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little braids, which are then twisted at each side of ORNHILL" has an article on Children's

his head over his ears, in which hang gold earrings. Theology,” which is full of good things.

Ras Alula is about sixty years old. His long beard Several have already gone the round of the papers,

is gray. He generally rides on horseback. He is and all suggest that this branch of the now fashion

very rigid, and has sworn enmity to the Italians ever able “child-study” will be more sedulously culti

since they first set foot in Africa." vated in magazinedom than heretofore.

Here are a few specimens: “Jacky is almost always on good terms with his

JAPANESE COMPETITION AGAIN, mother, but he has a tiresome aunt whom he has good reason for disliking. He was once unavoida

articles in the Overland Monthly which dealt bly left in her charge while his mother was away with the subject of Japanees industrial competition from home, and her visit was not altogether a suc- with the United States from radically different

She had been 'obliged' to punish him points of view. The North American Review for severely for some fault, and after the operation was August has an article entitled Is Japanese Comover he was seen to get a pencil and, retiring into a petition a Myth ?” by the Hon. Robert P. Porter, corner of the nursery, laboriously write something who has recently returned from an extended visit to upon a small piece of paper. The same spy who Japan. Mr. Porter is convinced that Japan has observed him do this watched him afterward from already become a formidable competitor in many the window while he dug a hole with his little spade industries, and is rapidly forging to the front in and buried the bit of paper in a corner of the gar- others. The present commercial relations between den. When Jacky was safely out of the way the the United States and Japan are thus summarized spy exhumed his manuscript. It ran as follows: by Mr. Porter: * Dear Devill,- Pleas come and take Antie.'

“ We buy of Japan about $54,000,000 worth of * Jacky longed above all things for a bicycle- goods; Japan buys of us $9,000,000, mostly staples ; longed and prayed, too, that some one, his god- Japan takes our $54,000,000 and buys $56,000,000 of mother for choice, would give him one. Every day England, and England, not to be outdone by Japan he came downstairs hoping to find the machine of in generosity, buys about $7,000,000 of that country. his prayers in the hall. At last something came, All this is sad, and discouraging and humiliating, but it was a tricycle; and godmamma, lying in am- I know, but it is true as the Gospel. That it is true bush to be a witness of the child's raptures, heard would seem to me one reason why the people of the instead a heavy sigh, and ‘O God, I did think you United States must look at the question of Japanese would have known the difference between a bicycle competition free from all sentimental considerations. and a triycle.' Once, when he had been so exceed- In other words, we must protect our own industry ingly naughty that his mother almost despaired of and our own labor." hiin, she told him he must pray to God to make him

THE SECRET OF JAPAN'S STRENGTH. a better boy. Accordingly he began with the usual formula. ' Pray, God, make me a good boy,' adding,

" Japan has an industrial army that has gone into after a pause, and if at first you don't succeed, try.

the conflict of nations with whatever implement it

had at hand. It has not waited until every man try, try again.'”

was equipped with the latest modern appliances, but has begun making excellent articles with the

tools within its reach. In Osaka, it is no exaggeraSOME ABYSSINIAN PERSONAGES.

tion to say, I saw the methods of a thousand years N the United Service Magazine for August, Cap- ago, side by side with the latest and most ingenious

labor-saving devices. The quotations from the Rice ages whom he saw in the Abyssinian camp during Exchange were being waved by flags from peak to the time that he was a prisoner of King Menelik: peak, within a stone's throw of the Post Office build.

“I once saw the Empress Taitù riding at the head ing, where could be heard the click of the telegraph of the soldiers. She is an immensely corpulent instruments, and the “hello' of the telephone girl

I could not see her face, for she had a in her kimono. In the magnificently equipped piece of white stuff over her head which hung down cotton-spinning and weaving factories, in paper to her breast. Menelik is a very robust man. His mills, in some of the large silk factories, in the clock hair and beard are black and curly, his nose turns and watch factories, in the machine shops of Japan, up. His eyes are very black and large. He dresses I have seen the most modern English, German and with great simplicity, and while on the march wears American machinery, and forces of men and women a large straw hat to protect him from the sun. as thoroughly organized and as fully equipped as Both he and Taitù are extremely feared. Mangascia, a handsome, strong man of about thirty years of On the other hand, within the shadow of these age, is effeminate. He dresses very richly, has his immense establishments in the Osaka district, where long, black hair braided every day into a quantity of tall chimneys remind one of Manchester, Philadel


any on earth.


phia and Chicago, thousands of human beings labor with tools so crude and implements so antique that you are taken back to the cities of the ancient world.

“ These tremendous contrasts, to my mind, show the courage of the Japanese. He simply throws away the old device when he can secure the new. Like all good workmen, however, he does not stand idly by waiting for the better implements. He pounds away at his rice, runs off beautiful silken threads froin the ancient spinning wheel, plies the hand dexterously at all occupations, as he did a thousand years ago, wholly oblivious of the hum and rattle of the modern machinery in the surrounding factories. He cannot afford to stop, but he is none the less awaiting his turn to secure the newer machine. When Japan is fully equipped with the latest machinery, it will, in my opinion, be the most potent industrial force in the markets of the world."

As to the problems connected with the use of coal, Mr. Weeks suggests the following desiderata:

“1. A more perfect combustion; that is, from the same amount of fuel more heat units must be de. veloped.

2. Improved appliances for saving this heat and transmuting it into energy. Not only must these increased heat units do more work, but each indi. vidual heat unit must directly develop more energy.

3. Recuperation of so-called exhausted energy; that is, the heat must continue at work until the actual limit of exhaustion has been reached.

“ The use of gases instead of solid fuel is an example of the first direction in which we are to look for the answers to the problems connected with the use of coal. The improvements in the steam engine are examples of the second class, and the Siemens regenerator and compound engines of the third.”





Mr. Weeks makes a wonderful showing of the

products locked up in coal which are now permitted MR.

for August, makes several important sugges to go to waste. tions in regard to fuel problems. From his study of

“ In every ton of coal coked in the United States, the subject he concludes that there has been a loss

it is fair to assume that from any of the by-product in mining of 70 per cent. of the coal in the veins, coke ovens there can be produced at least 3 per that not to exceed 10 per cent. of the possible energy

cent. of tar worth one-third of a cent per pound; 1 in the coal now consumed is utilized, and that there per cent. of sulphate of ammonia worth 3 cents a is a constant waste of coal products other than

pound; one-half of 1 per cent. of benzole worth 2 heat.

cents a pound, and one pound cyanide of potassium “ The loss of coal from miscalculations or bad en

worth 50 cents per pound. As in 1893. 14,916, 147 gineering of the mine is enormous. Pillars may be

tons of coal were coked in the United States, the too large and the coal wasted; or too small, and the

possible production and value at present prices of pillars crush and shut off the coal beyond. It is not these products would have been as follows: unusual to leave unmined a part of a vein that is

Amount. either under or above a slate, and which may not be Materials. quite so pure as that mined. The waste from this




298,322,940 source is enormous.

Sulphate of ammonia.

8.949,688 There are mines in the Pitts


149, 161,470

2,983.229 burg region where, with seventy-one and one half

Cyanide of potassium.


7,458,073 inches of coal, but thirty-two inches of clean coal

$21,379,810 and the bearing-in coal of four inches are mined: thirty-six inches out of seventy-one and one-half “The above products, however, are only those inches are left untouched, a loss of thirty-five and from the 15,000,000 of tons of coal cuked in one one-half inches; practically, one half of the coal is

year. What about the value of the by-products of left in the mine, besides the waste in mining. This the 113,000,000 tons of coal not coked custom is not at all uncommon. The miner may do tons of tar and ammonia and benzole and cyanide his work very unskillfully in bringing down the could be saved from this amount of coal ? The coal, in loading and other ways to which I need but amount of ammonia would be something enormous, refer at this time. How can this waste be avoided : though the tar and benzole, if the coal was properly

“ It cannot be entirely avoided, but it can be still burned into gas before it was applied to heating further decreased by just the methods by which it purposes, as it should be, would not be so great as has already been largely reduced. Mechanical when the coal is coked. The Mond circular promeans, instead of the coal itself, can be used for ducer, which I saw at work a year ago in England supporting the roof and surface; gobbing up will on Yorkshire coal, gave 48 kilos (105 pounds) of suloften give a much larger percentage of coal; better phate of ammonia per ton of coal charged, and 80 to engineering of the collieries will give better methods 90 pounds was the regular yield.” and less waste. All of the vein can be mined, even Estimating the value of these by-products per ton if a portion of it is inferior, and many methods can of coal burned at 50 cents, the total loss on the coal be greatly improved."

mined in 1893 would have been $64,000,000.

How many




good number, G. H. Stockbridge describes Dr. Jacques' promise of a revolution in power production by producing electricity directly from coal. E. H. Williams puts more concisely the same wonderful discovery of Dr. Jacques. By it “over eighty per cent. of the energy of the carbon can be obtained directly as electricity without the intervention of machinery, by a method as simple as wonderful. Dynamos will be sent to the attics, and it will be cheaper to heat and work by electricity than by fires. In a series of iron cells Dr. Jacques places caustic soda, which he fuses at 300 degrees F., and in the fused alkali he places rods of carbon. Air being forced through the bath, the combination of carbon and oxygen creates electricity in such quantities that arc lights can be run for hours with little or no consumption of carbon. If this is all that it is claimed to be, --and its sponsors are men who understand what they are saying, -the old culm banks contain reserve energy sufficient to furnish us with power for many generations, and the coal now in the ground will be so mined that culm banks will cease to be the most prominent ob. jects in an old anthracite district.”

“Culm banks are better known in Great Britain as anthracite “pit heaps.” At present, by the ordinary methods in use, only 10 or at most 18 per cent. of the energy of the carbon is turned into electric energy. R. Hering's paper in the same magazine, on the filtration of municipal water supplies, is an instructive commentary on the contrast between Altona, which had filtered water, and Hamburg. which had not, during the cholera visitation. Valuable and sensible remarks on the architecture of home-making are contributed by C. E. Benton.

I felt that I could not do myself justice in novel writing until it was my only occupation."

"' And what is that method ?'

"* A very slow and painful one, I am afraid. I am building up a book months before I write the first chapter; before I can put pen to paper I have to realize all the chief incidents and characters. I have to live with my characters, so to speak; otherwise, I am afraid they would never appear living people to my readers. This is my work during the summer; the only time that I am really from the burden of the novel that-is-to be is: when I am grouse shooting or salmon fishing. At other times I am haunted by the characters and the scenes in which they take part, so that for the sake of his peace of mind my method is not to recommended to any young novelist. When I come to the writing I have to immure myself in perfect quietude; my study is at the top of the house, and on the two or three days a week that I am writing Mrs. Black guards me from interruption.

“« Of course, now and again I have had to read a great deal, preparatory to writing. Before beginning ‘Sunrise,' for instance, I went through the history of secret societies in Europe.'”


The following items of information are not gen. erally known:

“ The novelist knew Mr. Bright very well, and at the Reform Club played many a game of billiards with the statesman. Their great love for salmon fishing was another bond of friendship between them.

6. During his last illness.' Mr. Black tells me, 'Mr. Bright would often take a rod and pretend to throw a line in the effort to realize the pleasure of his favorite sport.'

WILLIAM BLACK AT HOME. HE Young Man for August publishes an ac

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as he is to be seen at Brighton. The writer says :

“Mr. Black's home is-and has been for many years-Paston House, Paston Place, Brighton. But it is a home in which he never spends more than half the year—from September or October to March or April. At any other time you would have to find him in the Highlands, where he and his family take up their residence at a different spot every year. But it is at Paston House that the novelist does the greater part of his work."

The article is chiefly made up of notes on William Black's conversations upon his career. From these I extract the more interesting passages, as follows:

“I did not resign my position of assistant editor of the Daily News till 1875, and for some time after that I contributed articles to the paper. method of writing a novel I was only too glad to escape from journalism.


“Mr. Black was war correspondent for the Morning Star-John Bright's organ-in the conflict of 1866 between Austria and Prussia. Of his fighting experiences he gave some account in the first novel - Love or Marriage' -published in the following year. Of this book Mr. Black does not care to speak, and I believe that it is a matter of some regret to him that it can still be read in the British Museum. It certainly gives no indication of the ‘line' which Mr. Black was so brilliantly to make his own; but, on the other hand, it does not deserve the oblivion to which the author is apparently anxious to consign it. In its frank treatment of the marriage question, and its realistic picture of some of the horrors of war, the novel anticipates in some degree several of the most successful works of fiction during the last few yea Mr. Black surveyed the field of Königgrätz just after the battle, and the picture he gives of the scene in the novel has some

With my

of the realism of Zola's · The Downfall’and Stephen Crane's 'The Red Badge of Courage.''

have a great admiration for Gregory VII. as a man of strength and conviction. Of his Romanes lecture of 1893 he said that it was not a recantation of aggressive theological views, but he admitted that the main thesis is only the doctrine that from the scientific side Satan is the prince of this world.

The following are some notes of Huxley's anecdotes and observations:



R. WARD made Mr. Huxley's acquaintance in

1890. He became a neighbor of his at Eastbourne, and afterward had many talks on every conceivable subject, and of these conversations, which are among the most intellectually stimulating that he had ever known, he gives us some notes in this article in the Nineteenth Century. He was delighted to find that instead of being a pugilist, a pedant and a scoffer, Huxley had a personality of singular charm, gentle, sympathetic and brilliant. The general impression left by his face was one of intellectual force and activity rather than of scorn; in his manner and appearance there was marked distinction and dignity; his conversation was singularly finisked and clear cut. Instead of suggesting more than he said, as Tennyson and Cardinal Newman did, he finished his thoughts completely and expressed them with the utmost precision. In conversation he was tolerant as a listener, and always more brilliant, forcible, and definite than convincing, suggestive or entirely comprehensive in his replies.

When made Privy Councilor in '92, he replied:

“Very many thanks [he wrote] for your kind congratulations. Morris has a poem somewhere about the man who was born to be a king, and became one in spite of probability. It is evident to me now that I was horn to be respectable. I have done my level best to avoid that honor, but behold me indelibly stamped."

Mr. Ward reports a saying of his in 1892 which is worthy of note:

* Faulty and incorrect as is the Christian definition of Theism, it is nearer the truth than the creed of some agnostics who conceive of no unifying principle in the world.' He proceeded to defend elo. quently the argument from design, referring me to his volume of Darwiniana, to show that he had admitted in print that it could not be disproved by the evolution theory. This position, which entirely tallies with his statement that only a ‘very great fool’ would deny in his heart a God conceived as Spinoza conceives Him, was distinctly short of the degree of agnosticism currently attributed to him by those who read him hastily and blended their own logic with his rhetoric.”

Huxley once said that he thought his own lecture on Descartes was the best exhibition of his religious attitude as a whole. Speaking of the value of qualities, Huxley once said, men of ability are common enough, but men of character and conviction are very rare.

It is the grandest thing conceivable to see a man speaking out and acting out his convio. tions in the face of unpopularity. This led him to

“So, too, Stanley's impressionable imaginative nature was brought out by him in an anecdote. Stanley, vividly impressed by the newest thought of the hour, liberal, and advanced by family and school tradition, had sympathized with Colenso's treatment of the Bible in some degree; yet his his. torical impressionableness told the other way. Huxley explained his position thus :

'Stanley could believe in anything of which he had seen the supposed site, but was skeptical where he had not seen. At a breakfast at Monckton Milnes’, just at the time of the Colenso row, Milnes asked me my views on the Pentateuch, and I gave them. Stanley differed from me. The account of creation in Genesis he dismissed at once as unhistorical; but the call of Abraham and the histori. cal narrative of the Pentateuch he accepted. This was because he had seen Palestine-but he wasn't present at the creation.'»

• Admirably did he once characterize Tennyson's conversation. “Doric beauty is its characteristic-perfect simplicity, without any ornament or anything artificial.' Of an eminent person whose great subtlety of mind was being discussed, he said that the constant overrefinement of distinctions in his case destroyed all distinctness. Anything could be explained away, and so one thing came to mean the

ne as its opposite. Some one asked, “Do you mean that he is untruthful ?' 'No,' replied Hux. ley, he is not clear headed enough to tell a lie.'


“ (ne of the subjects of his enthusiasm was John Bright--his transparent sincerity, his natural distinction, his oratorical power. “If you saw him and A. B.' (naming a well known nobleman) 'together,' he said, “you would have set down Bright as the aristocrat, and the other as the plebeian. His was the only oratory which ever really held me. His specches were masterpieces. There was the sense of conviction in them, great dignity, and the purest English.”

TENNYSON. · He once spoke strongly of the insight into scientific method shown in Tennsyson's In Memorium, and pronounced it to be ' quite equal to that of the greatest experts.' Tennyson he considered the greatest English master of melody except Spenser and Keats. I told him of Tennyson's insensibility to music, and he replied that it was curious that scientific men as a rule had more appreciation of


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music than poets or men of letters. He told me of astical tradition, or by professed biblical scholars. one long talk he had had with Tennyson, and added It raised questions which had not been so clearly put that immortality was the one dogma to which Ten- before, precisely because those for whom they were nyson was passionately devoted.”

most interesting had never considered them from an AND BROWNING.

exclusively human standpoint, and they were funda

mental questions." “Of Browning, Huxley said: “He really has

· Ecce Homo was by no means the only service music in him. Read his poem, “ The Thrush," and

which Sir John Seeley rendered to the relgious life you will see it. Tennyson said to me,' he added,

of his century. As long ago as 1868, addressing the ' that Browning had plenty of music in him, but he

Broad Church, he exhorted the ministers of religion could not get it out.'

to devote more attention to the history of their own “ A few more detached remarks illustrate the

country. He said: character and tastes of the man. He expressed

• If the Christian Church is ever to recover influonce his delight in Switzerland and in the beauty of

ence, its ministers must make themselves acquaiuted Monte Generoso. * There is nothing like Switzer

with the social questions of their time; they must land,' he said. “But I also delight in the simplest

expel conventionalism and euphuism and vagueness rural English scenery. A country field has before

from their sermons; and they must make their connow entranced me.' One thing,' he added, ' which

gregations familiar with the heroes of national his. weighs with me against pessimism, and tells for a

tory." benevolent Author of the universe, is my enjoyment

HIS CONTRIBUTION TO HISTORY. of scenery and music. I do not see how they can have helped in the struggle for existence. They are

Of his other books Mr. Fisher writes as follows: gratuitous gifts.'

“In · Natural Religion' we have the philosophy of Goethe subordinated to the strong practical in

terests of the English historian. SIR JOHN SEELEY.

“ The “Expansion of England' has become a R. HERBERT A. L. FISHER, in the Fort- household book and a household phrase. It said

nightly Review for August, publishes a good nothing which historians had not known before. article on Sir John Seeley, whose literary and relig

But I question whether any historical work has ious teachings he describes in some detail. He says:

exercised so great an influence over the general Twice he took the English reading world by political thinking of a nation. storm, once by a book on religion, and again by a

Seeley wrote nothing which was not bold, and book on politics; and each book, in its own sphere,

little which was not origina). The 'Growth of may be held to mark an epoch in the popular educa- British Policy’is a conspicuous instance of his sintion of the Anglo-Saxon race.

gular power of simplifying an extraordinary com“There is one idea which inspires every sentence

plex period of history and of presenting its main which came from Seeley's pen. It is the idea of the features in a salient and even startling outline. He state. For him the state is not only the proper

delights in packing a century into a formula, a matter of history, it is the noblest object of human policy into a paradox, a career into a phrase. Whatcontemplation, the most vital subject for human ever weight may be attached to these and similar inquiry. And he derived this enthusiasm for his- criticisms, the book will remain a solid and original tory in the first place from the Bible. “I may say,

contribution to English history. The author has in one word,' he writes, ó that my ideas are Biblical, taken us over a familiar country by a new route. that they are drawn from the Bible at first hand, He has not, indeed, increased our knowledge of and that what fascinates me in the Bible is not a facts. That was not his ambition. His services passage here and there, not something which only a rather consist in this, that in an age of innumerable scholar or antiquarian can detect in it, but the fresh documents and monographs and periodicals, Bible as a whole, its great plan and unity, and

he has brought a fresh mind to reflect upon our acprincipally the grand poetic anticipation I find in it quisitions, and so to winnow and combine the mateof modern views concerning history."

rial as to present the cardinal lessons of history,

cleared of all trivial ard unessential detail.” HIS RELIGIOUS WORK. Seeley's ideal, the influence of which is manifest, was that active enthusiasm was the noblest form of The chief elements of interest in Temple Bar for life, and essential to the preservation of a healthful August are a sketch by Mr. John Macdonell of the society. This writer thinks his conception of the late Lord Bramwell and a piece of good humored state he portrayed was due to his devotion to the advice to literary ladies, whom the writer thinks Hebrew Scriptures. Mr. Fisher says of

have been too hardly dealt with in literature, but Homo :"

who might with advantage wear their learning and “ That book marks the appearance of the plain lay their new-found rights more lightly. There is also a judgment upon a sphere which had been long mo. ghastly account of Bicêtre, the old French criminal nopolized either by the disciples of a pious ecclesi- lunatic asylum.

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“ Ecce

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