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French and German is making a new nation, and beautiful Buenos Ayres and Santiago show what that nation will be. The development of the United States has been the wonder of the nineteenth century. The surprise and glory of the twentieth century is likely to be the achievement of the republics of the sun and of the Southern Cross, of which the poets are already singing and are more gloriously to sing in the supreme century before us.
South America loves to sing of her heroes of the liberation. There is Andean like air in the chorus of her song to Bolivar (El Libertador).
* Compatriots, the day is at hand,
America's love and glory." “ Dulce Patria" the national song of Chili, the vow in which is sometimes sung by the army kneeling, has lines as inspiring: “The strife and the warfare is ended,
And we hear the glad rejoicing of the free!
Can no longer a brother be.
Three centuries of stain thus redeeming !
Here in gladness our triumph revealing !
At whose feet sweet victory is kneeling!
Land beloved ! Our vow now receive,
Vows which Chili upon thine altar swore ; She shall be the grave of free men,
Or th' asylum 'gainst tyrants evermore!"
The national air of Brazil opens as nobly:
O'er Brazil with its hallowed sod.
Never more will we groan 'neath the rod.
With new hopes for the land we adore,
Open wide your pinions grand ;
Oh, guard our native land."
There is something pathetic in the songs of these errant Gouchors, whose homes were their saddles, and whose estancias were the plains. They recall the days of Gumez, and his free, wild horsemen, and the romances of a picturesque but tragic barbarism that is forever gone. The water carrier listens at the veranda as he hears the guitar attuned to these themes as the North American lad would do at a tale of Marion's men. The patriots of the plains of the Silver-land who breathed liberty in the
MAGDALENA GUERMES DE TEJADA,
air is a theme that must ever haunt the growing republics of the Sun.
South America has glorious singers and songs, but the greater are to come. The countries of the South temperate zone are pulsing with literary activity and expectation, and Aconcagua is a new Parnassus, and is likely to be the last in the West.
Poets came in brotherhoods at the dawn of the new era, as prophetic heralds, and as inspired and inspiring leaders, and, again, in the decline of an epoch they appear as raconteurs. The poets of the dawn have already appeared in the ten republics of the Andes, and have sung the songs of liberty and love, of the wide pampas, the majestic rivers and groves, and the orchid haunted plateaux. In the faded and gone incarial days poets sprung into the life and inspirations of the golden temples of the Children of the Sun. There was the most poetic race of Indian civilizations. The land of poetry was there, and is there. The end of the long march of the Aryan people toward the West must come in Argentine, Chili and Peru. The Italian emigration to this new Italy is one of art. The mixed race of Argentines, Chilians, Peruvians, Italians, English,
This was the hymn of the Proclamation of the Republic, and the words were by Medeiros e Albu. querque.
O my country
In slavery's chain, I'd give my life for thee. The last poems written before his pitiable end have a Shelley-like sadness:
My mother who is livng yet,
And she who holds Heaven in her arms
an epic poem. He would have been included The mother of my love
in “ Plutarch's Lives," had he lived in the early Wakes me no longer in the morning.
heroic age. After achieving the independence of Farewell, for the last time, Love of my love,
Argentina, he was offered the supreme direction of Light of my shadows,
the affairs of the Purple Republic, but he answered, Soul of my flowers,
“I did not fight for place.' After the battle of My youth, my lyre, Farewell.
Maypu, Chili would have presented to him ten If Sarmiento did not write verse, his prose is thousand ounces of gold, but he replied: "I did not poetry. His “ Fecunda ”translated by Mrs. Horace draw the sword for gain." Peru tendered to him Mann under the title of “Life in the Argentine the crown of the old incarial plateaux, but he said: reads like an epic. The first President of Argentine, • The presence of a fortunate general in the country Rivadaiva, was a literary man. The two literary where he has won victories is detrimental to the presidents, Sarmiento
state; I have achieved and Rivadavia, were
the independence of agreed on the educa
Peru; I have ceased to tional problem of their
be a public man." His times. “The primary
motto was: “Thou school," said Sarmien
must be that which to, " is the foundation
thou oughtest to be, of national character,”
else thou shalt be nothand Rivadavia – “La
ing." After his memorescuela es el secreto de
able interview with Bola prosperidad de los
livar, on that poetpueblos uncientes"(the
tuned night under the United States).
fiery arch of the equaThe bazars of the Ar
tor, when he entrusted gentine cities abound
his affairs of the repubwith the poems or love
lics of the south temsongs of “the Gouch
perate zone to the ors," or the wander.
Emancipator's hands, ing minstrels of the
he prepared to exile pampas. These native
himself from his native singers improvised
land, for the peace of music to the guitar. STATUE OF SIMON BOLIVAR,
the liberated people. There was much poetry
He sailed for France, in the gypsy life of
and there and in Belthese wanderers, a sense of the sublime and beauti- gium lived in poverty for many years. His body ful in nature and free existence, and their collected was brought back to Buenos Ayres, where it was songs will one day have their picturesque sugges- virtually crowned dead, at a funeral such as the tions for the artist. That the semi-barbarous Gouch- world has seldom seen. ors should produce poets is in itself an illustration Simon Bolivar and San Martin had the qualities of the universality of the divine gift, which the work of epic heroes, and their achievements will doubtof Echeverria has illustrated to the world.
less furnish inspirations for literary art that will be Some of the noblest of the patriotic poems of Ar- worthy of the Andean peaks and plains. South gentina are dedicated to the memory of San America not only promises to be the new poet's Martin, the greatest of Creoles, the liberator of land, but one where the epic strain will follow the Argentina, Chili and Peru. This hero merits present prophetic period of reed and song.
BY CHARLES D. LANIER.
THE WORLD AWHEEL.
HERE are certain seasons in the life of every nor evidence on every smoothly paved street that the
mal an when he feels a sudden and irresistible world is awheel It is literally true that the burden impulse to take to the woods or at least to exchange of proof is on every man, woman and child to show open air, swift movement and muscular activity for what physical or financial disability prevents him the office and mental drudgery. With some men, or her from owning and using a bicycle, and the not the least useful or skillful in the business occu conventional subject of the weather has been totally
pation they have cashiered in favor of comparative bicycle notes. chosen, this call for a The bicycle and its advantages present every opporreturn to nature recurs tunity for universality of interest. One does not in curiously precise cy. have to be an athlete to ride a bicycle, but can parcles, and this is true of take on a wheel of the delights usually restricted to beings in far more arti athletes ; after the initial cost, the wheel is marvel. ficial surroundings and ously inexpensive, even without counting on the more absorbing profes credit side the gains to health ; above all, it can be sions than that delight used with charming results at a moment's notice, fully absurd old darky if one have only a half hour between the closing of whom Mr. Edwards the office and dinner ; and is at home alike on the described ; who was a
city street and the country road. model farm hand and It would be interesting to know what increase the
servant for eleven bicycle has brought in the proportion of people From the Chicago Times-Herald.
months out of the year, who take regular exercise of any account ; but withonly to surely and mysteriously disappear in the out any data one can easily see the percentage twelfth, vanishing and reappearing without giving must run up into figures of many hundreds. The a suspicion of the details of the hiatus, until acci consequence is a gain to the race at large of indentally detected in his joyous recourse to a camp calculable value. An eininent physician says that fire and stolen roasting ears.
no one thing has so benefited mankind within two The whole world seems to be feeling some such hundred years as the invention of the bicycle, and impulse just now. There is an open air movement that the millions of people now using wheels are almost revolutionary in its degree and which can not only “reaping the benefits themselves, but are not by any means be accounted for by any theories preparing the way for future generations which will of a more numerous leisurely class. People are bicy be born of healthy parents.” The busiest physicling, yachting, running, jumping, fishing, hunting, cians have found it necessary to learn to ride in playing baseball, tennis and golf, to an extent which order to understand the needs and queries of their is new in this generation. Nor is any considerable patients, and since the number of the riders is so fraction of these people of the class whose wealth great that a tremendous majority must be of a class makes some such diversion inevitable ; they are who find it necessary to use discretion in their the workers in stores and offices of the great cities ; wheeling indulgences, it has come about after the typewriters, elevator boys, barbers, physicians, law first flurries of learning that the methods of riding yers and clergymen-in short, “ the people." If it and construction of the machines have generally been be true that the times are too strenuous, that Americans are a nation of dyspeptics because they work too hard and take too little physical exercise, the signs of 1896 are very promising of better things.
But if there were no fresh awakening of interest in any but one of these sports, and if there were only the bicycle as a new factor in our life, it would still amount to a revolution in mores. It would be weak to heap bicycle statistics on the heads of readers who have each day a procession of
"LIFE'S" PROPHECY OF COMING ANCESTRAL PORTRAITS.
governed closely and wisely by the demands of be saved in 1896, and health and symmetrical muscular development. will be satisfied with
Nowadays the world may easily be divided into the sight of gaily spinpeople who wheel and people who do not, and the ning wheelmen who former class seem to hold the balance of power, are opening their pores possessing as they do the solidarity due to this and breathing large single enthusiasm. The bicycle has become a gallons of fresh air inpower in economics and politics. Its association, the stead of loafing at League of American Wheelmen, successfully fights home and smoking. the great railroads and is hearkened to by municipal No business men comand state legislatures. When the wheelmen of Chi plain so loudly of the cago wanted to visit a far western meet they in. bicycle's inroads as sisted that their fares should be at one half price, the jewelers. The
and the railroads were young man whose am-
"Oh, did you see a gentleman express charges on bi soon stop riding ; and “No; but I saw a man sitting cycles and treat them one can well believe ing an old umbrella."-From
9 LADY PLEASE.
at the bottom of a hill mendas checkable baggage. them after watching Punch. In several localities the the swarms of lamps local bicycle associa like will o’ the wisps moving rapidly and noiselessly
tions have decided that up the Boulevard between 7 P.M. and midnight. "IF DOUGHTY DEEDS MY
of wheels The manufacturers of clothing are just as badly
ought to be generally off. Every day hundreds of men burn their ships "Mamma, Mr. White says he is longing to give you your first
taxed $1 a head for the behind them and appear at the office in bicycle suits, bicycle lesson."-From Punch. sake of obtaining bet with the construction of which their quondam tailors.
ter cycling roads, and forthwith the legislative powers bowed before them. In the New York City streets sprinkling carts made uncomfortable riding, and an ordinance was at once obtained obliging the water cart drivers to leave a strip of unsprinkled asphalt three feet wide next to each curbing. Legislators are busy with expert testimony on the question of the danger of carrying small children on bicycle handle bars. The League of American Wheelmen is an institution which any Presidential candidate would be loath to offend.
The manufacture of these machines that are spinning noiselessly over every road that offers a respectable track has brought into profitable investment so many million dollars and so many thousand workmen that a statement of the figures would go far beyond the point where the mind is able to grasp the magnitude of the situation. But there is an economic conservation of energy in analogy with the physical law. The wealth of bicycle labor and manufacture has not been gained without corresponding losses, and there is a fresh surprise each day in the reports from tradesmen who have suf. fered by this tremendous diversion of enthusiasm and consumption. With the confectioner and the barkeeper and the tobacco manufacturer we can. not have more than a personal sympathy. The average philosophic citizen is willing to hear that and attitude observable in young ladies of to-day at church
parade and elsewhere is supposed to be the result of constant 700,000,000 cigars that were smoked last year will devotion to the bicycle.-From Punch.
THE NEW EXPRESSION
had nothing to do, which do not need to be pressed Boston and Philadelphia in the lead as golfing cen. and creased ; which are very cheap comparatively, tres. It is to be hoped, by the way, that some one will and which last longer, except in certain parts which disabuse the public mind of the belief in the word shall be nameless and which can easily be made “ links as applying to any golf course. The links double. The shoemaker is aghast at the slump in of England are sea meadows, and the grounds outheeling and half soling, and the hat maker does not side of Denver could not be more solecistically deapprove of those cheap hats which have no assailable scribed than by the phrase "golf links.” dignity to begin with, and which, therefore, prac- The game was without a doubt helped into gen. tically last forever. And the plight of the horse eral favor by its usual association with aristo
cratic surroundings. It is one of the oldest games, indeed, and has been for centuries the sport of princes. But, as a matter of fact, in its older habitats it is not by any means restricted to princes or noblemen or millionaires either. The famous St. Andrew's Links themselves are a public course, and the English populace in general are not below indulgence in the game. There is a public course at Cortlandt Park, New York, but in the present state of skill in America a visitor there enjoys a very mild quality of golf. Given the course, there is scarcely a game which requires less expenditure
of money than golf, and there is no reason why its LOVE'S ENDURANCE.
popularization should not extend much further, Miss DOLLY (to her fiancé): “Oh, Jack! This is delightful!
especially as it forms, even more than bicycling, a If you'll only keep up the pace I'm sure I shall soon gain con- means of pleasant outdoor exercise open to the midfidence." (Poor Jack has already run a mile or more and is very short of condition.)- From Punch.
dle aged and elderly as well as to vigorous young men.
The sport has been promptly admitted to the coldealer, the stable keeper and riding master is ob.
umns of the press; our weeklies are even furnishvious.
ing regular reports from the golf contests of Both bicycling and the other new game-new so England; the most staid newspapers discuss through far as America is concerned-of golf, are having a grave columns the arguments, pro and con, for a marked effect on the popular method of passing the
“slow back;” and an Sabbath. People who do not allow wheeling in
authoritative work on their families on Sunday are now regarded as strict
golfing claims as much Sabbatarians, and while the same cannot be said
space for review as Mr. perhaps of golf, still numbers devote themselves to
Lecky's book on democit of a Sunday afternoon who would not think of
racy. playing tennis or baseball on that day. The prac
Another game of even tice of wheeling on the Sabbath clearly results in a
more ancient traditions net gain of righteousness, even if one does not con
and aristocratic presider the effect during the remainder of the week on
tensions than goif is the disposition of the cyclist. Perhaps it might be
coming every day more shown that the attendance at church was less, and
into favor with those yet we see in the papers every day accounts of the
Americans who are entertainment of cyclists by progressive ministers,
fortunate enough to be of sermons preached inviting them to church, and
EXPERIENTIA DOCET. able to indulge in it. of processions of wheelmen going there. But ad
PROFICIENT BICYCLIST: Polo ponies, however, mitting that some falling off from church attend- Well, old chap, how are you
are a luxury which a
getting on!" ance is to be looked for,—when one considers the
COMMENCING BICYCLIST: very small proportion amount of loafing and drinking on the Sabbath
“Thank you, not badly; but I
of the public can enjoy; which wheeling is taking the place of, there is not From Punch.
yet we hear that there much temptation to pessimism on this score.
are now no less than Within its necessarily restricted limits the game thirty clubs in the new polo association, and every now of golf has made strides in the favor of Americans and then this noble and exhilarating game breaks out which would seem marvelous were it not for the in some fresh region. Indeed, it is of world-wide popu. much more rapid advance of wheeling. Where only larity now; whether in India or Persia or London or three years ago a solitary golf course in America the Long Island meadows, the men who have once was a curiosity and a mystery, there are thousands mastered it are equally enthusiastic. The dash and of men and women of all ages who have become fierce excitement of the polo skirmish, the inimifair average players ; there are courses about table horsemanship required of the leaders in the art, Denver, Chicago, Detroit, Aiken, S. C., Thomas- the pluck and quickness called forth, will always ville, Ga., and a dozen other points, with, however, keep polo alive and on the increase while there are