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PRINCETON AFTER ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS.
BY WINTHROP MORE DANIELS.
TH HE approaching sesquicentennial celebration of prised the study of Latin and Greek, mathematics,
the founding of Princeton suggests a review of the elements of science, and philosophy, moral and its past educational work, its present status, and its political. Practically the saine course of study was
future expansion required of all the students, a goodly percentage of and prospects. whom have always entered the theological seminary Much of Prince- upon completion of their college course. The ton's early his growth of the college up to the time of the Civil tory has national War was largely a growth in numbers, both of prointerest; much of fessors and students, and witnessed a deepening and it has an interest broadening in the study of the branches pursued. to Princeton men This quiet and uneventful progress was violently only. In this checked by the outbreak of the Civil War. Prior paper we shall
to this time Princeton's southern constituency was confine ourselves relatively very large. The loss in numbers in 1861 to an exposition amounted to about one-third of the whole number of Princeton's of students. Nor had the college repaired its losses educational sys
or regained its normal size when, in 1868, Dr. Mctem. Like most Cosh entered upon his eventful presidency, and beearly American
gan the history of contemporary Princeton. The colleges the Col- development of Princeton's educational system lege of New Jer. under Dr. McCosh and under his successor, Dr. sey started as a Patton, may be the best viewed under the follow. sort of disguised ing aspects : divinity school, First, the growth of the college is objectively evi. with liberal denced by the large number of new structures arts attachment. erected, the enlargement of the library, the acquisiIt was by the tion of valuable collections, the equipment of labora. terms of its char- tories, observatories and a general liberal increase ter unsectarian. in endowment and current funds. That instrument Second, the development may be traced in the provided that growth in numbers, both of the faculty and of the “those of every
student body. At Dr. McCosh's accession in 1868 religious denomi- the number of students was 264 ; at present the nation may have total number is 1100. Moreover, the growth in re
free and equal cent years has been as great as that of the early part “M'Cosi WALK," SHOWING liberty and ad- of this period. The following statistical table will M'COSH IN FOREGROUND. vantage of edu- show the increase in recent years :
cation in said college, any different sentiments in religion notwithstanding." Still, for the first three decades of its history the greater part of its graduates received an education designed to fit them for the work of the ministry. The influence of the Revolution with its political ferment, and the nation's subsequent material growth, tended to increase the number of students seeking a purely liberal education as opposed to a professional training culminating in theology. This change in the personnel of the student body was recognized when in 1812 the Theological Seminary was founded and erected at Princeton. This institution has never had any legal connection with the college. It provided, however, for a technical theological education which the curriculum of the college no longer afforded.
From the beginning of the present century the course of study pursued in the college was the usual ourse then given in similar institutions. It com:
tween the required courses.
In the last two years of the course the elective system prevails very generally. Two-thirds of a man's courses of study in the junior year, and practically all those of his senior year, are of his own choosing. The only required studies in the last two years of the academic course are the elements of moral and mental Philosophy,Physics and Economics. In many of the small elective classes the seminar system is in vogue and it is not infrequent to see graduate students and seniors of high standing working along exactly parallel lines in the same seminar. The cap-sheaf in Princeton's educational system comprises the graduate work, and necessitates an explanation of the various university courses which lead to the higher dergees. The graduate students at Princeton num. ber about 10 per cent. of the whole. Of these graduates a majority are pursuing theological courses in the sister institution across the campus. The lectures on which they are in attendance are generally the same as those delivered to the advanced classes in the undergraduate course. An additional number of graduate students reside in college and pursue their work, many of them in the laboratories. Especial mention should be made of the graduate school of Electrical Engineering, which grants the degree of Electrical Engineer after course of two years' graduate study in residence. The require. ments set by the University before the master's or doctor's degree in arts or science is granted erect a high standard, and are rigidly adhered to. For the
Princeton may be seen also in the various changes in the course of study there pursued. The require. ments for entrance have been steadily raised, both Greek and Latin being required for admission to the academic course. Provision is made also for entering pupils whose standing in various lines is above that exacted by the minimum entrance requirements. Advanced divisions cover in addition to the course pursued by the whole class an amount of work graduated to their superior capacities. Besides the regular academic course, there was founded in the early seventies the John C. Green School of Science, admission to which is conditioned upon proficiency in modern languages in place of Greek. The undergraduate courses in the School of Science are two in number: a non-professional course leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science, and a professional course leading to the degree of Civil Engineer. In both courses the study of the sciences is pursued as a substitute for the study of the classics.
The elective system in vogue, while offering great freedom of choice in the two upper years, has not been permitted to break down the required course of study in the freshman and sophomore classes. In the first two years of the course there is just a foretaste of elective freedom, which permits the freshman to choose as between French or German, and which in the sophomore year allows him some considerable option in the distribution of his time be
doctor's degree a preliminary examination is exacted in all cases, as well as a two years' course in university residence, exclusively devoted to graduate study. The degree is finally granted only upon the acceptance by the Faculty of a satisfactory thesis from the candidate indicating proficiency in original research, and upon the candidate's successfully passing another examination in his main line of study and in two subsidiary courses, one of which is always in the department of philosophy, when the degree of Ph.D. is conferred. The foregoing gives a skeleton outline of the requirements embodied in Princeton's educational system, a system, it is believed, which is at once sound, conservative and consistent.
Those interested in American university education will readily understand that the educational problems of to day deal with many important topics outside of and beyond the ordinary curriculum. A word then is in order with reference to Princeton's system of the administration of discipline. There has been in the last thirty years a radical change in the nature of administrative and disciplinary problems in our colleges and universities. Prior to that time discipline ordinarily concerned individuals, or in rare
instances temporary associations which threatened to infringe upon the order of the college. The chief administrative problem of to-day concerns not so much the deportment of individual students as numerous prominent and powerful student organizations. In Princeton these organizations grew and
inultiplied rapidly after 1870. They comprise the various athletic organizations, the musical clubs, the editorial boards of college periodicals and some others, chiefly social. Besides 'these associations there are always in existence a large number of miscellaneous organizations, more or less temporary, some of which frequently attain some considerable numbers or importance. The attitude of the Princeton Faculty toward these problems is, first, a stiff insistence upon such general rules as are laid down for the guidance and regulation of these various interests and yet as little further interference as is possible. This policy, it is be. lieved, is justified by the permanence of a vigorous and independent criticism of college matters emanating from the students themselves and di rected toward the correction of recog. nized abuses. The training of the undergraduates in the two halls where for over a century parliamentary debate has been the main pursuit, the good judgment evinced in the tone of The Princetonian, the college daily. all create a spirit of healthy yet conservative agitation, originating among the students themselves, and therefore doubly effective to secure its ends. The recent establishment of the honor system in examinations, as well as the disapproval with which the practice of " hazing" has been visited, are both exponential of the beneficial re
sults of the modest degree of self government al ist in Princeton a school of medicine leading to the lowed by sufferance to the students. With refer ordinary practitioner's degree, there has already deence to the vexed question of intercollegiate ath veloped a school of biology capable of expansion letics, Princeton's attitude is decided. The evils into a great graduate school in that department of attendant upon athletics, especially gambling, pro. natural science. Along with the growth of the fessionalism, and so called college diplomacy, must graduate courses, the maintenance of the undercertainly be restrained, if possible effaced. But the graduate department, both academic and scientific, risks involved, great as they are, are not sufficient will ever be an end of prime importance. The into deter us from seeking the gain which organized creased endowment to be announced upon the occaathletics unquestionably confers.
sion of the sesquicentennial celebration will conIn October of this year the College of New Jersey tribute very materially to the perfecting of these will formally assume the title of Princeton Univer plans of university growth. The new library al. sity. It thus acknowledges the changes which have ready in process of construction, whose aggregate been moulding its life in the past three decades. It cost will be not far from $600,000, will provide at is perhaps not out of place to make some brief men the same time an adequate literary workshop and the tion of what it is hoped the Princeton University of appropriate housing of the various seminars, which the future will accomplish. Fortunately, or unfortu have hitherto been widely scattered. Numerous nately, there is no fixed and settled meaning attached other gifts, of which mention will be duly made in to the word “university.” It cannot be confined to a October, will largely subserve the purpose of uni. mere contiguous allocation of professional schools. versity development, such as has been outlined The chances are that the future will show, as well as above. Princeton men feel confident that they have the past and present have shown, that there are sev not mistaken the strength and the direction which eral distinct types of universities.
It is not the pur
the present movement is taking. pose of Princeton to establish in connection with the There is one aspect in which Princeton University undergraduate department a number of professional will be as unique as Princeton College has been. schools devoted to the technical study of medicine This is its avowed attitude with reference to certain or law. So long as the theological seminary exists in questions of prime iinportance in Philosophy and Princeton,-and there is no reason to anticipate its Ethics. It has frequently happened in the past that removal,—the trustees of Princeton stand bound to Princeton College has been mistakenly supposed to establish no chair of theology. It is perhaps doubtful teach or to propagate the distinctive theological whether it is possible or at least advisable to estab tenets of the Princeton Theological Seminary. Belish technical schools of law or medicine outside of tween the two institutions there has been in the a large city. The type of university, then, to which past no organic or legal connection. The Seminary Princeton, both of choice and of necessity, aspires, is is avowedly committed to the maintenance and propone in which non-professional graduate study shall pagation of a certain type of theology. The College be pursued in all departinents. If in the future is not sectarian ; it never has been, and by the Princeton founds and establishes a school of law, it terms of its charter it never can be. From the bewill be a school where the “spirit of laws" and their ginning of its existence other denominations than philosophy is pursued and not a school of technical the Presbyterian have been represented on its board or adjective law. And though there may never ex of trustees ; among its students are to be found ad
herents of all churches alike. But while not de- reputation for impartiality or open mindedness nominational, Priceton is definitely and irrevocably which is to be purchased by a sacrifice of this, committed to Christian ideals. It has, therefore, its traditional philosophical attitude. The motto with reference to certain primary problems already of the new University is that of the old College-taken a definite position. It stands for a the- Dei sub numine viget-ander God's guidance it istic metaphysic. Nor does it claim or desire any flourishes.
BY THE BARON PIERRE DE COUBERTIN.
HE wonderful worker who died in Paris a few
JULES SIMON AND VICTOR COUSIN.
routine-loving city in Brittany, on Christmas eve of Simon was not his name ; it was his father's that famous year 1814, that brought to an end the Christian name. It is not uncommon for children French imperial dream and relieved Europe from in Brittany to be called thus by their own Christian Napoleon's tyrannous grasp. He was thus an old name, followed by their father's or mother's, while man, having completed, last Christmas, his eighty- the family name is not made use of. Jules Simon's first year. Still what people used to say of Sir father was called Simon Suisse, and his son was sent Henry Parkes, the great Australian leader, was no to college accordingly under the name of Jules less true of Jules Simon : that when you called on Suisse. The family was not rich and could not pay him, you thought at first he looked very old, and for the boy's education. A scholarship, fortunately, after you had heard him talk for a while,
you found was bestowed upon him and he went through the that he looked much younger. Not only was the whole course of studies, first at Lorient, and later at visitor impressed by the life-giving twinkle in his Vannes. He entered the École Normale Supérieure eye, but his conversation was no longer that of a in 1833, and having been successful in his examinaman who looks deep into the past and fails to un- tions was made “Docteur-ès-Lettres" in 1839. He derstand that the world continues to be as interest- was sent as a professor of philosophy to the Lycées ing to day as it was yesterday. Jules Simon's belief of Caen and Versailles, but soon received a letter in the continual moral progress of humanity was from the famous Victor Cousin, who had known certainly less strong than it had been at an earlier him as a student, and was now anxious to see him period of his life, but as he hated pessimism and come back to Paris, and thus secure his help as an pessimists he never gave up fighting for what he assistant master at the Sorbonne. Jules was only 26 considered good and true. Truth was his goddess, years of age when he published his first essay in the and he should not have deemed life worth living Revue des Deux Mondes. It attracted considerable had he not been led to hope that men might finally attention. Before handing it to the editor of the induce her to fix her residence among them.
Revue, he had asked Cousin's advice. Cousin thought