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all things. A broad survey of the progress of literature from its outset will show us that purpose has ever played a larger and larger part in literary work with each age in each nation."

A Newport Symposium " is a clever skit on American social life by Mrs. Burton Harrison. Its points cannot be brought out by quotation ; it must be read in its entirety.


HE articles selected from the August Arena for

quotation elsewhere are G. S. Crawford's "Club Life versus Home Life" and Annie L. Muzzey's account of Hull House and its aims.

The Arena has two articles on the money question, both taking the free-silver position. The first is styled “ A. Reply to "A Financial Seer,'" by C. S. Thomas. " A Financial Seer's Views” are given in a fine-print foot-note and are supposed to represent the concentrated wisdom of the advocates of a single gold standard. Mr. Thomas replies to this “ Seer" in a twelve-page article, stating the familiar free-silver arguments. There is also an article entitled “The Morning of a New Day," by Mr. George Canning Hill, who regards the campaign for silver as the dawn of liberty.

Mr. J. Kellogg suggests in an article on the convict question that the state should make compensation to the innocent families of convicts while sentence for crime is being served by the head of the household, and in case the condemned man has no family a small sum should be invested for his benefit, so that when his term shall have expired he may have capital for a new start.

In an article entitled “ Associated Effort and Human Progress,” Dr. M. L. Holbrook makes a strong plea for co-operation in business. He cites the success of the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society, a federation of all the retail societies of Scotland, 278 in number, with a membership of over 150,000 persons.

Annie E. Cheney explains some of the fine distinctions between the three yanas -Nindenyana, Hinayana, and Mahayana-or methods of instruction in Japanese Buddhism, with especial reference to Mahayana.


THE FORUM. LSEWHERE we have quoted from Mr. Gleed's



IR WALTER BESANT'S forecast of the “ Future

of the Anglo-Saxon Race," the Hon. R. P. Porter's analysis of Japan's industrial status, Mr. J. W. Russell's account of the Canadian elections, and the Hon. Josiah Quincy's survey of the presidential campaign on the Democratic side are reviewed in another department.

Mr. H. W. Lucy, writing on “ The Power of the British Press," calls attenion to the extreme individualism of the London journals :

“ The power of the press in England might become even dangerously autocratic but for a lack of cohesion. If there existed among newspapers any organization akin to trades unions the British newspapers might rule the roost. Unfortunately (perhaps fortunately), every paper, whether daily or weekly, stands aloof from its contemporaries, or comes in contact with them only for the purposes of a scolding match. The idea in every British newspaper office, small or large, is that the sheet it turns out is, if not literally the only one printed that morning, the only one worthy of notice. This curious delusion is carried to such lengths that, for fear of breaking the spell, no well-regulated morning paper will mention another by name. If temptation to show how foolish or unreliable a neighbor has been prove irresistible, it is loftily alluded to as 'a contemporary.'”

The Hon. George W. Julian recalls the story of “Some Ante-Bellum Politics "-in particular, the rise and growth of the Free Soil party, in which Mr. Julian himself played a prominent part.

“Can the Criminal be Reclaimed ?" is the subject of an important paper by Dr. H. S. Williams. The view taken by this writer is that “the criminal differs from his fellows not so much in inherent depraved tendencies as in defective powers of resistance." To what extent are these powers of resistance capable of development ? Dr. Williams asserts that ethical developinent is always possible, and he takes issue with those criminologists who find in heredity a bar to such development. To him it seems far wiser “to regard each individual vicious little John Doe as the victim of undevelopment, and hence to strive to educate him to a better point of view, than to label him hereditary criminal' and leave him to the hard fate fortune has originally dealt him."

Mr. George H. Lepper announces what he terms a theory of “natural bimetallism" which, as he unfolds it, develops into a theory of artificial gold monometal. lism. His principles, as he himself states them, are :

“1. That one standard only is conceivable in thought, or possible in practice.

“2. That the market value must control in the coin. age of the companion metal.

"3. That all obligations of the government, present and future, reading in dollars, shall be paid or redeemed, at the option of the government, either in standard gold coin, or in so much silver as shall on the day of redemption be equivalent thereto at the general market rate."

Mr. Grant Allen makes some caustic remarks on “ Norels Without a Purpose," which in his opinion belong only to the infancy of humanity. From first to last, says Mr. Allen, the nineteenth century has demanded and has been supplied with more and more “purposive" fiction. As both demand and supply continue to increase, he infers that the literature of the twentieth century will in turn be increasingly "purposive."

" And in being so, it will also be right. It will follow a law of all literary development from the beginning of

article on “ The West and the East," from Jules Simon's account of his college life, and from the article by the editor of the Quebec Chronicle on “ The Sig. nificance of the Canadian Elections."

Mr. T. S. Van Dyke of Los Angeles, Cal., treats the silver movement in the West as a development of the "bronco" disposition. He says that the “finanical bronco" must be approached on the blind side. The trouble heretofore has been that the bronco was scared” by too many statistics. The East has wasted much anti-silver literature on the West because it did not know the audience. Mr. Van Dyke devotes a large part of his article to a refutation of some of Mr. Har. vey's arguments.

Prof. Wm. MacDonald describes “ The Next American University.” He laments the comparative pc verty of our modern university spirit.

“ The prodigious gains in knowledge and in intense love of acquisition have not been accompanied by equal gains in richness of spirit. University men to-day live in the midst of fierce and relentless competition. They work under

ceaseless pressure. Their primary aim in life is to be learned, to accumulate a vast store of facts, to know all that there is to be known of some one matter. It is a very noble aim, worthy of all commendation and encouragement; but it is not the whole of life. In none of our great universities is the prevailing tone spontaneous, hearty, free. Scarce any young scholar whose reputation is in the making dare in these days 'let himself go.' The same scientific spirit, with its ardor for 'research,' which not many years since pointed the way to truth for all who would look upon it, has come to exercise over the intellectual life a sort of terrorism which has been not unfitly likened to that which in former days was exercised by religious orthodoxy ;' and under this tyranny of science' the life of scholarship has very largely lost the quality of charm. It is not the men of the universities who in our time nourish the life of the spirit.”

Mr. W. H. Mallock pays his respects to the whole school of economic altruists represented by Mr. Kidd. The chief point in Mr. Mallock's contention is, “that by endeavoring to erect distress and weakness, as such, into a claim on the systematic help of the state or any other organization, these reformers are going ever farther and farther away from the true and difficult solution of that most complicated of all problems—how to help human distress and weakness, without increasing it where it exists, and at the same time developing it where it does not."

Mr. Edward Cary, writing on "The Matrimonial Market,” shows that in these later days it is far easier for the American woman to earn her livelihood without marriage, if she prefers that mode of existence. Not only do the old employments afford generally a better living, but many entirely new employments have developed within the past two decades.

which I have explained it above, which is absolutely indispensable to every one who is to live and die as one of its members."

Writing on the obedience which is exacted from all members of the order, he says :

“It is the habit, the difficult habit of abstaining from any mental criticism of the

der given

hat distinctive feature of the obedience of the Society of Jesus. When still a secular, I once encountered an officer in the army who had been for some time in the noviceship, and had left because he found the obedience required too much for him. I took occasion to ask him how it was that he who had been accustomed to the strict discipline and rigorous obedience demanded of a soldier could not endure the gentler rule to which he was subject as a religious. “In the army,' was his answer, 'you must do what you are told, but you can relieve your feelings by swearing mentally at your colonel, but you cannot do that in the Society of Jesus.'”

LI HUNG CHANG AS A "WORKABLE JOINT.” Mr. A. Michie, formerly Times correspondent in China, contributes what may be described as a character sketch of Li Hung Chang, of whom he has a high opinion. He says :

“It has been the unique merit of Li Hung Chang to take a common sense view of things, to meet complaints half way, to receive suggestions with courtesy, and to set an example of conciliatory demeanor toward for. eigners ; in a word, to form in his own person a workable joint between the petrified ideas of Chinese polity and the requirements of modern Christendom. He has made himself accessible not only to foreign representatives, but to foreigners of every grade who could show a plausible pretext for occupying his time. His toleration of irrelevant visitors has indeed been remarkable, but it was his only means of studying mankind and of •learning something about foreign countries, which fate seemed to veto his ever visiting. Though his conversation was sometimes rough, his etiquette was always respectful ; and when there was no serious business on hand, he would ply his visitors with Socratic interrogatories which afforded him amusement and gave them a high sense of their own importance.”

THE GOD OF THE MATABELE. Mr. J. M. Orpen, in an article entitled “The God Who Promised Victory to the Matabele,' gives an interesting account of his experiences when serving in the country which is now the seat of war. In M'limo, the Matabele god, he says:

“We have to do with a phase of one of the oldest and most widely spread faiths in the world. A bright meteor had shot from west to east across the sky, and a native at once called out : 'There goes Molimo, home to Matojeni.” On inquiring whom Molino was, he learned that he was the god of the natives of those regions, who inhabitated them before the invasion and conquests of the Swazi and Matabele. Matojeni, where the oracle of Molimo is beard, is situated about twentyfive miles southeast of Buluwayo, and consists of a cavern in rock, like so many of the ancient oracles."

THE REAL DIFFICULTY IN RHODESIA. The Hon. J. Scott Montagu, M.P., in a paper entitled “ Nature versus The Chartered Company," brings out in clear relief the serious nature of the task which is now confronting England in Rhodesia :

“ We thus have, so to speak a garrison of 4,000 white persons in Buluwayo and Rhodesia, let alone the black

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Father Clarke (S.J.) gives an interesting account of the way in which candidates of the Jesuits are first selected and then trained. He attributes the high reputation which Jesuits enjoy both in the church and out chiefly to three causes. He says :

“ The first is the extreme care with which its members are in the first instance chosen, and the process of natural selection which eliminates all who are not suited for its work. The second is the length and thoroughness of its training, both moral and intellectual, and the pains that is taken to adapt it to the special talents and capacities of the individual. The third is the spirit of implicit obedience, of blind obedience, in the sense in


allies, to whom food can only now be conveyed by mule of pity, these they will never do. Mercy is not in them, or donkey wagon. The weight usually carried by mule nor humility, nor sympathy." or donkey wagon is also from 25 to 30 per cent. less than that taken by ox wagon. A span of sixteen oxen can

Prof. Max Müller declares that the late Ramakrishna reach Buluwayo from Mafeking with from seven to eight thousand pounds weight of food stuffs, whereas

Paramahansa, an eminent religious teacher, a real Ma

hatma, died in 1886. The professor gives a very strikby mule or donkey wagon seldom more than five thousand pounds weight is taken with eighteen donkeys or

ing illustration of the way in which he idealized and ten to twelve mules. “Rinderpest’in this way has been,

purified everything with which he had to do : and will be for some time, a greater enemy to the prog.

“Nothing, I believe, is so hideous as the popular wor

ship of Kali in India. To Râmakrishna all that is repul. ress of Rhodesia than the native rebellion."

sive in her character is, as it were, non-existent, and As from 90 to 95 per cent. of the oxen have died out

there remains but the motherhood of the goddess. Her the difficulty of getting food up to Rhodesia is very

adoration with him is a childlike, whole-souled, rapturgreat :

ous self consecration to the motherhood of God, as repre* Artisans who were earning £1 a day have now no work, the constructive trades having ceased, and these

sented by the power and influence of woman.


in her natural material character had long been remen are naturally leaving the country. When I was in

nounced by the saint. He had a wife, but never asso. Buluwayo in May of this year eggs were 40s. or 50s. a

ciated with her. “Woman,' he said, 'fascinates and dozen, tins of condensed milk were sold for 7s. 6d. each

keeps the world from the love of God.' For long years -strong buyers as the Stock Exchange would say—and

he made the utmost efforts to be delivered from the enough bread for breakfast for one cost a shilling."

influence of woman. His heart rending supplications Mr. Montagu has strong faith in Mr. Rhodes, whom he thinks will pull things through yet. He says :

and prayers for such deliverance, sometimes uttered " His personality is worth more for the moment, in

aloud in his retreat on the river side, brought crowds of this crisis in Rhodesia, than the agricultural or mineral

people, who bitterly cried when he cried, and could not wealth of the whole country. Rhodesia might to-day be

help blessing him and wishing him success with their well called 'Rhodes, Unlimited.'"

whole hearts. And he succeeded, so that his mother to

whom he prayed, that is the goddess Kali, made him THE DECLINE OF COBDENISM.

reognize every woman as her incarnation, and honor Mr. Sidney Low is inspired to gloat a little over the each member of the other sex, whether young or old, failure of free trade to make the tour of the world. Mr. as his mother." Low says :

OTHER ARTICLES. “It is possible that if Cobden were alive to-day, and Prince Krapotkin writes on Recent Science" dealing face to face with the conditions of latter day industrial with life in the moon. He thinks that organic life exists ism and international competition, he might be a Cob on that planet, although on a very small scale. Traces of denite po longer. It is certain that so acute an explorer vegetation have been detected, but beyond that we can of the currents of public opinion would have perceived hardly go. Prof. Courthope has a paper on “Life in that such projects as that of an Imperial Customs Union · Poetry,” and the Chief Justice of the Orange Free would have to be dealt with on their merits, political State contributes a vigorous letter in reply to Mr. Edward and social, as well as financial. And he would have Dicey, asserting that “ South Africa Can Wait.” The understood that they could not be disposed of by being Chief Justice is certainly not lacking in vigor of language. called “veiled protectionism,' or by an appeal to an He tells Mr. Dicey that if he be not the devil's advocate, economic pontificate that had lost its sanctity."

he has certainly been doing the devil's work. WORK FOR WOMEN. Quida contributes a characteristic article upon “ The

THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW. Quality of Mercy " which is a vigorous and eloquent

'HE Fortnightly Review for August is a good numplea for treating animals with greater kindness. In the

ber. We quote elsewhere the articles on Sir John course of the article she makes an appeal which is well

Seeley, and “The Human Animal in Battle." worth notice :

THE FUTURE OF CHINA. “ There are two periods in the life of a woman when she is almost omnipotent for good or ill. These are

A writer signing himself “ L." discusses the future of when men are in love with her, and when her children British policy in China. He is quite hopeless of effectare young enougb to be left entirely to her and to those ing any improvement in China from within. Only by whom the selects to control them. How many women force from without can any change for the better be in ten thousand use this unlimited power which they made. He scouts the idea of combining with Russia. then possess to breathe the quality of mercy into the

He says : souls of those who for the time are as wax in their “If the aims of Russia are confined to securing for hands? They will crowd into the Speaker's box to ap herself, by arrangement with the imperial government, plaud debates which concern them in no way. They an open port and a commercial terminus in the north will impertinently force their second hand opinions on of China, it is difficult to see what objections England Jack and Jill in the village or in the city alleys. They could raise ; but the appropriation of a large slice of ter. will go on to platforms and sing comic songs, or repeat ritory by a power like Russia, whose ability in reducing temperance platitudes, and think they are a great moral to subjection and administering Eastern countries is force in the improvement of the masses. This they will second only to our own, would be a very different matdo, because it amuses them and makes them of impor ter."

THE RUIN OF OLD VIRGINIA, tance. But alter their own lives, abandon their own favorite cruelties, risk the sneer of society, or lead their Mr. A. G. Bradley, in an article entitled “On an Old little childern to the love of nature and the tenderness American Turnpike,''describes the devastation which has

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been wrought in one of the most famous historical districts by the economic changes which followed the war. Part of Virginia is prosperous enough, but the other part is relapsing into a desert. Mr. Bradley says:

“ It is this old Virginia, this famous cradle of the Eng. lish race beyond the sea, that now lies, to so great an extent, an almost hopeless desert, or what, compared to any other agricultural country in the civilized world, is practically a desert-and it is likely to remain so. It is difficult to conceive for those who really know it, any combination of circumstances that can, within measur. able time, arrest the decay of a large portion of Vir. ginia east of the Piedmont counties--a region, roughly speaking, half the size of England, and once pre-eminently the England of the New World, where the manners and customs, the sports, and even the prejudices of the mother country were reproduced with a fidelity that in colonial days was almost pathetic, and the traces of which are even yet not wholly extinct.”


Mr. R. E. S. Hart, writing on Zola's “ Philosophy of Life," points out that the French novelist is more than a mere materialist, and that when confronted with the phenomena of life he has at any rate one great merit :

“M. Zola has earned the gratitude of mankind, as he has insisted on the enormous complexity of the problem, and has resisted that impulse to accept the first forced unification which presents itself. Our religion and our morality, this great dissector tells us, are also for the most part but the effects of habit and circumstances ; and our good deeds, like our bad ones, mainly impulses of the moment, the mere 'benevolence' of Butler. Let us, then, take our stand upon the actual facts of life, and see how we may remedy them. And this attitude has yet another advantage, as the view of the broad basis on which life is founded makes us turn once more to Mother Nature, and recognize the truth that in her, too, as in man, is a revelation of the divine. M. Zola's breadth of view revolts against the practical dualism of popular Catholicism, and the false ascetism to which such a dualism gives rise. Self-sacrifice he reognizes as but a moment in the process, not the sole truth, and as leading but to a higher self realization.

" The flesh is not to be killed and mortified, but made the servant and agent of the spirit. Nor are we to look with futile longing for an au deld of which we can say nothing but that it exists, but rather see our au deld or God in the practical business and work of the present."

a single meeting. The most popular form of presidential electioneering which he describes appears to be the torchlight procession club.

“ The cavalry club, to which I once belonged, mustered never less than three hundred horse, and we had a fine band of twenty pieces. Each man wore a uniform consisting of peaked cap, long cape, and top boots, carrying his torch as a lance. The cap and cape were made of yellow oil cloth, which at night under the torchlight took the color of gold. This cape was not only effective from a spectacular point of view, but it protected us from the oil which dripped from the torch, and also from the rain in stormy times. Frequently we would ride twenty miles across the country to some small village or town, to take part in a local demonstration. Our arrival in such a place was often the great event of the year. We were first banquetted in right royal fashion. Then we gave the crowd, what they always called a great treat, by going through our drill in some big field. The movement which the crowd liked best was the 'charge in line,' horses at full gallop, our torches trailing ribbons of flame, and making queer effects in light and shadow. The central or “tactical' idea of this spectacular move was to rouse the duil, easy going folk, and tempt them out of comfortable houses. Once at the meeting, our public speakers were trusted to win over the wavering, and strengthen the weak kneed brethren of our own party.

THE CRIME OF EXTINGUISHING THE SPECIES. In Olive Schreiner's new installment of her “Stray Thoughts on South Africa,” which is chiefly devoted to the domestic life of the Boers, she apoligizes for the way in which they exterminated the Bushmen by saying that:

“ We of culture and refinement, who are under no pressure of life and death, do nothing to preserve the scant relics of the race !"

The following observations, especially that in which the noble sport of fox hunting is described as the murdering of a few miserable jackals, is very characteristic :

6. The last of the Bushmen are now passing away from us, with those infinitely beautiful and curious creatures, which made for ages the South African plain the richest on earth, in that rarest and most delightful of all beauties, the beauty of complex and varied forms of life ; and over which the humanity of future ages may weep, but which they will never be able to restore, to vary and glorify the globe, nor to throw light on the mystery of sentient growth. We, as civilized men, must recog. nize that the extinction of a species of beast, and, yet more, of a species of man, is an order of Vandalism compared with which the destruction of Greek marbles by barbarians or of classical manuscripts by the Chrstians were trifles ; for it is within the range of a remote pos. sibility that again among mankind some race may arise which shall produce such statues as those of Phidias or that the human brain might yet again blossom forth into the wisdom and beauty incarnate in the burnt books; but a race of living things once destroyed is gone forever -it reappears on earth no more. We are conscious that we are murdering the heritage of unborn generations ; yet we take no step to stay the destruction. The money which one fashionable women spends on dresses from Worth's, the jewels and cut flowers one woman purchases, would save a race. Lands might be obtained, and such conditions be instituted that an expiring race might survive. And the money and labor expended on the murder and maintenance of a few miserable jackals,


Prof. A. R. Wallace, writing or “ The Gorge of the Aar and Its Teachings,” says “that the singular phenomenon of a great valley barred across by a precipitous rocky ridge, which is pierced only by a narrow water worn gorge, admittedly sawn down by the débris laden water of the sub-glacial torrent, does afford a most striking additional proof of the power of the old glaciers to grind out rock basins. The only escape from this conclusion is to call in the aid of hypothetical local subsidences or elevations of which no direct evidence has yet been found.”


Mr. Francis H. Hardy writes an article full of information lucidly conveyed on “The Making of a Presidert." Incidentally he mentions that in a political campaign speakers are sometimes paid as much as $500 for a single speech, while as much as $50,000 are spent in organizing

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Mr. T. P. O'Connor, M.P., writes an interesting article concerning Home Rule and the Irish Party. Although discomfited, this Home Ruler is not cast down. He says :

“I firmly believe that at this moment there are some forces working for Home Rule which are silently bringing it to the front again, and are making its ultimate success not only possible but not very remote. First among these forces I would put the utter breakdown of business in the House of Commons. A second un. seen force working in favor of Home Rule is the breakdown of the land system in the North of Ireland. Even yet, people in this country have not begun to realize the depth and intensity of feeling on this question in the North of Ireland."

The third reason for refusing to despair is the most in. teresting of all. Mr. O'Connor now recognizes that it is in growth of the Imperial idea that the best hope lies for the concession of Home Rule for Ireland. In other words, Home Rule will come not by way of Little Engand, but by the way of those who believe most in the zecessity for expanding and developing the Empire :

“The spirit of resistance and rivalry to British exPansion in other countries make the idea of Imperial greatness and expansion far more attractive and popular than it was at one time. A contented and self-governed Ireland is the true point of departure for a great, a solid and a united Empire."

Mr. O'Connor points out that Greater Britain is almost a unit for Home Rule. Every colony is run on Home Rule lines, and in every colony the Irish are influential.

Toward the end of that period they possessed in Moravia seventy stately courts and houses."

Unfortunately self-interest crept in, and the jealousy without and the spirit of persecution which raged in high quarters completed their overthrow.

CO-OPERATIVE LABOR UNIONS IN ITALY. Mr. H. W. Wolff, in an article styled “ The Autonomy of Labor," describes how Italian workingmen in the building trade and the lowest kind of unskilled laborers have formed unions which undertake contracts and deal directly with their employers without the intervention of the middlemen. Mr. Wolff's article is encouraging and adds one more to the many examples which he has brought from abroad for our imitation at home. He says :

“ Altogether the Italian workingmen's societies have undoubtedly good results to show. Indeed, amid a mass of need and trouble and distress with which statesmen find it difficult to grapple, this movement of combination among workingmen forms one of the few bright spots which encourage one to hope for better things."

VACCINATING LAND. This is a very absurd title, but it conveys the idea that Mr. Aikman describes in his article on Nitragin, which he regards as the latest and most hopeful advance in agriculture. It is the application of the principle of inoculation to land. He says :

“ Research has demonstrated that the soil of our fields is literally teeming with bacteria, which according to some recent experiments, may be present to the extent of forty-five millions per gramme (the 1-28th part of an ounce) of soil; and that these bacteria are largely istrumental in conducing to the successful growth of vegetation, by preparing, in forms suitable for assimilation by the plant, the different food substances it de. rives from the soil. The latest application, in the domain of agriculture, of the great principle of inocula. tion, is in many respects of a more striking nature than anything yet accomplished by this line of reaseach, and consists of the inoculation of the soil with pure cultures of bacteria for the purpose of promoting plant growth.

“ Inoculation of a soil with these cultures, on a practical scale, may be effected in either of two ways. First, the seed of the crop it is desired to inoculate may be inoculated before it is sown. This is effected by making a watery solution of the pure cultivation, immersing the seed in it, and subsequently drying it ; or secondly, it may be effected by inoculating a quantity of fine sand or earth, in the same way, and then spreading it over the field and subsequently working it into the soil to a depth of about three inches. Naturally, a point of considerable interest is the economic question of the cost of such treatment. It is interesting to learn that this is extremely moderate, as the expense of inoculating a field in this way amounts to the very moderate sum of 5 shillings per acre. This cannot be regarded as expensive, and contrasts favorably with the expense of nitrogenous fertilizers."

OTHER ARTICLES. Mr. Andrew Lang discourses on “Passing Through the Fire,” in which he suggests the possibility that in Moloch worship, which prevailed in ancient Canaan, in which people passed through the fire, they were not actually burned alive, but passed through the fire unscathed. He publishes a mass of matter compiled from various sources showing that in Fiji and Bulgaria and many other countries the practice of passing through


Mr. Richard Heath calls attention to an almost forgotten chapter in the history of experimental community life. In the sixteenth century the Moravian Ana. baptists under one Hunter started a series of co-operative communities which seem to have achieved a great success:

“And the Moravian Anabaptists lived in unity. Professor Loserth gives the names of eighty.six different places in which, during some time between 1526 and 1536, common households existed. Some of these households consisted of 500, 600, 1,000 and even 2,000 persons, a condition of things which shows on how great a scale the experiment was tried. Of the great success of these communities in a material sense there cannot be a shadow of doubt.

“Notwithstanding the prejudices against them, they prospered in all their various works and during the third quarter of the sixteenth century were growing wealthy.

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