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(A campaign poster much used in the West. The numerals indicate the electoral vote of each state.)

ever before. The Republican committee, under the THE AMERICAN PROTECTIVE TARIFF LEAGUE. chairmanship of the Hon. J. W. Babcock of Wisconsin, has been hard at work since early in June, and, The distribution of Republican literature from like the National Committee at Chicago, it has broken New York City was placed in the hands of the its own record. The committee has printed 23 differ American Protective Tariff League, and this effient documents. Of a single speech in Congress, that cient organization, under the direction of Secretary delivered by Representative McCleary of Minnesota W. F. Wakeman, proved to be fully equal to the in the House last February, in reply to his col task imposed upon it. Some twenty millions of league, Representative Towne, the committee has documents were sent out from the headquarters in issued 2,500,000 copies. Another popular money West Twenty-third street, New York City, to points document issued by the committee was Representa east and north of the Ohio River. Long experience tive Babcock's speech on the history of money and and thorough organization enabled the League to financial legislation in the United States. In the perform the service with the utmost possible dislist of pamphlets sent out by the committee were patch and thoroughness. Each Congressional disspeeches by Senator Sherman, Mr. Blaine, Repre. trict in the territory covered was assigned a pro rata sentative Dingley, Speaker Reed and others. The quota of documents, and additional shipments were committee did not restrict itself to the distribution made from time to time as required. The League's of Congressional speeches, but chose such other own work of editing and printing material for camammunition as seemed adapted for the purpose in paign purposes was done in a most systematic and view. A pamphlet of forty pages was prepared, admirable manner. Although this has not been a dealing with the silver question in a conversational tariff campaign, the currency question having over. way, and this, although one of the longest, proved shadowed all others, the League has naturally exto be one of the most popular documents sent out. erted itself to make the most of every opportunity The silver question was not treated wholly to the to circulate tariff literature. The extensive and exclusion of the tariff in these documents, but in efficient propaganda of the League was credited the latter weeks of the campaign it was found that with an important influence in bringing about the the demand for tariff literature gradually increased nomination of Major McKinley, and the best enand a large proportion of the documents distributed ergies of its office machinery have been devoted to from Washington dealt with that subject.

securing his election. Oddly enough, it has hap

pened that a speech of Senator Jones of Nevada, on newspaper output of the Republican committee. the tariff, which had been widely circulated by the This agency has been in charge of Mr. F. U. League in past years, has also been much in de Adams, Secretary of the Democratic Press Bureau. mand during the present campaign. The League's

THE CARTOON IN THE CAMPAIGN. pamphlet containing parallel coļumns of extracts from the speeches of Bryan and McKinley on the In connection with the use of plate matter and tariff question has had the truly phenomenal circu- “ready prints,” the newspaper cartoon has played lation of three millions of copies since Mr Bryan's a more important part this year throughout the cannomination.

vass than ever before in our political history. THE SILVER PROPAGANDA.

The effectiveness of the cartoon in political warThe silver Democrats and Populists, who might fare has long been recognized by party managers. have been expected to be most aggressive at the out- This year a great part of the responsibility for this set of the campaign in which their leaders proposed feature in campaign work has been lifted from the a radical change in public policy, have really been shoulders of the national and state committees by less active than their opponents in the employment the voluntary activity in cartoon illustration on the of the printing press to popularize their arguments. part of the most influential daily papers throughout The Congressional Committee at Washington, under the country during the summer and fall months. the direction of Senator Faulker of West Virginia, The political cartoon department of the REVIEW OF has published and distributed a large number of REVIEWS has borne ample testimony to this activity documents, several of which were not speeches in Congress, but were selected for their general effectiveness in argument. One of the pamphlets thus chosen was made up of a series of articles entitled “The Bond and the Dollar,” contributed by Professor John Clark Ridpath to the Arena. The committee also published a pamphlet of 86 pages entitled “Facts About Silver." Marcus Willson's “Road to Prosperity” was also published under the auspices of the Congressional Committee. Then there was a tract written to prove that the commercial ratio of silver and gold has been unaffected by any cause except discriminating legisla.

GOLD tion. A history of the coinage laws of the United States by presidential administrations, entitled “The Money of the Constitution,” was also distributed broadcast by the committee. There was, of course, much frankable matter sent out in the form of Congressional speeches on the money question. The Congressional Committee was the first of the regular party organizations to begin work on behalf of silver. The


WHEAT opening of the Chicago headquarters occurred comparatively late in the campaign, and it was some time before the machinery of publication and distribution from that centre was gotten under way. Perhaps the most important work in the publica. tion line carried on by the National

GULF OF POVERTY Democratic Committee at Chicago has been the preparation of plate

Can the American producer, already heavily

weighed down, stand the additional burden of matter and supplements for daily

the Permanent Gold Standard ? and weekly papers similar to the

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“Handbook of Money,” and was entirely familiar with the pros if not the .cons of the free-silver con. tention. Thus the ordinary campaign methods of publishing and circulating documents had small place in the Populist programme. What the methods of the Populists have generally been, especially in the rural districts of the middle West, has been graphically described by the Rev. N. D. Hillis in the REVIEW OF REVIEWS for September. The Populist farmer has been working industriously all the campaign, giving out tracts to his unconverted neighbor, arranging for schoolhouse meetings in his district, endeavoring to make known to every hesitating voter the promises and the doctrines of the People's party.

ORATORY IN THE CAMPAIGN, Considering the remarkable expenditures for the dissemination of argument by means of the printed page, the poster, and the cartoon, it might have been supposed that in this campaign oratory would have had but a minor part. Then, too, the economic and statistical problems of a nation's currency have not usually lent themselves with grace to the fiery utterances of the political orator. But in this respect also the present year's campaigning has been exceptional. The oratorical powers of the opposing can. didates had not a little to do with the winning of each nomination in the one case directly, in the other just as truly if less conspicuously. Mr. Bryan set his own pace in his Chicago convention speech. Mr. McKinley was known at the start as one of the greatest campaign orators of his time. Neither of these men could be forced to obey the tradition which required silence of presidential candidates.

Mr. Bryan's speechmaking record has been the most wonderful one in the whole history of American presidential campaigns. Poor Horace Greeley's famous tour in 1872 and Mr. Blaine's extended jour. neyings in 1884 are made to seem insignificant by comparison. On the night before election, if pres ent plans are carried out, Mr. Bryan will have made about four hundred reported speeches in twenty-nine states. No previous candidate for the presidency ever attempted such a feat as this. Day after day this speechmaking has gone on-much of it from the rear platforms of railway trains, while the telegraph and the daily newspaper have carried the speaker's utterances everywhere. Here again must be considered the matchless service of the press, without which the orator's words could reach but a limited'number.

But for Mr. McKinley, too, this has been a speech. making campaign. He has remained at his home in Canton, but auditors have come to him from far and near. There is a.precision, a fixed adherence to schedule, in the arrangements for receiving and addressing delegations at Canton which is wholly lacking in the Bryan “steeple chasing" programme. Mr. McKinley's speeches have been prepared with care and fully reported by the press.

In the early stages of the canvass there was a


in the form of reproductions of newspaper cartoons drawn from every conceivable point of view. It is doubtless true that the skill displayed in newspaper caricature, to say nothing of the enterprise shown by newspaper managers in securing the services of able cartoonists, has reached a point heretofore unknown in this country. On the Democratic and Populist side perhaps more use has been made of the newspaper cartoon than on the Republican side. The turn which Mr. Davenport of the New York Journal early in the campaign gave

Chairman Democratic Congressional Committee.

to the figure of Mr. Hanna has done duty in thousands of newspaper caricatures from the Atlantic to the Pacific.

POPULISTIC LITERATURE. The Populists have certainly not employed the ordinary methods of party propaganda to any such extent as have the other parties. The obvious reason for this is the fact that their “ campaign of education” had begun years before, and had been continuously prosecuted down to the date of the Chicago convention. Their party organization had been more thorough and more intelligent than people in the East would generally have supposed; hence the leaders of the Populist party did not feel that necessity of re-educating their following which so strongly impressed the leaders of the Republican party at the beginning of the canvass. Every Populist voter knew the arguments for free silver, had read “ Coin's Financial School ” and Gordon Clark's

dearth in the rank and file of Republican campaign (Generals Sickles, Howard and others) through Illiorators of men who could speak convincingly on the nois contributed a spectacular element to the Re. merits of the money question. This dearth has since publican canvass. No such imposing demonstrations been in some measure supplied by speakers of ability were made by the Popocrats, but throughout his who have enrolled themselves for this fight in the stumping tour through the contested territory Mr. McKinley column on the currency issue alone. Bryan was greeted by great crowds and his speeches Thus some of the most effective speeches for “ sound were received with much enthusiasm. It really money' have been made by such men as the Hon. seems that the influence of oratory is yet potent Carl Schurz and the Hon. Bourke Cockran - men among us, when such subjects as the currency and whose voices have not been heard in other cam the tariff can be enlivened and effectively presented paigns of recent years in defense of Republican in a way to win and hold attention by the speaker party policy. In the last few weeks there has been as well as by the journalist and reviewer. no lack of good speakers to present the gold-stand. This could not have been true if in a campaign inard side of the argument.

volving purely inaterial issues to so great a degree

the appeals of speakers had been merely to the In the closing weeks of the campaign the main re cupidity and avarice of the voter. On the other liance of both parties has been on appeals to voters hand, the ethical aspects of the contest have been from the stump. After Illinois, Indiana, Michigan kept constantly in view. On the Republican side and the other states of the middle West had been the voter has been called on to defend and maintain deluged with tons of leaflets, pamphlets and other

the national honor. On the Democratic and Popuproducts of pen and press, the whole enginery of list side he has been asked to right what Mr. Bryan each of the rival party organizations was turned to and his sympathizers have denounced as a gross inthe task of convincing the individual voter by direct justice to millions of their fellow-citizens. On each word of mouth. The great “ honest money” parade

side the appeal has been, on the whole, to the higher on Chicago Day, in which 75,000 men participated,

rather than to the baser motives of political action. and the triumphal progress of the Union soldiers



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Perseus McKinley getting ready to deal the finishing stroke to the dragon which threatens to devour the distressed maiden.

From Wasp (San Francisco, Cal.).








OR several years organized labor in this coun- are right or wrong in believing that their interests

try has demanded the free coinage of silver. are furthered by the expansion of the currency and In the present campaign the lenders of capital are rising prices. opposing this demand on the ground that under The most comprehensive statistics at hand are, of free coinage prices would rise faster than wages, course, those uf Sauerbeck, published yearly in the and therefore labor's share of the product of indus- “ Journal of the Royal Statistical Society.” Sauer try would be ruined. Has organized labor mis- beck's figures cover all the articles in the United taken its interests or is its demand the outcome of Kingdom of which statistics exist and whose value its experiences with rising and falling prices ? -whether produced in England or imported from

Neither laborers nor lenders of capital seriously abroad-exceeds a million pounds. These articles, doubt that under the free coinage of silver prices forty-five in number, include all the important food will rise. Those who declare that the currency will products, minerals and textiles, besides a large numbe contracted and prices fall involve themselves in ber of miscellaneous materials such as timber, the absurdity of declaring that the freely coined leather and oil. In order to show the quantities of silver dollar will be more valuable than the present these goods purchased for the English market gold dollar. Yet in the next breath they will assert Sauerbeck reckons their value each year at a standthat the silver dollar will be worth only 53 per cent. ard price,—which is always their average price durof its present value. The two assertions are about ing the decade from 1868 to 1877. During the past equally irrational, and they are absolutely contra. half century the amount produced and imported for dictory unless all economic writers prior to the each family has increased as follows : present partisan discussion were wrong ; unless all

Quantity per

Gain over economic history is absolutely false the free coin


previous (Standard prices.)

period. age of silver will mean steady expansion of the cur- 1848-50.


1872-74. rency and a rise of prices proportionate to this ex

53 per cent.

434 pansion.

In other words, the supply of goods per family inA half century ago the world experienced just

creased 53 per cent. during the period of rising such an expansion of the currency, and the effects then indicate the probable effects now. With the

prices and business prosperity under bimetallism,

while it has increased but 10 per cent. during the gold discoveries of 1848 the production of that metal increased at a bound from $30,000,000 a year to $150,

period of falling prices and business depression 000,000. The banking interests of that day pre

under the single gold standard. dicted its depreciation and demanded that its coin

Since the production of wealth increased so age be suspended. The entire gold money of the

rapidly under bimetallism and so slowly under

monometallism it is evident that the working world. according to Sorther, was then less than $800,000,000 and more than $100,000,000 a year poured in

masses were immensely benefited by the old policy, upon the mints of the gold using countries. The

unless it somehow lessened their share of the aggreentire currency of these countries increased about

gate product. But this is precisely the opposite of 10 per cent. a year, or faster than our currency can

what it accomplished : As Cairnes—one of the last possibly be increased by the free coinage of silver.

of the great monometallists--freely admitted in his The expansion of the currency brought to an end

essay on the effect of the gold discoveries, the only the business depression that had set in with the

class that lost from rising prices were the creditors

and others with fixed incomes. Their share of the panic of 1847 and produced a period of unprece dented business activity.

product was lessened and the share of the produc. Until 1873 the free coinage of both inetals

ing classes was proportionately increased. Especontinued, the supply of money increased faster

cially, says Cairnes, * was the condition of the laborthan the supply of goods and prices rose. Since

ing classes improved. The first effect of the ex1873 silver has been practically excluded from the

pansion of the currency, he says, was an increased mints, the supply of currency has increased less

demand for labor. Prices only rose as the increased rapidly than the supply of goods and prices have

earnings of the working people led to an increased fallen. For both these periods we have compre.

demand for goods. The unprecedented rise in wages hensive and reliable statistics concerning the pro

that took place was, he declares, the happiest reduction of wealth, prices and wages. From these

sult of the expansion of the currency. we are enabled to judge whether the wage earners Essays in Political Economy," page 152.

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