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in the attempt to maintain peace by providing for palace. At last the Pretender could stand it no the speedy suffocation of the victim, the powers longer. His palace was in flaming ruins. Five consented to try the other tack hy putting restraint hundred of his followers were killed or wounded. upon the assailant. Here it is believed Lord Salis He took refuge in the German consulate. English bury took the initiative, and it was announced with bluejackets were landed to establish as the rightful a pardonable flourish of trumpets that the powers heir on the vacant throne, Hamoud, the brother of had agreed, that the Sultan had given way, that the late Sultan. This sudden and violent eruption Crete is henceforth to be a semi-autonomous province of willfulness cost the English one man wounded. under a Governor virtually appointed by the powers. Civilization in executing her mission of maintainwe are all very glad to hear it. But we rejoice ing order among the semi-civilized is at last becomwith reservations, if not with trembling, and wait ing invulnerable, at least within range of deep to see whether the Sultan has actually submitted to water. permit Crete to be wrenched from his fangs.
Further south in this storm belt the
gacar their work is but begun. The East Africa.
In the Soudan the rise of the Nile island, say the most recent visitors, is in a condihas at last rendered an immediate advance on Don. tion of anarchy from one end to the other. The goia possible. The river steamers have arrived French rule in the capital and in a few large towns. safely, and the short railway would have been in But outside the range of their batteries their auworking order but for a deluge of rain that sponged thority does not exist. The aboriginal elements of out twelve miles of the permanent way, as a Malagasy savagery, the haters of foreigners, the schoolboy effaces the figures on his slate. With haters of missionaries, and the disbanded troops of the beginning of this month we may expect to hear the Queen's army, have united in a sort of patriotic that the frontier of civilization has advanced on heathen brigandage, and are levying a war of maspowder carts to the southern boundary of Dongola, sacre and pillage all over the island. They have where it is hoped it will be ready for a further lift already burned some three hundred or four hundred southward as far as Khartoum. On the Red Sea churches, and slain many church officials. Free littoral a settlement is reported to have been ar thinking Frenchmen will not feel many pangs over rived at between the Abyssinians and the Italians this Malagasy variant upon the anti-clerical camon the basis of some indemnity to be paid to Menelek paign which commends itself to the Third Republic; for the maintenance and subsequent safe delivery but the success of this heathen Jacquerie in France's of the Italian prisoners. It is only hoped that the new possession will sooner or later compel them to establishment of better relations between Rome and undertake in serious earnest the subjugation of the St. Petersburg-of which the betrothal of the country. At present the robber bands have it all Prince of Naples and the Princess of Montenegro their own way Suddenly emerging from a forest, is the outward and visible sign-may ere long put they surround a Christian village and summon the a full and final period to the troubles of Erythræa. inhabitants to choose between submission and death.
In either case its worldly goods are put at the disThe sudden death of the late Sultan Halim Police Duty
position of the marauders The old native adminof Zanzibar, which occurred on August 26, Zanzibar.
istration has been destroyed, and the French have gave the signal for one of those outbreaks
so far put nothing in its place. of personal ambition which it is necessary to curb by the stern persuasion of shot and shell. A nephew
Inland, the Germans in their sphere of inof the deceased Prince, Khalid by name, seized the Bicycle in fluence are having no little trouble as the palace and proclaimed himself Sultan of Zanzibar
result of Major Lothaire's unpunished without so much as saying by your leave to the murder of Stokes in the Congo State. The news of power which is Lord Paramount of Zanzibar. In.
that abominable outrage upon the rudimentary laws deed, he went further, and declared by the forcible of white civilization in Central Africa led at once to eloquence of military and naval preparations that an organized attack upon the German and French he meant to assert his pretensions despite English settlements on the Lake. After some inevitable masprotests. Now, as England is responsible for Zan sacre, three German expeditions were dispatched ibzar, and all its Sultans reign by virtue of British against the lawless chiefs. The ringleader was perinission, it was deemed necessary to reduce this killed, his ally was banished, and peace reigns once rebellious apstart to submission. Due notice was more in the German possessions. From Uganda given him ; ample time of grace was afforded him the news is all of peace and progress under the for surrender, and then the gunboats opened fire on British flag. Civilization, in fact, is invading the palace. The Sultan replied both from his one Uganda, not in its powder cart, but in a brougham man-of-war, the converted merchant steamer Glas for King M'Wanga, dog carts for his officials, and gow, and from the mainland. Whereupon, as with the ubiquitous bicycle for the British residents. a tap of his finger, the British commander sent the The natives are even said to be building two storied Glasgou to the bottom, and continued to shell the houses with glass windows for their chiefs in place
of their old grass huts, while the Prime Minister has furnished his office with table, chairs, stationery cases, and the like.
All this veneer may peel off suddenly some day ; but for the present it testifies eloquently to the surface tranquillity which has followed the British advent.
Further south, in Mata beleland, the risMr. Rhodes
ing is officially repnted to be suppressed. Matoppos.
The closing scene of their rebellion was the most picturesque incident recently recorded in South Africa. Mr. Rhodes, who was unarmed, with but three attendants, entered the stronghold of the Matabele Indupas in the Matoppo hills, and asked them whether they were for peace or war. They had been debating in secret what should be done. They were afraid to come into the open for fear of the white troops, but they had sent word they would like to see Mr. Colenbrander and Mr. Rhodes. When Mr. Rhodes arrived, they raised a white flag and ushered him and his companions into the semi circle, where for four hours they discussed the questions at issue. At last the Chief Secombo arose and laid a gun and assegai at the feet of Mr. Rhodes. All the other chiefs did the same. “ We submit,' they said. “We trust you, Mr. Rhodes, for you have trusted us. You have come into our stronghold unarmed. If you had known our troubles we should never have been forced to rise. If Mr. Rhodes will stay and care for us we will not fight.' So ended the palaver and with it the war. A promi. enent government official, who Secombo declared was only fit to keep a canteen in the Transvaal, was complained of, and the whole Matabele council prayed for his banishment. They also complained of their ill treatment at the hands of the native police. Mr. Rhodes replied that the official had gone south and was no longer in government employ. As for the native police, its appointment had been a mistake and it was now disbanded. But the Matabele, whatever their grievances, ought not to have massacred women and children. Ultimately, the terms of the surrender were arrived at, and Mr. Rhodes riding back, brought news of peace to Bulawayo. Note that Mr. Rhodes has no official status. He is not even a managing director of the company. But to the Matabele he counts for more than all the officials put together. For Mr. Rhodes, when face to face with the aboriginal forces of the situation, is more than High Commissioners and great functionaries in all the bravery of cocked hats and letters patent.
The position of affairs in the Transvaal Kruger
shows little or no improvement. The Counselors. Boers are importing material of war in hundreds of tons from France and Germany, and there is little indication of any intention on their part to readjust their old institutions to the new situation. The two uitlanders who refused even at Mr. Chamberlain's solicitations to make terms with President Kruger, are still kept under lock and key.
Mr. Chamberlain himself has been taking a mournful holiday in the United States, pursued across the Atlantic by the menacing shadow of the coming inquiry. In South Africa the Rev. John Mackenzie. from his retreat at Hankey, has addressed President Kruger a letter such as an old propbet of Israei might have written to one of the kings of Samaria. Mr. Mackenzie appeals to President Kruger in his own theological dialect to do justice to the Uitlanders and so lay the foundation of a united community. Note in this connection a curious prophecy made in Natal last month to the effect that the President's career will come to a violent end in the month of December-his murderer, it is predicted, being a Dutchman. Threatened men live long ; and the publication of this prophecy, which was at once communicated to President Kruger, will probably be the best means of preventing its realization. The Royal
Fifteen men were appointed seven
years ago to inquire into the working Vaccination.
of the British Vaccination acts. Or the fifteen, at least ten were confirmed advocates of vaccination. The doctors predicted that the antivaccinationists would find that they were hoist with their own petard; and that a report strongly recommending compulsory vaccination and revaccination might confidently be expected. The Royal Commission reported last month, but not in that sense. While strongly affirming the advantages of vaccination, they unanimously condemn the present practice of sending to jail parents who have conscientious objections to the vaccination of their children, or even of subjecting them to fines for non compliance with the act. And they do this in the interest of vaccination itself, “When the law imposes a duty on parents, the performance of which they honestly, however erroneously, regard as seriously prejudicial to their children, the very attempt to compel obedience may defeat the object of the legislation." Therefore they recommend that no one should be punished for not vaccinating his children if he has satisfied a local authority that he honestly objects to vaccination, or if he has made a statutory declaration to that effect. This recommendation will probably arrest all prosecutions now pending, even before the law has been altered. It is a notable utterance, which will have influence, doubtless, in other countries.
The Jubilee report of the Coinmissioners of Lunacy of Lunacy records an unprecedented inin England.
crease in the numbers of officially certi. fied lunatics. Of those not so certified-including, it is to be feared, no small proportion of the officials themselves-no record exists. In England and Wales on January 1, 1896, the number of officially certified lunatics was 96,446, an increase of 2,365 in the twelve months. In the last twenty years the number of pauper lunatics has increased by 53 per cent. From these figures seme misleading conclusions have been drawn. It is extremely doubtful whether lunacy is
really increasing in England. What is increasing is the House of Lords. It was, indeed, a curious the disposition on the part of poor people to send spectacle, that which the early days of August their insane relatives to an asylum. And as the presented to the world. The Unionist Administraasylums are year by year becoming more comfort tion-which, through Lord Lansdowne, had humbly able, he would be a lunatic indeed who would keep recommended the Irish Land bill to the House of his demented relatives at home instead of sending Lords as being very, very much less objectionable them to be much better looked after in a public than Mr. Morley's Land bill—fuund itself coninstitution. Yet this growth of humanity on the fronted by a revolt of the landlords, who carried part of the authorities, and decay of irrational preju amendment after amendment in a fashion which dice on the part of the poor,-- both indications of in seemed at first to threaten the measure with extinccreasing sanity,-combine to produce what is a tion. Even the Unionist press was scandalized at statistical demonstration of the increase of lunacy. this display of class interest posing naked and una
shamed in the Upper Chamber. Ministers could The Imp'ovement The Local Ciovernment Board has
only command their own votes and the votes of the of British issued a circular to the Boards of devoted Liberal remnant, fifteen strong, and about Work houses. Guardians of the oor throughout
as many Independent Unionist peers. The Duke of the country, intended to stimulate the present tend Abercorn and Lord Londonderry did as they pleased, ency to make the workhouse a desirable refuge for being masters of the big battalions, and for a time desirable inmates. The board are desirous that
it seemed as if they would make hay of the bill. special attention should " be given to this matter by But when the amendments came to be considered in the Guardians and their officers in order that, as far the House of Commons, it was discovered that they as possible, those persons whose circumstances have did not amount to much after all. Some were recompelled them to enter the workhouse, but who
jected, others were accepted, and ultimately an are known to be of good conduct and to have pre
arrangement was arrived at, by virtue of which the viously led moral and respectable lives, should be bill as amended received the royal assent. separated from those who from their habits of speech or for other reasons are likely to cause them discom
Among the measures of the session one of fort.” It is suggested that they should have a sepa
the most important, although the least rate day-room for men and women, that they should Disputes.
noticed, is the Conciliation (Trades Disbe allowed more visits from their friends, that they putes) act. It authorizes the registration of every should have special privileges in paying visits out
Board of Conciliation and Arbitration under the side, and that they might be permitted to attend Board of Trade Rules -a provision owing its imtheir own place of worship on Sunday. The board
portance solely to the security which such registrado not favor any difference in dietary or in dress
tion gives the state that it will always have a full and therein the board are “ a day behind the fair."
record of the proceedings of such boards. But its The dietary should be “adequate and suitable" for
most important clause is that which gives the Board all, no doubt, but for the worthy it might be a little
of Trade a mandate to stimulate the establishment more varied. Also it might be most advantageous of Conciliation Boards in places where they do to make a distinction in dress.
not exist, and to take such other steps as they deem
fit to promote peace between employers and emWhen members begin talking, there will New
ployed. It is hoped that the Board of Trade may Legislation. be of course the customary exaggeration
be able to interfere to prevent the strike that in eulogy and in depreciation of the legis
threatens to paralyze the whole engineering tradelative output of the session. It may therefore be as
over a dispute as to the employment of one nonwell to put on record the summary from the Queen's
union workman in the yard of one of the associated speech of the measures placed on the Statute Book
employers. In 1893 thirty million days' work were this year:
lost by strikes and lock-outs, to say nothing of the I have given my consent, with much pleasure, to permanent loss of work entailed by diverting British measures for completing the naval defenses of my Em
trade to the foreigner. Another gigantic strike is pire, for lightening the fiscal burdens which press upon
threatening in the docks, one of the premonitory the agricultural population, and for protecting the
incidents of which has been the arrest of Mr. Tillett flocks and herds of these islands from the importation of
and Mr. Sexton by the Belgian government for disease. Important measures have also received my sanction for the settlement of trade disputes, for the
taking part in a strike of the Belgian dockers. prevention of explosions in mines, which have caused the loss of many valuable lives, for amending the Truck
The“ yellow man with the white money act, for the construction of light railways, for the
has ended his European and American amendment of the Irish Land laws, and for facilitating Chang.
tour, and gone home to China. Li Hung the creation, by purchase, of a larger class of occupy
Chang's visit to England had as its object permising freeholders in Ireland.
sion to double the useful duties now levied by China Of these measures, the Irish Land act narrowly on foreign goods. The duties are fixed by treaty, escaped involving the Government in a contest with and can only be increased by British consent. Lord
Salisbury, it is said, promised to give the proposal
CHINA'S CHIEF STATESMAN.
Each month unfailingly provides its fresh or later, in the placing of Chinese orders in Ameri Obituary list for obituary comment. We have alcan shipyards. Similar hopes were entertained in
luded, on an earlier page, to the death of every European country that the astute Li visited; Prince Lobanoff, the most eminent of all the names
in this month's register of the dead. The death of the Sultan of Zanzibar occasioned a short decisive war, which we have mentioned in a preceding paragraph. In our own country, two distinguished professors of Harvard University have passed away, Professor Child and Professor Whitney; the emi nent Baltimore philanthropist, Enoch Pratt, who gave the free public library, has died at a ripe old age; ex-Senator Henry B. Payne of Ohio is gathered to his fathers at the age of 86; Dr. George Browne Goode of the Smithsonian Institution, an eminent scientist, passed away after a short illness from pneumonia, at the early age of 45; C. S. Rein hart, the American artist and illustrator, who was only 42, died in New York. By permission of the Messrs. Harper & Brothers we have in this number of the REVIEW reproduced from recent numbers of Harper's Weekly three of Mr. Reinhart's remark
ably effective portrayals of scenes at political headCAORUS OF RIVAL SHOPKEEPERS (outside): “Wonder if he quarters. These names are only a few of those reis going to buy anything here? We havn't got any orders out of him."-From Punch (London).
corded in our obituary list.