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“It has been the function of Lord Russell as the “ If Crete is not now blockaded, if her sons trampler on frivolous technicalities to put his heel can confidently hope for the satisfaction of their on this great Rhodesian stand-by. The following just demands, this is due to the supreme resolve exposition of the law of the Foreign Enlistment act of the great statesman who presides over the from his lips shows that the promoter of an illegal destinies of England, to be no longer a party expedition is in the eyes of the law in the same boat to the maintenance of the most iniquitous rule as the leader of it. For once the scapegoat system which ever disgraced Europe. It is a deparreceives no sanction from the law: "What must be ture so important that it will leave his name inproved to constitute an offense under the statute ? delibly marked on the foreign policy of this counIt must be proved as the foundation of the offense try ; it already centres in him the blessings, the that a person has, without the license of the Queen, confidence, and the hopes of those healthy elements in a place within her dominions where the act is in in the East, upon which alone the prestige and operation, prepared or fitted out a military expedi- power of England can safely rest.” tion to proceed-that is, with the intention that it
In Armenia. should proceed-against the dominions of a friendly
Prof. W. M. Ramsay, writing on “The Two state. It is not necessary to constitute the offense that it shall proceed, or shall have proceeded. The
Massacres in Asia Minor," draws a parallel between cardinal point is the intention. The offense is com
the massacre sanctioned by Diocletian and the mas
sacro of the Armenians in our own time. The lat. plete if the person prepares, or assists in or aids and abets the preparation with that intention.
ter he evidently thinks the worse of the two. The
conclusion of his article is that unless we are preIf that foundation is established, the statute applies, and these consequences follow : First, every
pared to deliver the Armenians, we had better get
them killed quickly. person engaged in such preparation, or fitting out,
“ That it should be burned alive in thousands, or assisting in it, or aiding, abetting, counseling,
slain in tortures in thousands more, killed by fam. or procuring it—that is to say, aiding, abetting,
ine and nakedness and cold in tens of thousands, counseling, or procuring the preparation.' It will
should surely gain for it some mercy in the judg. not, we think, be denied, even by Rhodesianism in
ment of the Western nations ; but that the scheme carnate, that Mr. Rhodes' promotion of the raid
should be deliberately carried out to ensure by a brings him well within the law thus expounded.
system of outrage that no Armenian woman over a Indeed, a strong prima facie case exists against the
large tract of country shall become the mother of millionaires which the government, to our minds,
an Armenian child, is an enormity such as surely incur a grave responsibility in disregarding, and if
never before entered into the mind of man to devise. for reasons of policy, which have not been divulged,
And yet the civilized peoples stand idly by and talk, it is decided not to prosecute Mr. Rhodes and Mr.
and allow this poisoning of the fountains of life to Beit, a very damaging blow will be struck at the
proceed month after month unchecked ; surely independence of British law, of which we hear so much on the strength of its success in dealing with
mere selfish apprehension of the punishment that
must follow such callous indifference to crimes comparatively small men.”
should have roused them to action. Winter will soon be upon Armenia again, with snow lying deep
for many months ; the people will be almost naked, ENGLAND AND THE EASTERN QUESTION.
quite starving. Let us remember this time that Various Voices.
the kindest way is to let them die quickly, and not
dole out again enough bread to preserve them for Contemporary Review argues strongly in favor longer misery. Let us kill them outright, rather of England adopting the cause of Greece.
than save them to suffer." ENGLISH POLICY IN GREECE.
And in Crete. He maintains that recent events have completely The writer signing himself W." in the Fort. destroyed any illusions at Athens as to the policy nightly Review discusses the Cretan question. His of Russia or France :
theory is that Crete should be detached from the “ French influence, once paramount in Greece, is Ottoman Empire and annexed to Greece. He says now as dead as that of Russia has been for the last that the arguments in favor of doing this are strong, thirty years. The Greeks now look exclusively to but that there are no arguments against it. He England ; and it is to be fervently hoped that this forgets the very strong argument there exists in tendency, remarkable for its unanimity and strength, the shape of the reluctance of the Turk to quit his will not be disregarded. Love of liberty, civilizing prey : power, commercial aptitude, seafaring habits-all “It was advocated by the Czar Alexander in 1824, mark the Greeks as the only element in the Levant and by both France and Russia in 1866. Prince which offers a sure foothold to English policy. The Bismarck was also strongly in favor of it. He told Slavs are irrevocably committed to subservience to Lord Augustus Loftus at the time of the Cretan inRussia.
surrection, thirty years ago, that · if England would
After the crowning of the Czar and his wife, “the Emperor again taking the sceptre and globe, sat in his throne, while the deacon, in tones throbbing with exultant joy, proclaimed the imperial titles. Louder and louder rose his voice as the long list went on, till it rolled through the building and broke upon the ear in almost overwhelming waves of sound. Rarely could the majestic effect of territorial names be more distinctly recognized, or more magnificencly expressed : 'To our mighty Lord, crowned of God, Nicolas Alexandrovitch, Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, of Moscow, Kieff, Vladimir, Novgorod, Czar of Kazan, Czar of Astrachan, Czar of Poland, Czar of Siberia, Czar of the Tauric Chersonese, Czar of Georgia ; Lord of Pskoff; Grand Duke of Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia and Finland; Prince of Esthonia, Livonia, Curland, and Semgallen, of Bielostok, Coria, Tver, Ingria, Perm, Viatka, Bulgaria, and other lands ; Lord and Grand Duke of Nijni Novgorod, of Tchernigoff, Riazan, Polotelsk, Rostoff. Jaroslavz, Bielolersk, Udoria, Obdoria, Condia, Vitebsk, Mstislaff, and all northern lands, Ruler and Lord of the Iverskian, Kartalian, and Kabardimshian lands, as of the region of Armenia; Ruler of the Circassian and Hill princes and other lords ; Heir of Norway ; Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stornmarn, Ditmarsch, and Oldenburg ; grant O Lord, a happy and peaceful life, health and safety, and prosperity in all good, victory and triumph over all his foes ; and preserve him for many years.' The choir took up the refrain ‘for many years,' and repeated it antiphonally till the sounds softly died away. Again the deacon began : "To his wife, the orthodox and religious crowned, and exalted Lady, the Empress Alexandra Feodrovna, for many years ; ' and again the choir repeated the good wish.
THE CZAR'S PRAYER IN THE SILENCE.
complished, and the bells clanged out and the cannons thun. dered, to announce the fact to the dense throng outside, who shouted out their joyful congratulations.
The members of the imperial family left their places and did homage. It was pathetic to see the wistful look in the face of the Dowager Empress as she tenderly embraced her son, and both were overcome by deep emotion. Then all others in the cathedral bowed low three times to the Emperor, who stood to receive this acknowledgment of their fealty. The bells and cannon ceased, and there was profound stillness, as the Emperor knelt, and in clear, earnest voice prayed for himself : • Lord God of our fathers, and King of Kings, Who hast created all things by Thy word, and by Thy wisdom hast made man, that he should walk uprightly and rule righteously over Thy world : Thou hast chosen me as Czar and judge over Thy people. I acknowledge Thy unsearchable purpose toward me, and bow in thankfulness before Thy Majesty. Do Thou my Lord and Governor, fit me for the work to which Thou hast sent me : teach me and guide me in this great service. May there be with Thee the wisdom which belongs to Thy throne ; send it from Thy holy heaven, that I may know what is well pleasing in Thy sight, and what is right according to Thy commandment. May my heart be in Thy hand, to accomplish all that is to the profit of the people committed to my charge, and is to Thy glory, that so in the day of Thy judgment I may give Thee account of my stewardship without blame ; through the grace and mercy of Thy Son, Who was once crucified for us, to Whom be all honor and glory with Thee and the Holy Ghost, the Giver of Life, for ever and ever. Amen.'
DR. CREIGHTON'S IMPRESSIONS. The Bishop, summing up the last total of his impressions, says :
“Such a ceremony cannot be measured by our standards ; it was an expression of national senti. ment, penetrated by a poetry and a passion unknown to us, or rather I should not say unknown in the sense of unfelt, but such as we should not care to express in any visible form. It was an exhibition of national self-consciousness upon a mighty scale, and as such produced a deep impression in all beholders. It focussed many national characteristics, and showed a serious sense of a great national mis. sion, with which every Englishman could feel himself in fundamental sympathy.”
THE Bachelor of Arts issues a vacation number for August-September. The leading article is an appropriate eulogy of the late ex-Governor Russell of Massachusetts, by John T. Wheelwright. S. Scoville, Jr., writes on “The Proposed American Henley:" Wm. H. Hale contributes an article on the novel topic of “ The Monetary Standard.” One of the best things in the number is an account of Poe's writing of The Raven,” by Francis Aymar Mathews. “ Canada's Change of Government” is reviewed by Stanbury R. Tarr. There are the usual editorial, athletic and book departments.
THE MASSACRES AT VAN.
say of revolutionists. A soldier and the officer in ANY who read Dr. Grace Kimball's account charge were badly wounded. By noon the long
of the relief work at Van as published in expected outbreak was well under way. In all our April number were doubtless the more keenly quarters of the town, where the population was interested in the newspaper reports of the atrocities mixed, Turkish and Armenian, and in quarters committed there by the Turks less than three abutting on Turkish neighborhood, crowds of hun. months later. Miss Kimball's own story of these
dreds of low Turks, Kurds, gypsies, and irregular outrages has been graphically told in several recent soldiers and gendarmes arrived with guns and publications. We quote below from her article in swords and every kind of weapon, and broke loose Lend a Hand for September:
on the utterly defenseless and unsuspecting people. Van's turn came at last. The disturbances were They swept from house to house, from street to brought about by the worst element from among street, from quarter to quarter, killing all whom the revolutionists—scamps from Russia and Bul they could reach, pillaging the houses of everygaria-men who had no local interests, no families, thing, and, in the case of better houses, destroying and no lands or property at stake, but who came as them by fire. It was, I think, due to the fact of the absolute dictators of the destiny of the entire com excessive poverty of the Turks, and especially the munity. The Armenians were too broken spirited soldiers, that the pillaging engaged their attention and hopeless to oppose this energetic band of crimi most largely, and for this reason the killing was not nals, under the guise of heroes and patriots, and it so great as might have been expected from the teris hard to say of whom the people stood most in rible animosity existing. The greater part of the fear, the incensed Turk, on the one hand, or these Armenians were able to save their lives by flight. men, on the other, who insisted, under threats of Probably about 500 were killed, while many were murder-which were several times carried out-on badly wounded. The riot continued for eight con. quartering themselves on the peaceful inhabitants
secutive days. When the affray was well begun and demanding money and other assistance from the revolutionists took up fortified positions, and them. So great was the terror they inspired that stood siege by the mob. Twelve or fifteen of these even in the relief work the native helpers were men, well armed, easily withstood all assaults, and afraid to advise as to who should and who should inflicted severe loss on their opponents; probably 150 not receive assistance, lest they incur the animosity or 200 Moslems were thus killed, and for every of these men. For many months they used every
Moslem killed the wave of fanatical frenzy rose means to force the young men to join, furnished higher. Soon after midnight of the fifth day, one or them with arms brought from Russia and Persia, two mountain guns reduced these strongholds, and and dressed in a wild, striking sort of uniform, their doughty defenders sought refuge in the comwent back and forth by night, from one rendezvous pact Armenian quarter, which had been protected to another, frequently meeting the Turkish patriot, by the British Vice-Consul. The government, actand thus adding constantly to the smoldering fire ing in consultation with the British Consul, offered of Turkish hatred and fanaticism. During the them the most easy and merciful terms of surrenspring one of hese bands met the patrol, was chal der, and these were urged as the only way to restore lenged, shots were exchanged, and a Turkish soldier confidence and save their co-religionists from fur. killed. The authorities with difficulty calmed the ther violence and plunder, but the whilom leaders wrath of the soldiers. Since Bahri Pacha's dis were too much impressed with the desirability of missal the local government, under Nagin Pacha, insuring their own lives to listen, and, now that has honestly and successfully labored to defend the they had precipitated the avalanche of destruction, town against outbreaks, and the advent of this law. they, with the arms they had brought with them, less band was, therefore, doubly unfortunate and left for the mountains and secured personal safety fatal to the interests of the community at large. across the Persian frontier. Thanks to Major Wil
“When the snows disappeared the revolutionists liams' herculean efforts, the compact Armenian began, in spite of the warning and advice from the quarter-something like a mile square-was largely Governor-General, the British Vice-Consul and the saved, and for days the American mission, protected American missionaries, to send armed bands against by the Union Jack, gave refuge to something like the Kurds, to avenge the wrong done the Armenians 15,000 people.” in the fall. So the government saw that no com. At the time when Dr. Kimball wrote, shortly promise was possible and that the city must be after the outbreak, her relief department was givcleared of the revolutionists; their haunts were sur ing out daily rations of bread or soup to over 15,000 rounded and searched by the police, but such is the people, fully 10,000 of whom were homeless and desconfiguration of the town that it was perfectly titute. easy for the rebels to elude their pursuers. Finally Dr. Kimball throws much blame on the revoluthe storm broke; at midnight on Sunday, June 14, tionary party of the Armenians. Notwithstanding an encounter took place at the edge of the town be the savage and brutal character of the Turks, Dr. tween the Turkish patrol and an armed band, the Kimball says that the local government acted well, Armenians say, of Kurds smuggling salt; the Turks largely because of the influence of the British Vice
Consul, Major Williams, who was probably the all the laws of building; their plans, measurements means of preventing a general slaughter of Chris. and proposed uses had all been laid before the proper tians.
authorities and received their sanctions.
them of all their contents of furniture, food and AMERICA'S DUTY TO AMERICANS IN TURKEY. clothing has gone back upon itself in its eagerness N an open letter to Senator Sherman published to show 'its contempt of America and Americans.'
In all this the Sultan is backed up by Russia. No Dr. Cyrus Hamlin, for many years a missionary in indemnity has been exacted, or if any demand has Turkey, replies with crushing force to the implica- been made it is understood that some high Russian tion in one of the Senator's speeches that American diplomat whispers that now is not the proper time missionaries in Turkey are beyond protection from to enforce it, and it is dropped. Thus the 'Great their home government. He shows that existing Republic' is justly the derision of other nations and treaty provisions are ample to secure all the rights cowers before a poor Sultan who caunot pay a piasaccorded to “ the most favored nation."
tre of his public debt, nor make the smallest loan in “ Had our country defended the treaty rights of the money markets of Europe. her citizens, as all the nations of Europe have de
“No Turk has yet been punished for robbery, pilfended theirs, the massacres that blot with innocent lage, murder, rape, rapine, torture unto death of blood the last pages of the century would never women and children, and the horrid work still goes have been perpetrated, as I shall briefly show. on. Why should it not ? The nations, our own na
“ The present Sultan, Hamid, came to the throne tion especially, have for two years been giving the with an inveterate dislike to all Armenians who Sultan carte-blanche to do as he pleases; and his would not apostatize and thus follow his mother's pleasure is the extermination of all Armenians who example. He began his career by displacing them will not Islamize, the expulsion of the American from office. Many hundreds of them were in vari.
missionaries, the destruction of their property, and ous offices of government. He next began to oppress
the showing of himself as superior to all treaties and their schools with new and vexatious requirements
to all the claims of truth, justice, and humanity and to spoil their school-books by an absurd censor
toward all men of the Christian faith.” ship. Many schools were closed, many school-books destroyed for containing forbidden words, such as *courage,'' patience,' 'patriotism,' 'progress.' In
AMERICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO CIVILIZATION. this work he encountered our schools, school-books, and teachers, and began cautiously his war upon HE October Atlantic Monthly begins with an them. He has destroyed our school-books printed important article by President Charles W. and issued by the authority of his government and Eliot, which he entitles “ Five American Contribuowned by Americans, an invasion of rights perpe- tions to Civilization." The very first of these in trated upon Americans alone. Our government importance is the advance the United States has was often appealed to for redress, which was gener- made toward the abandonment of war. ally promised in the sweetest and most gracious If the intermittent Indian fighting and the brief words, of which our diplomats have been very proud. contest with the Barbary corsairs be disregarded, But no penalty was ever exacted, no promise was the United States have only had four years and a ever fulfilled, excepting the case of Mr. Bartlett's quarter of international war in the one hundred house, in which the moving force was the threat of and seven years since the adoption of the Constituan ironclad. Now every outrage thus treated dur- tion. Within the same period the United States ing the last few years has been a distinct permission have been a party to forty-seven arbitrations, being to go on to greater outrages upon property and per- more than half of all that have taken place in the sonal rights. The Sultan has seen that it is a safe modern world. The questions settled by these arthing to perpetrate every indignity upon Americans bitrations have been just such as have commonly and their property, until now the destruction of caused wars -namely, questions of boundaries, fishAmerican property has amounted to nearly $200,000. eries, damages inflicted by war or civil disturbances, Not a dollar would have been destroyed had our and injuries to commerce. Some of them were of government from the beginning protected our rights great magnitude, the four made under the treaty as all the governments of Europe protect their citi. of Washington, May 8, 1871, being the most imzens.
portant that have ever taken place. Confident in “ It must be remembered that the destruction and their strength, and relying on their ability to adthe looting of the buildings at Harpoot, Marash, and just international differences, the United States other places were done in the presence of govern- have habitually maintained, by voluntary enlistment officials and troops, and the plea 'done by a ment for short terms, a standing army and fleet mob' cannot be accepted.
which in proportion to the population are insignifi. “ It must also be remembered that every building cant.”' destroyed had been built in strict accordance with Professor Eliot places no belief in the sentiment
that war is desirable on the ground of its developing national, state, and town ; 6, that nowhere have certain noble qualities in some of the combatants property and well being been so widely diffused, and giving opportunity for the practice of heroic and, 7, that no form of government ever inspired virtues. He says : “ In the first place this view greater affection and loyalty, or prompted to greater forgets that war, in spite of the fact that it de- personal sacrifices in supreme moments." velops some splendid virtues, is the most horrible
THE AMALGAMATION OF RACES. occupation that human beings can possibly engage in. It is cruel, treacherous and murderous. And
The fourth and a very hopeful impetus which in the second place the weaker party may have the
the United States has given to civilization is seen in the demonstration that people belonging to a
great variety of races and nations are, under favorRELIGIOUS TOLERATION.
able circumstances, fit for political freedom. Not The second eminent help which the United States
only in this century have a vast number of forhas given to the progress of civilization President
eigners been assimilated in the life of the United Eliot sees in the religious toleration to be found in
States, and in many cases proved themselves serviceAmerica. “ The church as a whole in the United
able citizens of the republic, but in the eighteenth States has not been an effective opponent of any
century, before the Revolution broke out, there form of human rights. For generations it has been
were English, Scotch, Dutch, Germans, French, divided into numerous sects and denominations, no
Portuguese and Swedes in the colonies. one of which has been able to claim more than a
A HIGH STANDARD OF LIVING. tenth of the population as its adherents. The constitutional prohibition of religious tests as qualifica
Fifth, no country in the world can approach the tions for office gave the United States the leadership
United States in the diffusion of well being in the among the nations in dissociating theological opin population. ions and political rights. No one denomination or
“It is seen in that diffused elementary educa. ecclesiastical organization in the United States has tion which implants for life a habit of reading, in held great properties, or had the means of conducting the success of the voluntary system for the support its ritual with costly pomp or its charitable works
of religious institutions, and in the habitual optimwith imposing liberality. No splendid architectural
ism which characterizes the common people. It is exhibitions of church power have interested or over
seen in the housing of the people and of their doawed the population. On the contrary, there has pre
mestic animals ; in the comparative costliness of vailed in general a great simplicity in public wor
their food, clothing, and household furniture ; in ship until very recent years. Some splendors have
their implements, vehicles, and means of transporbeen lately developed by religious bodies in the tation ; and in the substitution on a prodigious scale great cities, but these splendors and luxuries have
of the work of machinery for the work of men's been almost simultaneously exhibited by religious
hands.. This last item in American well being is bodies of very different, not to say opposite kinds."
quite as striking in agriculture, mining and fishing as it is in manufacturing processes.
effects of the manufacture of power, and of the The third contribution is the safe development of discovery of means of putting that power just manhood suffrage. He does not think that all the where it is wanted, have been more striking in the problems of suffrage have been solved in the ex- United States than anywhere else. Manufactured perience of the United States, but many principles and distributed power needs intelligence to direct have been made clear which were not before com- it ; the bicycle is a blind horse, and must be steered prehended, such as the fact that a gradual approach at every instant : somebody must show a steam to universal suffrage is far more advantageous than drill where to strike and how deep to go. So far as a sudden leap ; also that universal suffrage has an men and women can substitute for the direct exeducational effect by permitting the capable to rise penditure of muscular strength the more intelligent through all grades of society and thus stimulating effort of designing, tending and guiding machines, personal ambition. President Eliot thinks that the they win promotion in the scale of being, and make actual experience of the American democracy proves: their lives more interesting as well as more pro“1, That property has never been safer under any ductive. It is in the invention of machinery for form of government ; 2, that no people have ever producing and distributing power, and at once welcomed so ardently new machinery, and new in- economizing and elevating human labor, that Amer. ventions generally ; 3, that religious toleration was ican ingenuity has been most conspicuously mani never carried so far, and never so universally ac- fested. As proof of the general proposition, it sufcepted ; 4, that nowhere have the power and dis- fices merely to mention the telegraph and telephone. position to read been so general ; 5, that nowhere the sewing machine, the cotton gin, the mower, has governmental power been more adequate, or reaper and threshing machine, the dish washing more freely exercised, to levy and collect taxes, to machine, the river steamboat, the sleeping car, raise armies, and to disband them, to maintain the boot and shoe machinery and the watch ma public order, and to pay off great public debts, chinery."