost the enrichment of the interest of life to all concerned. guardians £7 per ton as compared with 4s., which is The conversation of the drawing room and of the said to be the cost of the same work in the open smoking room, both in the town mansion and the market. The relief was not effectual for the purcountry house, would become both more extended pose intended. Admittedly the yard was monopoin its range and more varied in its point of view. lized by the criminal and semi-criminal classes, and This is not only to say that social intercourse would the conditions of the relief were such that no respectbecome brighter, more attractive, and more refresh- able workman could accept them. A large proporing, with far less of sameness and the resulting tion of the men did no work at all, so lax was the ennui than at present. The great country mansions supervision that many absented themselves from the in the northern counties, at which it would be yard till the hour of payment arrived, some of the thought a natural thing to find in a house-party payment was given in kind, and the tickets and gro. leading merchants and manufacturers or even pro. ceries so distributed were in many cases exchanged

PRACTICAL SOCIALISM IN SWITZERLAND, As Described By an American Observer. ROF. JESSE MACY contributes to the Ameri.

PRoer Journal of Sociolngy for July a very in

for drink. This method of procedure offered no solution of the difficulty.

LOOK ON THIS PICTURE ! "By the end of March, when the guardians decided to close the yard, they had succeeded in col. lecting, in normal weather, between 800 and 1,000 men whose daily resort was the labor-yard. Obvi. ously this congestion of unemployed labor left the difficulty in an aggravated condition, when this large number of men were suddenly deprived of their employment.

“ The maladministration of the St. Olave's board has been so flagrant that the Local Government Board has disallowed a portion of the subvention, which had otherwise been due to it from the Com. mon Poor Fund.

Unfortunately, the loss falls upon the ratepayers of St. Olave's, and not on the guardians."


“The above incident is only one item in a long course of mismanagement which, considering the widespread suffering and demoralization caused thereby to the poorest and most helpless class of the community, may fairly be described as criminal. The possibility of reducing pauperism by a care ul administration is generally admitted. From 1870-71 to 1880-81 there was a general fall in pauperism throughout the metropolis, in which movement St. Olave's participated. The pauperism of Whitechapel and St. Olave's fell from 61.6 and 44.7 per 1,000 of population in 1870-71 to 25.1 and 27.5 in 1880-81. In 1884 a new policy was introduced into St. Olave's, and in 1892-93 the rate per 1,000 had risen again to 40.3, while in Whitechapel the decline continued, reducing the rate per 1,000 to 21.5.

“ The key to this unfortunate result is afforded by the following figures : -Expenditure on outdoor relief.

1895. Whitechapel...... £1,118

£80 St. Olave's.

11,546 6,319 11,214 23,643 “The policy of the Whitechapel Union, as is well known, is influenced by a permanent official who has thoroughly mastered the scientific aspects of Poor law administration. Yielding to his advice, the board has pursued a continuous policy of reducing outdoor relief for the last twenty-five years. About 1884 the St. Olave's board seems to have fallen into the hands of some ignorant or malevo. lent persons who, by adopting a contrary policy, have multiplied pauperism and raised the burdens of the ratepayers to an alarming extent. Unfortunately its procedure is typical of many other unions, and of the democratic science by which they are governed.”

teresting sketch of “The Swiss and Their Politics." Professor Macy was delighted to find the Swiss so much in advance of the American in all that relates to the control of plutocracy by the people. Intelli gent Swiss with whom he talked were amazed at the extent to which the country of George Washing ton was dominated by the power of the purse. Yet there is no socialism in Switzerland excepting that of the practical kind, some illustrations of which Professor Macy describes in the following passage:

AN OBJECT LESSON FOR AMERICANS. “I have been surprised at the cool and matter of fact way in which the Swiss, through their govern. mental agencies, assume control of industrial operations which Americans regard as belonging to pri. vate enterprise. The Swiss were among the first to adopt the government telegraph. This suited them so well that when the telephone had fully demonstrated its usefulness, without any special debate or fuss about the matter, they made the telephone an integral part of the postal.telegraphic.system. For about $9 one has the use of a telephone for a year, with connections in all parts of the city and country. They have a parcels post which corresponds to our express business. It cost me 5 cents to send by mail my manuscript on the English Governinent from one end of Switzerland to the other. For a like service in the United States mail I think I have paid 75 cents. It is only recently that measures have been adopted looking to the government ownership of all the railways of Switzerland, and I have been completely dumbfounded at the apparent lack of interest in the subject. The government has recently taken charge of the manufacture and sale of matches. I think the government monopoly of the sale of alcoholic drinks has excited more debate. But the point of interest has been the suppression of drunkenness rather than the industrial effects. There is now a measure before the national legislature for establishing a national bank, and this is causing some newspaper discussion. All these are enterprises of the national government.

“ In the cantons and in the cities there are move. ments of a similar character. Various cantons and communes have in recent years assumed the burden of burying the dead.

MUNICIPALIZED ELECTRICITY. “ While I was in Geneva the city gained possession of the lighting plant of an outlying district which had previously been in the hands of a company. A few years ago the city began to utilize the power of the Rhone river, which comes out of the lake in a mighty torrent. They needed the water of the lake in their streets and houses, and they made the river pump the water. The watch in.


1881. £1.152



THE Quiver is chiefly noticeable for Hector Maclean's sketch of the human Oddments and Wastrels of London, and the commencement of a new serial story by Helen Boulnois, Jervis Carew's Ward."

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