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morality becomes the padding of suggested emotional habits necessary to keep the round Palæolithic savage in the square hole of the civilized state. And sin is the conflict of the two factors as I have tried to convey in my ‘Island of Dr. Moreau.' If this new view is acceptable, it provides a novel defi. nition of education, which obviously should be the careful and systematic manufacture of the artificial factor in man.
“ The artificial factor in man is made and modi. fied by two chief influences. The greatest of these is suggestion, and particularly the suggestion of ex. ample. With this tradition is inseparably interwoven. The second is his reasoned conclusions from additions to his individual knowledge, either through instruction or experience. The artificial factor in a man, therefore, may evidently be deliberately affected by a sufficiently intelligent exterior agent in a number of way : by example deliberately set; by the fictitious example of the stage and novel ; by sound or unsound presentations of facts, or sound or fallacious arguments derived from facts, even, it may be, by emotionally propounded precepts. The artificial factor of mankind -and that is the one really of civilization-grows, therefore, through the agency of eccentric and innovating people, playwrights, novelists, preachers, poets, journalists and political reasoners and speakers, the modern equivalents of the prophets who struggled against the priests-against the social order that is of the barbaric stage.
LAST SEASON'S FOOTBALL.
sented in Outing by Walter Camp, presumably for the sake of the suggestions to be derived by college teams this fall from last year's experience. Mr. Camp regards the football events of '95 as remarkable in many aspects. Such a season of sus tained interest in the game has seldom been seen, he says. He shows that the development of play was in two directions.
“First, and most important, there was a far bet. ter knowledge exhibited of the possibilities of the kicking game when well molded in with running tactics. This was indicated along the line of concealing, in a measure, what the play was to be. Not many years ago the regulation play, especially among small teams was invariably to attempt the running game until forced on a third down to kick. Some teams, it is true, even went farther than this and never kicked at all. But that was because they had made up their minds that they had no man sufficiently competent to rely upon for a punt. They believed, as did the rest, that after three attempts to advance a kick was the proper play if anybody on the eleven could kick. The larger teams, the last few years, have shown a strong inclination to take more advantage of the kicking possibilities, but not until last year was there a great deal of real progress made by teams in general toward keeping their opponents in the dark and springing, as it were, a kick upon them occasionally, thus prohibit ing a 'cut and dried’ formation against distinctively a running game with changes when the kick was expected. In this province came the development of the quarter-back kick, and last year the addition of a kick by the full back, who received the ball directly from the snap-back without the intermedia tion of the quarter. Then, too, upon some teams this design was made even more effective by arrang: ing two possible kickers, so that the opponents, even though they suspected a kick, could not tell which man would take it. Superadded to this was the play of the recipient of the ball starting out as if for an end run, and after a few steps kicking while on the run. All this indicates a decided advance, and that, too, in a direction that should be hailed with joy by all lovers of the sport.
“ The development in the running game took place in the practical abandonment of heavy mo mentum plays for the more rapidly executed short mass work, and in some instances with the addition of secondary formations and passing of the ball for a new outlet.
“ Individual running showed the effect of a negative encouragement it had received in the suppression of momentum plays. Some of the individual runners of 1895, as notably Thorne of the Yale team, are products of the better side of the play, and while we may not expect to see some of the players of 1895 surpassed in this respect, it is fair to hope that there will be more individually brilliant runners come for.
HOPE FOR THE RACE.
"In the future, it is at least conceivable that men with a trained reason and a sounder science, both of matter and psychology, may conduct this operation far more intelligently, unanimously and effectively, and work toward, and at last attain and preserve, a social organization so cunningly balanced against exterior necessities on the one hand, and the artificial factor in the individual on the other, that the life of every human being, and, indeed, through man, of every sentient creature on earth, may be generally happy. To me, at least, that is no dream, but a possibility to be lost or won by men, as they may have or may not have the greatness of heart to consciously shape their moral conceptions and their lives to such an end.
* This view, in fact, reconciles a scientific faith in evolution with optimism. The attainment of an unstable and transitory perfection only through innumerable generations of suffering and 'elimination' is not necessarily the destiny of humanity. If what is there advanced is true, in education lies the possible salvation of mankind from misery and sin. We may hope to come out of the valley of death, become emancipated from the Calanistic deity of natural selection, before the end of the pilgrimage. We need not clamor for the systematic massacre of the unfit, nor fear that degeneration is the inevitable consequence of security.”
ward in the future of the game. With the present neither ‘liner 'nor war-ship will be complete without advantage of mass plays, however, it is not likely its round of holes. The ‘links' will doubtless be conthat individual running will receive the amount of sidered when the vessel is building; the holes will attention deserved until it is made more valuable." assuredly be permanent stars or circles flush with
the deck, and placed in the happiest positions by
some cunning pert skilled in the science of marine THE CRICKET PRINCE.
golf. The game is undoubtedly capable of vast deAn Interview With Ranjitsinjhi.
velopment, and, given a big ship, keen players, and N
no official let or hindrance, the pastime should beillustrated interview with the famous Indian come sufficiently important to reconcile sportsmen cricketer, who was the most popular of the season. to the ocean for a time at least, and go far to lessen Ranjitsinjhi was born in India on September 10, the monotony of long days circled by the rim of the 1872. He was educated at Rajkumar College, Raj. kote. He spent eight years there, and was taught cricket by Mr. Macnaghten, an old Cambridge University man, who was at the head of the school.
MOTOR CARRIAGES. When he was sixteen years of age he came to Eng N the Leisure Hour for October there is an interland. After six months in London under a private esting article describing the success of Mr. tutor he went to Cambridge, where he unlearned Gurney's steam motor sixty odd years ago. It is his Indian cricket and was coached by the semi-pro somewhat discouraging to find that we have barely fessionals who undertake that duty for the Cam advanced to the position that we reached before the bridge University. He was nineteen before he was Reform bill was passed. The description which the able to play cricket properly, and twenty-one when Leisure Hour gives of Mr. Gurney's run with his he formed one of the University eleven. He bicy. steam carriage is very interesting, but what is still cles, using an American bicycle, and claims to play more notable is that a select committee of the tennis better than he plays at cricket. He played House of Commons reported entirely in favor of football at Cambridge until he hurt his knee, then permitting the use of motor carriages on the public he gave it up. His accident happened when he was highways: playing association game, and he maintains that, “A Parliamentary Committee was appointed, from a player's point of view, association is a much which included Mr. Shaw Lefevre, afterward Lord more dangerous than the Rugby game.
Eversley, Sir M. W. Ridley, Mr. Torrens, Mr. Hume Speaking of cricket in India, he says that he under and others, and they held a nine days' inquiry into stands it is improving, but cricket in the Indian the subject, examining a number of witnesses in empire suffers from the climate and from the ab the most careful and ample manner, and finally sence of professionalism. It can only be played issuing, on October 12, a very full report. There during the winter, when it is chilly until ten o'clock was not the slightest doubt or hesitation about in the morning, then hot till six, and at night it is their verdict. They declared themselves entirely quite frosty. Being asked as to what style of bat satisfied as to the safety of steam propulsion, the ing he would recommend, he said he would advise absence of any nuisance to the public from smoke, any young player to follow up the style which, steam, or noise, the effect on the roads, and so under capable coaching, comes to him naturally. forth. And though they espied rocks ahead in the Speaking of county cricket generally, Prince Ran form of strong prejudice which would call for caujitsinjhi said that it was beginning to be looked tion and prevent the very speedy triumph of the upon in too serious a manner, and of being made to new power, and also in the contentions and antagmuch of a business character.
onism of rivals who might wrench the gains from the original inventors, they were certain the steam
coach was powerful enough to vanquish all such GOLF AT SEA.
difficulties; and they made known their united conOLF as a pastime on board ship to an extension viction that the substitution of steam for animal
power in draught on common roads is the most imBadminton introduces to the British public. It was portant improvement in the means of internal comfirst adopted a month or two ago on the steamship munication ever introduced. Its practicability they Wazzan in the Bay of Biscay. “ Instead of a ball, consider to have been fully established; its general a round disc or quoit of wood about four and a half adoption will take place more or less rapidly in proinches in diameter is employed; and a fairly heavy portion as the attention of scientific men shall be walking-stick with a flat head takes the place of a drawn by public encouragement to further improveclub." The rolling and the pitching of the vessel ments.' They also came to the unanimous conclu. added picturesque variants to the land sport. So sion that steam carriages could be propelled by satisfactory was the marine development that the steam on common roads at an average speed of ten writer prophesies:
miles an hour; that their weight, including engine, “With prophetic eye I can foresee a time when fuel, water and attendants, might be under three
tons; that they could ascend and descend hills with facility and safety; that they were perfectly safe for passengers, no nuisance to the public, would be. come a speedier and cheaper mode of conveyance than horse carriages; that they did not cause so much wear and tear of the roads as was caused by horses' feet; and finally, that rates of toll had been imposed which prohibited their use on several lines of road were they to be permitted to remain unaltered. They therefore recommended the immediate repeal of all prohibitory tolls, and an experimental rate for three years, placing carriages containing not more than six persons on a par with two-horse carriages, and others on equal terms with four horse coaches.''
Alas for the inventive genius of Mr. Gurney, nothing was done to give effect to this recommendation, and it is only this year that Parliament has legislated on the lines which this committee recommended as long ago as 1831.
ELECTRIC CABLES. (R. J. HETHERINGTON, an English electric
engineer, contributes to Cassier's Magazine for September a very intelligent and intere ng
Electric Concentric Cables and Their Accessories." The article itself is too technical to quote from it here, but when Mr. Hetherington illustrates his paper by recalling his own experience in laying the first concentric cables in London, he says:
There appears to be an unmistakable trend in English practice in the direction of high pressure in the distribution of electricity for public uses, and in the employment of concentric cables, lead covered and generally armored. Triple concentric cables are taking a prominent place in three-wire systeins, being almost a necessity where alternating current is thus distributed, and the general use of the 200volt lamp will greatly increase their usefulness.
A concentric armored cable seems a heaven-sent means to the engineer to get in his copper in streets already thickly crowded with buried, yet living, mains of various kinds where bare copper in cul. verts, or three separate cables in stoneware conduits, or pipes, would present grave difficulties and greatly swell the cost. Vulcanized rubber as a dielectric is being pushed aside by the cheaper compounds of oil and fibre now used for insulation, both for single and concentric cables, and a high degree of perfection has been attained in their manufacture. The durability of the compounds has yet to be proved while that of rubber is established, but so far its more youthful rivals are full of promise in this direction.
“It fell to the writer's lot to have the supervision of the first concentric cables laid in London, and in 1890.91 he laid nearly 50 miles of three different makes of cable. Of one, insulated with jute and
rosin oil, there were 17 miles, all lead covered and laid directly in the soil with no protection other than the ribbon armor wound upon it. There has not been a single electrical failure in this lot up to the time of writing, although working at a pressure of 2,400 volts and with hundreds of service lines tapped from it. Another make to the extent of 10 miles, lead covered only, was drawn into cast iron pipes, and jointed with plumbers' wiped joints. Two of these joints have failed, and that is the record after five years under 2,400 volts. The cable is insulated with cotton and rosin oil, and has hun. dreds of services tapped on to it. The third cable is built up of copper tubes, insulated with paper, soaked in paraffin wax, and inclosed in an outer iron tube laid in a trough filled with pitch.
“Here there are nearly 25 miles of cable with joints at every 20 feet, working at a pressure of 10,000 volts. What has been its record ? If we put aside the failures at the joints, it is nearly as successful as the others. Nor have the 25 miles of paper-insulated cable in wrought iron tubes had less immunity. These cables are about 24 inches exter. nal diameter, and have only twice been short-circuited by wedges. On both occasions the wedges were driven through the cables while under a pressure of 10,000 volts with 700 horse-power behind it, and both times the workmen were in complete ignorance of any damage being done-a pretty conclusive proof of the safety of the concentric system.”
THE COST. Mr. Hetherington illustrates his article by numerous diagrams and many illustrations. As to the comparative cost of the systems, Mr. Hetherington says:
“The cost of concentric cables is about 7 to 8 per cent. greater than two single cables of equal sec. tional area, both being lead covered. The armoring generally used is much cheaper than the cast iron pipes, being about one-fourth to one sixth of their cost (the difference diminishing with the size of the cable), and it is doubtful if the ability to draw in and out is worth the cost of the pipe.”
It is very difficult to speak about costs when there are such extraordinary variations in the cost of laying a cable. Mr. Hetherington, speaking of his es. periences in London, says:
“ The writer had sixteen different scales of charges to deal with in as many parishes. In this instance the dearest parish for reinstatement cost, per yard run, five times as much as the cheapest, and three times the average of the sixteen for simi. lar work, the difference being almost entirely due to the different methods of the surveyors. Where the reinstating is allowed to be done by contractors it can be done at a fair profit for less than half the average vestry charges and to the vestry's satisfaction, so that, although municipal labor is a very fine thing, it is not coincident with economy where a company without voice or control in its direction has to settle the bill.”
NEITHER GREATNESS NOR GENIUS,
A DIATRIBE AGAINST AMERICAN WOMEN. To make matters worse, he maintains that, whenThe Most Selfish Beings in the World !
ever an American author does draw a female charac'HE Contemporary Review for October contains
ter that lives and is loved, he usually makes her an
English woman. In “ Hyperion,” the heroine is an by a writer who apparently comes from Australia or
English woman. In Hawthorne's “ Transformation" New Zealand, who signs himself“ Cecilde Thierry,
she is an English Jewess, and Hester Prynne in “The
Scarlet Letter" is also an English woman. and who gives us a paper on American women from the colonial point of view.
A more carefully put together compost of offensive Zenobia, he admits, is an American woman, and remarks about the female American we have never
cursed with the plague of self-consciousness which read. He begins as follows:
characterizes all her sisters: Good New Englanders are distressed to find that
“Literature does but hold up the mirror to the Maria Mitchell is the only American woman whose daily life it sees around it. As Zenobia thought name is engraved on the external memorial tablets
more of how her beautiful body looked after death of the new Boston Public Library. The other
than of the tremendous issues involved in taking her names, similarly honored, are Sappho, George Sand,
own life, so do a large section of the American pubMadame de Staël, George Eliot, Charlotte Brontë,
lic of these days; the end of the material part of them Jane Austen, Maria Edgeworth and Mary Somer
would seem to be more important than the spiritual. ville. Thus England, without Elizabeth Barrett It will thus be seen that American women are Browning, who has, apparently been forgotten, con- neither themselves great in literature, nor are they tributes to the glory of the ages five times as much
the cause of greatness in others. In poetry not ono feminine weight as the United States. The fact is
name is worthy to stand on the same plane as Mrs. significant, and not by any means flattering to
Browning or Christina Rossetti; in fiction the record Transatlantic pride."
is even poorer. They have been distanced even by GEESE THAT ARE ALL SWANS.
an English colony, South Africa, which has pro
duced at least one work of genius in the 'Story of He remarks that it is very strange this should be
an African Farm.' The stage, that other congenial so, considering the extraordinary high estimate
outlet for the energies of Old World women, knows which Americans appear to have of their women
as few distinguished Americans as literature. As folk.
Mrs. Brown-Potter remarked not so long ago, in refThe Americans indulge in extravagant eulogy of
erence to her own slighted merits, 'the actresses in the American women, but, says Cecil de Thierry:
this country are foreign-born.' She might have “ An indirect but clear proof of the dead-level of
added that the dramatic profession generally is, and life in America-at any rate from the feminine stand.
always has been, largely recruited from Great Britpoint is the nature of American biographies of
ain.' famous women.' To read them is a weariness to the
DESTITUTE OF THE HIGHER EMOTIONS. flesh. Yet at no period of the world's history has a nation created a happier environment for its women What is the secret of this strange dearth of charm than the United States does to day. The want of in the American woman ? The question is auda literary distinction among them is therefore the cious, indeed, but Cecil de Thierry unshrinkingly admore remarkable."
vances to the second part of his task:
“ An abnormal development of self reliance and THE AMERICAN WOMAN IN LITERATURE,
independence, qualities which invest the feminine If the American woman does not shine in biogra- character with hardness, without adding to its phies that profess to describe facts, how does she ap. strength is responsible, too, for their intensely pracpear in fiction? Let this audacious Australasian tical outlook in the affairs of daily life, and their reply:
terrible facility in vulgarizing the ideal. None of Let us turn to the national literature. Instead these characteristics-omitting the last, excellent as of here making the acquaintance of creations breath- they are in themselves-make an individual or a ing the charm and beauty and intellect of which so people great, unless they are controlled by senti. much is heard on both sides of the Atlantic, we find ment. Neither do they lend themselves to artistic them conspicuously absent. In poetry the American treatment. Self sacrifice, devotion, trustfulness, woman is hardly recognized at all. In fiction the gentleness, tenderness, delicacy, a high sense of American woman appears more prominently, but duty, singleness of purpose, are the themes of art her position is very far indeed from being supreme. and literature, especially when they are colored by The works of every writer, from Fenimore Cooper passion or imagination. So, also, are the faults into Margaret Deland, may be searched in vain for a separable from the highest virtues, and those emo. creation as heroic as the Antigone of Sophocles. tions in which self can be completely submerged. In Hardness and superficiality, combined with beauty these, however, American women are deficient. and grace, are the most prominent features of the How could it be otherwise when the very essence of heroines of American novels."
a great situation is an unknown experience to them ?
They are the most finished product of the democratic principle—the most unconsciously selfish be. ings on the face of the earth. They demand and are given the maximum of rights, their ideas too seldom travel beyond the minimum of duties. In them the utilitarian philosophy has done its worst.
SOLELY MATTER OF FACT. “ In like manner the American has all the hard. ness, and brightness, and crispness of her native air. But what she gains in one direction she loses in another. She does not live in an atmosphere such as artists love; she does not make one feel that her clear, calm eyes are the windows of a soul whose depths have never been sounded; she does not give one the impression of richness, intellectually and physically. She has not the repose of manner which suggests strength and vigor. Her qualities are all, with one exception, matter-of-fact. She has charm, and it is a quality peculiarly her own. It has very little in common with the charm, founded on passion, of a Cleopatra or a Lucrezia Borgia, but it has a fragrance which, when allied with beauty, does much to atone for the want of those feminine graces.'
Speaking of the types depicted in the novels after Mr. Howells and Mr. James, he says:
" They are as insatiable as Moloch, and as ungrateful as republics. They are luxuries for which man must pay with the sweat of his brow, affecting the while to regard it as a privilege. And in a minor degree, the same is true of the average woman."
THEIR LIMITATIONS IN SOCIETY. After a passing glance at the political and social condition of America, where, he maintains, the social war that is beginning to rage is largely due to the reckless extravagance of the women, he brings his article to a close by damning them with faint praise. He says:
“ But if women have not made America altogether desirable as a place of residence, and have not given to the world great novelists, artists, poats, philanthropists, or national heroines, they are recognized everywhere for their social gifts. The result is not a very brilliant contribution to the glory of the age, but it is something; and if it were not per: meated by a fatal superficiality, Transatlantic Aspasias, Madame de Staëls and Lady Blessingtons might win the gratitude and admiration of civilized mankind. So far, however, Margaret Fuller is the only one of her compatriots who has the slightest claim to be included in the company of famous social lights. There are scores of American women, rich, beautiful, charming, in every European capital, but not one of them has made more than a conventional success in the art of entertaining. There are others also, the very flower of the South and New Eng. land, who ave married European noblemen, sometimes influential in their respective countries. But what have they ever done, except to make society tawdrier and more unsatisfying than it was before ?
Not one has the individuality of a Lady Salisbury, a Mrs. Gladstone, or a Lady Beaconsfield, or the selfabnegation essential to the ideal helpmeet of a great man. Apparently they lack the depth of insight and intellectual weigbt to rival the glories of the palmy days of the salon. But on a lower level they are admirable-never dull, bright, clever, self-possessed, well dressed, tactful, by no means straight laced, prettily defiant of minor conventions, and absolutely free from prejudice. It is in social intercourse that the American woman is seen at her best. and, it may be added, at her worst. In a country where the political field is largely occupied by the · boss' and the Irish agitator, and the importance of the army, navy, and civil service dwarfed by the
sions of the millionaire, it is the only outlet for her ambition outside of the literary and artistic
That it is so regarded by the great mass of the people is proved by the nature of the American girl's education. She must be amusing at all costs. She must be a past-master in the mysteries of rail. lery, too often at the expense of earnestness and sweetness. She must never be at a loss for a reply; thus her retorts are as crushing as they are merci. less. Even her coolness tends to the same end. It would not carry her through the ordeal of Anne Askew, or enable her to surpass the achievements of Lady Derby, or Blanche, Lady Arundel. But the worst that can be said of her in her social character is her tendency to ostentation and extravagance. She is also too fond of making paltry class distinctions and of giving dress the importance of birth in Europe.”
N the Woman at Home there is a somewhat
piquant, and not to say spitefully penned article, by a writer singing herself “Stella,” upon Lady Harcourt, in which she says comparatively little about Lady Harcourt, and a good many un. pleasant things about Sir William, as may be seen from the following extracts :
“ Among our public men Sir William Harcourt is happy in the collaboration of a wife ideal in the cir. cumstances. If it were permissible to flash on this page, in whatever severely modified light, the frankness of conversation which takes place in corners of a drawing room, when, after a dinner party, the gentlemen are left to their wine, I might hint that Sir William is the kind of man peculiarly in need of the gentle influence of a graceful wife. There is, in his ordinary manner and address, no medium between extreme urbanity and vitriolic disagreeableness. It is a very old story how six men uniting to give a dinner at Brookes' agreed that each was to ask as his guest the most disagreeable person he knew. No confidences were to be changed, leaving untrammeled the curiosity that centered upon the meeting when each man would be able to see wherein his particular selection was