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the solution of all possible equations, every unknown steps of four feet in length, thus being enabled to quantity in these sciences may be exactly deter- cover the ground with comparative ease. mined. In biological sciences the case is thus far
RUNNING AND WALKING. quite different. Here the unknown quantities are legion in every equation. Hence the extreme diffi
• There is little doubt that twenty-five years ago culty of any solid advance; hence the many mis- there were very few men who could run a mile in takes, the many disagreements. In the best of five minutes, whereas now four minutes and a half experiments it is only possible to mass one series of for the same distance is considered to be below the unknown quantities against another series of un
standard of first-class performances. The mile, known quantities so that they balance as nearly as
indeed, was actually run, in 1886, by W. G. George, possible, and then with our one unknown quantity,
in 4 minutes 1234 seconds. Eriefly to recount some about which the experiment turns, make the best
of the most prominent present day' bests on record,' temporary solution of our problem possible. Thus in running, one hundred yards has been run in 9% the science must be content to proceed until the seconds ; half a mile in 1 minute 53 seconds ; five vast series of unknown conditions which influence
miles in 24 minutes 40 seconds ; twenty miles in 1 life have been dealt with one by one. Thus, if the hour 51 minutes 6] seconds, and a hundred miles science is to advance, if we are ever to learn under in 13 hours 2642 minutes. The celebrated 'Deerwhat conditions life is most favorably placed, we
foot,' in 1863, ran 11 miles 970 yards in an hour, and must vary the conditions in every possible way
in 1882 another performer ran 150 miles 395 yards in i. e., experiment physiologically; and, as we have
23 hours. seen, everything in the divine ordering of Nature is “In walking contests, which are by no means so in complete harmony with this method, and bids attractive to the ordinary spectator, a mile has been man Godspeed in this great work."
done in 6 minutes 23 seconds ; five miles have been walked in 35 minutes 10 seconds, and a hundred
miles in 18 hours 8 minutes 15 seconds. In one hour SOME WORLD RECORDS
8 miles 270 yards have been covered by walking.
The only other pedestrian feat of which mention Yet to be Broken.
need here be made is the remarkable distance of 623 "HERE is an article in the Gentleman's for Sep
miles 1,320 yards done in a six days' contest in 1888
by Littlewood of New York-a truly remarkable very wide public. It is entitled “Extremes of Hu
example of what can be done by unaided human man Achievement,” and is in fact an account of
effort. “Records” which the modern athlete has estab
JUMPING AND THROWING. lished, and which it is the object of all athletes to break with as little delay as possible. The writer
“In no department of athletics has a more rethinks that “the introduction of the present day
markable improvement taken place than in jump
ing. At the first Oxford and Cambridge meeting system of athletics in this country dates from about 1850, when the great athletic meetings began to be
in 1864 the best high jump was only 5 feet 6 inches, held.” Here are some of the facts and figures :
and the best long jump 18 feet. Not many years
ago it was supposed to be beyond human power to CYCLING, SKATING AND STILTING.
jump higher than 6 feet, and to cover by a long “One mile has been cycled in 1 minute 50 seconds, jump more than 2212 or 23 feet was thought little 100 miles in 3 hours 53 minutes ; in one hour 28 short of an impossibility. Yet these have all been miles 1.034 yards have been covered, and in 24 exceeded, to the incredulous amazement of for. hours 529 miles 578 yards. As tours de force of en- eigners who take the trouble to interest themselves durance, note may be specially taken of the cycling in such matters. The record for high jumping of 1,40434 miles in six days of eighteen hours a day, stands—and probably will long remain-at the reof 1,000 miles cycled on the road in 5 days 5 hours markable height of 6 feet 558 inches, and a running 49 minutes, and of Mill's wonderful ride from long leap has been ma of 23 feet 6%2 inches. In Land's End to John o’ Groat's, 900 miles, in 3 days pole jumping, in which human effort is aided by the 5 minutes 49 seconds. The skater far outstrips the use of a pole, a height of 11 feet 9 inches has been runner in speed, but does not nearly come up to cleared. the cyclist. A mile has been skated in 2 minutes “In other branches of athletics, which do not 125 seconds, five miles in 17 minutes 45 seconds, and attract so much public attention as the more showy 100 miles in 7 hours 11 minutes 381 seconds.
walking, running, or jumping, weight-putting and “ A form of competition quite unknown in this hammer throwing have also had their champion country-stilt walking—is practiced to a considera- performers, who, by training other muscles, have ble extent in some districts of France. Recently, at been able to make remarkable records. The sixBordeaux, a young man beat the record by cover- teen-pound weight has been thrown a distance of ing 275 miles in 76 hours 35 minutes. The stilts used 47 feet 10 inches. This performance dates only were about six feet long and weighed 16 pounds. from last year, and this year the hammer, also With these rather ungainly implements he took weighing sixteen pounds, was thrown 147 feet. An
A . ,
apparently much more astonishing performance is how quickly the colleges would swing in line ! that of throwing a cricket ball the extraordinary None of the present annual regattas, such as the distance of 127 yards 1 foot 3 inches before it struck Harlem, the People's or the National, appeals to the the ground, which has not been surpassed since distinctively college element, and many of them 1873."
are marred by professional events. But a week that would offer to every small college an equal chance
with the larger ones, that would encourage class A PROPOSED AMERICAN HENLEY.
crews and offer a cup for fraternity and public
school crews, that would persuade the club whose ville. Jr., waxes enthusiastic over the Henley
membership is composed of college men to go in Regatta, the glories of which he longs to see repro
for rowing—such a regatta would fill a long felt duced. in some measure, in America. He shows
want, and once more put rowing well up in the that we have nothing on this side” that at all fills
front as a branch of collegiate athletics. There is no the place of the English Henley. As to the feasi
reason why St. Paul should be almost the only pub. bility of maintaining such a regatta here, he says :
lic school that goes in for boating, nor why the uni. “The successful way in which the Continental versity clubs -the University Athletic Club, the nations have imitated England's Henley should lay
Harvard Club, the Crescent Athletic Club, and a all doubts on this question. In Germany the Ham.
score of others--should not support crews of exburg Amateur Regatta was instituted in 1884, closely college men, as the Leander Boating Club does on imitating the English model, and within the decade
the other side." the Teutons have proved themselves apt enough
Mr. Scoville would do away with the present syspupils to defeat some of the crack English crews.
tem of tedious four-mile races, which now keeps the The Union des Sociétés des Sports Athletiques holds
smaller colleges out altogether, and would introa successful regatta every year, and frequently
duce several English features. He is confident that enters crews at Henley, as does the Deutscher
the new methods would react favorably on the Reuder Verband, and both are accorded special
athletic spirit of American colleges. privileges at Henley, while the Neptunus and Nereus boating clubs of Amsterdam hold annual aquatic meetings. The former has the proud distinction of
DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION, being the only foreign rowing club that has ever produced a winner of the Diamond Sculls, while the 'HE address delivered by Prof. Nicholas Murray Amsterdam University crew won the Visitor's Chal
Butler before the National Educational Asso. lenge Cup in 1895. Austria, too, has her regattas, and ciation at its Buffalo meeting last July is published turns out some creditable crews, as Cornell learned in the September number of the Educational Review. to her cost in 1881. Some of the members of the Bo- The address is wholly devoted to the relations hemian eight that won the Senior and Junior eights existing between democracy and education. We at Harlem Regatta in New York in 1894 and 1895 quote Professor Butler's concluding paragraphs: first began their rowing on Austrian waters. If “The difficulties of democracy are the opportu. such a boating festival can succeed among races
nities of education. If our education be sound, if where the love of sport is an acquired characteristic, it lay due emphasis on individual responsibility for it should of a certainty flourish in athletic America.''
social and political progress, if counteract the
anarchistic tendencies that grow out of selfishness DECLINE OF INTEREST IN ROWING.
and greed, if it promote a patriotism that reaches At present there are hardly more than five “ row. further than militant jingoism and gunboats, then ing colleges” in the whole country, though many we may cease to have any doubts as to the perpetuity years ago there was a time, the writer recalls, and integrity of our institutions.
But I am prowhen thirteen colleges competed “all in a row." foundly convinced that the greatest educational
“Princeton, Amherst, Brown, and a host of need of our time, in higher and lower schools alike, smaller colleges all supported strong crews. But is a fuller appreciation on the part of the teachers in the old days there was none of the management of what human institutions really mean and what or that system which has made the English Henley tremendous moral issues and principles they involve. such a success. The crews all started in a helter The ethics of individual life must be traced to its skelter line, and the regattas were marred and roots in the ethics of the social whole. The family, finally killed by the constant fouls and resulting property, the common law, the state, and the bad feeling that were a necessary consequence of
church, are all involved. These, and their prodthis clumsy system. But assume that an American ucts, taken together, constitute civilization and Henley be founded, an event held pre eminently in mark it off from barbarism. Inheritor of a glorious the interests of college oarsmen, with a distance past, each generation is a trustee for posterity. To that does not require tedious months of training (the preserve, protect, and transmit its inheritance unimwinners of the Grand Challenge Cup this year at paired, is its highest duty. To accomplish this is Henley trained together less than a month); and not the task of the few, but the duty of all.
“ That democracy alone will be triumphant which has both intelligence and character. To develop both among the whole people is the task of education in a democracy. Not, then, by vainglorious boasting, not by self-satisfied indifference, not by selfish and indolent withdrawal from participation in the interests and government of the community, but rather by that enthusiasm, born of intense conviction, that finds the happiness of each in the good of all, will our educational ideals be satisfied and our free government be placed where the forces of dissolution and decay cannot reach it.”
THE "NEW WOMAN'S” EDUCATIONAL DUTIES.
HE ‘New Woman' and Her Debts" is the
subject of an article by Miss Clare de Graffenried in Appleton's Popular Science Monthly. This writer warns the new woman not to desert the home.
“Clearly, too, we shall continue at an ethical as well as a commercial disadvantage unless we replace the handicrafts of the primitive woman and build up the industrial arts—the all important, ever-dignified and beautiful pursuits of cooking and sewing, cleaning and repairing, needlework, einbroidery, carving, coloring, and house decoration. The most unlovely hoines in the world are the bare, untidy homes of our working population. The most wasteful housewife on earth is the thriftless American housewife. To reinstate the skilled industries, to weave in beauty with the life of the people, we must carry manual and technical training and applied art to the point of action, as it were, down among the degraded, the belated, the neglected, the submerged. In the 'slums,' where ignorance revels, crime festers, and decent poverty hides, we should found cooking, sewing and housekeeping schools, with carpentry centres, wood-carving, brass, hammering, drawing, modeling, and other creative pursuits that will fascinate the roughest street girl and transform the boy'tough’into an eager, industrious artisan. Belgium and France, whose products we in vain try to equal, have planted industrial and domestic science schools in every hamlet, technical schools in all the manufacturing towns, dairy and farm schools in the agricultural districts. The teaching is adapted to local industries: on the coast, to shipbuilding and fisheries; in the quarries, to stonecutting; around textile mills, to weaving and dyeing; with drawing everywhere. Hence the industrial supremacy of these countries, their excel. lent food, absence of waste, national thrift, and the love of art that pervades even the humblest classes. To educate by the same methods the children of America, to improve our homes, to bring order, skill and beauty into the barrenest lives, to carry on the propaganda for universal industrial and art training, is the privilege and duty of the new woman,
FRENCH BOYS AND GIRLS. N the October Century Th. Bentzon has an un
usually interesting paper entitled “ About French Children," in which she especially dwells on the difference in the methods of the family and school training between France and America.
THE MANNERS OF FRENCH CHILDREN. “It is needless to say that we teach our children not to sop up their sauce with bits of bread, not to gulp down their soup audibly, and not to eat with their knife; but we specially require that they should not leave anything on their plate after having accepted it from the dish. It is not the waste alone; it is the absolute impoliteness of the act, which consists in a guest leaving half of what he has been helped to untouched, under the anxious gaze of the hostess, who naturally supposes that nothing is to his taste. From the moment our children know how to handle a knife and fork they are told never to express an opinion, favorable or the reverse, as to what they are eating, and to eat everything put before them. The habit clings through life. In general they do not try to attract attention, do not express opinions, are not as loud and noisy as American children."
FRENCH JUVENILE LITERATURE. Madam Blanc says that French children are prac. tically forbidden literature, which in France is sup. posed to exist not so much for amusement or instruction as for the cause of art. She says :
“I except fairy-tales. Perrault has written mas. terpieces; Mme. d'Aulnoy and others have followed him; the fairies of other countries may have been more poetic, but they have never been as witty as the French. Leaving fairy-tales aside, children were obliged for a long time to be satisfied with the very slight collection bequeathed by Berguin, Bouilly, Mme. de Genlis, those clever people who know how to coat a moral lesson with a thin layer of pictures, as bitter pills are coated with sugar. In fact, this is the French parents' very ideal in the matter of story-books, and to please them the lesson must not be too well coated, or hard to find, for the spirit of investigation is not encouraged in young readers.
“During the past twenty years, however, the meager library at their disposal has grown wonder. fully; celebrated pens have contributed toward it; we need but mention Jules Verne, whose scientific fairy-tales have, alas ! almost completely dethroned those that appealed to the imagination alone. But neither in his books, nor in those of any of his com. petitors, will you ever find what both English and American writers currently permit themselves to do_namely, to arraign a relative, as, for instance, the wicked uncle in ‘Kidnapped,' or to make teachers hateful, or merely ridiculous, as is the case in Dickens' works. This would be an outrage upon the respect due them in the aggregate. For this reason translations are nearly always expurgated.
forms, and what new ones the future promises, 1 IN the English Illustrated Magazine a writer dis
The friendly adoption of poor Laurie by the four method of instilling good breeding in a French girl girls in · Little Women’ would be considered very is by the convent. The lycées are destined to take unseemly. Yet, for all that, they were good little the place of the declining boarding-schools, and New England girls. T. B. Aldrich's 'Story of a wlien they do, the French girl will be under much Bad Boy' was deprived of one of its prettiest chap more nearly the same influences as the American ters, the one about his childish love for a big girl. girl. * It is useless,' they say, 'to draw attention to that “ It is quite clear that whether it be for better or kind of danger.'
for worse, we are gradually approaching an order " Authors and editors are often greatly perplexed of things more American than French, in the old before this severe tribunal of French parents. The sense of the word. As regards children, the prison. difference between the books children are allowed to like school has opened its doors, boarding lycées read in France and those sought by their elders, seem to be losing favor, and scholars can enjoy all the contrast between the tasteless pap on one side the bodily exercise that tempts schoolboys on the and the infernal spiciness on the other, must greatly other side of the Atlantic. At the same time, the astonish both English and American readers, who number of those who finish their course in the nearly all accept the same literary diet, young and 'humanities,' that splendid name that nothing else old, parents and children.
can replace, is growing smaller; some are content
to follow merely the so called modern course. The CONVENT EDUCATION.
hurried and curtailed education which permits an Of the system of educating young girls in con early entrance into practical life has numerous parvents, about which so much has been said pro and
tisans." con, Madam Blanc says :
“ To show the transformation that woman's education has undergone in France, and to indicate as
THE BOY KING OF SPAIN. clearly as possible what still remains of the old N
courses pleasantly concerning Alfonso XIII., ask permission to go back to the last century, when the Boy King of Spain, who is the youngest sovera little girl, far from being her mother's inseparable eign in Europe: companion, as she is now, was merely brought to Alfonso XIII., when I saw him first, seated in her once a day by her governess. When eleven or his carriage, was a pale, thin, and delicate looking twelve years old she was taken to a convent, where, little fellow. With his fair hair inclined to be we are told, she acquired 'the accomplishments curly, his blue eye, and his face gentle in its expresnecessary to the status of a woman who is to live in
sion of languor, the little king reminded me of that society, hold a certain place there, and even manage Philip IV. made famous by the pencil of Velasquez. a household.'
The thin lips were almost bloodless, the features “This may seem very extraordinary to those seemed too fatigued to possess any definite expreswho imagine a convent as a prison or a tomb, but it sion except for the far off look of dreaming and is certain that the unchanging convent has remained
patience in the eyes. He smiled, nevertheless, conjust what it was when Rousseau was both praising tinuously and rather drearily, and looked unmistak. and blaming it. The boarding pupils still play ably bored. He seemed to be going through his many games and have plenty of exercise, and the afternoon's drive as he would go through any other result is that they are usually in very good health; of his innumerable royal duties, obediently but the calm serenity of the moral atmosphere sur mechancially. He was dressed in a sailor costume, rounding them seems to preserve them from all his head bare-a small head, moreover, giving no nervous excitement. Besides, the convents--and I
promise of intellect ; and the little boy, looking refer to the great convents such as the Sacred Heart,
like one in the first days of convalesence from some the Roule, or Les Oiseaux-are still the places where almost fatal fever, still smiled mechanically as the
are best prepared for appearing well in carriage rolled slowly on society. How is this done ? By keeping up old “ Alfonso XIII. has an English governess among traditions, the special formulas of a fortunately other instructors, but his education is under the varnished period when a young girl left the convent direct and personal supervision of his mother. His only to be married. She was then at once supposed exalted rank prevents him indulging in the usual to ignore no single shade of etiquette, to do nothing sports of boyhood, and one of the stories related of awkward, to be armed from head to foot for the
him has a pathetic side in this respect. He was grand ceremony of her presentation at court."
seen one day gazing with uncommon interest out of
one of the windows of the royal palace in the direcAMERICAN INFLUENCE.
tion of the Manzanares. He was asked what he The girls' lycées cannot plead guilty of any worse was looking at, and he pointed out a couple of charge, Madam Blanc thinks, than that they are urchins who were busy and happy making mud “badly made up; " that is, that society holds aloof pies, and Alfonso XIII. begged, even with tears in from them and continues to think that the only true his eyes, to be allowed to go and make mud pies
with them. He was little consoled by the informa- that age. One gentleman confesses to have used his tion that etiquette forbade kings to indulge in pas- boyhood secret language, speaking it to himself, times so unexalted. At other times Alfonso takes during all the fifty years that have passed since his his monarchy more seriously, and frequently clinches childhood. an argument by announcing autocratically, 'I am • The names of these languages are numerous and the King.'
varied. Hog Latin, though, is by far the most com“ Not long ago the King was taken to his first mon name and is used to desigpate languages which bull fight. He was much pleased at first with the are very far apart in their construction. Why this pomp and glitter and gorgeous pageantry that the term is so common can only be guessed at. There Southern races know so well how to make effective, is one form of these languages which, in every but when it came to the bull goring the defenseless instance but one, goes by the name of Hog Latin, so horses with his . spears '-as they call the horns in it may be that this is the mother-tongue and is strong bull ring parlance-Alfonso turned pale, became enough to give name to many other tongues formed much terrified, and demanded to be taken home. after the parties had learned of this." This display of aversion to the national sport of Mr. Chrisman is inclined to think that the term Spain made an unfavorable impression on the popu. Hog Latin may be exclusively an American phrase. lace."
Dog Latin, he says, is the next most popular name.
from these words occurring in their alphabets. IsCHILDREN'S SECRET LANGUAGE.
olo gets its name from the fact that the sylables OME interesting information about the languages
alternately end in s or o, is or lo. Mr. Chrisman employed by children among themselves when
mentions several other names of similar origin. they desire secret means of communication is fur
Most of these languages are spoken only, and nished by Oscar Chrisman in the Child-Study
some of the writers found trouble in writing them Monthly. These languages are not confined, says
Quite a large number are written, and Mr. Chrisman, to any one place or to any set number
many are both written and spoken. Many of the of places, but abound wherever children are found.
writers commented upon the great facility they They occur in all parts of America, from Maine
acquired in the speaking of these languages. In to California and from Canada to Texas. They are
some cases they seemed to have usurped the place of spread over Europe and are reported by travelers English and to have become so natural to use as to as being in Asia and other parts of the world. Nor
require no thought on the part of the children to do they exist only among civilized people, for even
hold them in mind. Nòr are these languages so our American Indian children are reported to be
easily understood, for when spoken by the thor. adepts in their construction."
ough linguist they are no more intelligible to those “How old these languages are cannot be known.
outside the charmed circle than are any other forOne of the writers in Am Ur-Quell mentions that
eign tongues.” the one he gives was in use sixty years ago. Some
“One rather common form consists of an alphabet
which uses the vowels as in the regular alphabet, and parties have written me that their languages were used by them as children fifty years since. One gen
the consonants are formed by using each before and tleman states that one of the most common languages
after a short u, as t-u-t, tut. One such alphabetical used by children now was very common among his
language was traced back through its use in three
different localities in the state of Texas to the island playmates in 1840-50. This time differs with my
of Jamaica." informants as their time of childhood differs from
CIPHIER LANGUAGES. more than fifty years ago, in regular series down to the present. And they are being made now, as I “Some of the same cipher alphabets are found in have an alphabet formed only a short time since by localities very wide apart, but most of such lana little eight-year-old girl, who volunteered to make guages are distinct and have been invented by the other secret alphabets if desired.
parties using them. Some of them are most ingen“The duration of the use of these languages differs ious and show that much thought and pains have very much.
Some were used only a very short been given to their formation, or else the inventors time-a few weeks--as the fever came and went are geniuses of the highest rank. There are a num. rapidly. Some lasted a year, some two years, some ber of languages that consist in the transposition of eight years, some ten, and others twelve years. letters. One of the most common forms here is the Some began at ten or twelve and now at seventeen removing of the consonants at the beginning of a and eighteen are used, although this is rare and the word to the end and then adding long a, as look language is used mostly at odd moments. A period would become in this ookla. I have learned of two of five years is perhaps the limit to any extended use cases of mirror writing (called backhand by the of these, yet usually a much shorter period is named parties sending). One of the parties sending this as a fever. heat time of use. These secret languages states that she and her mate became so proficient in very rarely begin before the eighth year and gener- its use as to be able to write it as rapidly as they ally disappear before the fifteenth year or about could good writing in the ordinary way. One very