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adopt a different attitude towards intemperance. Let them put it in the same category with theft, for instance. Let them ostracise any one who practices it from decent society, as a person deserving contumely, until he chooses to recover his self control. Undoubtedly more stringent measures on the part of the legislature, and a more bealthy, outspoken public opinion carried out unflinchingly in practice, would have at least some effect in checking intemperance, and, indirectly, the insanity that is due to it. Again, marriage must be made less a question of impulse, or of mere traffic, or of ambition, and some little consideration must be given to the importance of the perpetuation of a healthy race. In this way only is it possible to control the evils that result from heredity.”

THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW. HERE are many interesting articles in the West

a conscious suffering, a brutal and unsleeping curiosity in both sexes, the inextinguishable desire, the incurable wound of humanity. Yet, in spite of wasted and diverted effort, of emasculated taste, of a monotonous preoccupation of sex, steadily and insanely on the increase, of a morbid and febrile tendency to religion, without vigorous faith to give it conscious and consistent direction, of a brutalized style, without virility or humor, the recent literature of France is surprisingly vital and interesting. Anxious reflection, without distinct aim, and without any ideal, moral or artistic ; an arrogant and exasperated self-consciousness, an implacable cruelty of word and regard, an unjoyous, blighted sensualism, a mingling of lassitude, disgust, and avid thirst of sensation, which replaces the old-fashioned road of experience by reflection ; these are its characteristics. Its masters are many. After M. Paul Bourget, grand master, comes Paul Hervieu, the misanthropical ' mondain.''

THE WORLD'S BABY TALK. Mr. Charles Johnston takes up the theme suggested by a recent paper of Mr. Walter Wells, and deduces from the lispings of the nurseries a theory of the origin of languages which is novel and somewhat startling. Mr. Johnston says :

“Our study of baby talk has led us to these conclusions : it is strictly spontaneous, from within outwards ; it is the same in babies of different lands whose parents speak entirely different tongues. And these two con. clusions very strongly point in the direction I have sug gested, that baby talk is strictly a survival, a repetition, by each individual of the long past life of the whole race."

He then asks himself where he is to find a race whose language approximates to that of the nursery, and which represents the aboriginal language of mankind. He says :

“ In the great Polynesian family of tongues we have a whole series of allied languages, rich in legends, songs, incantations, histories of war and emigration, whose range of sounds is exactly what we have described in the second period of baby talk. Thus the speech of Polyne. sians, Chinese and negroes of the red, brown, yellow and black races corresponds to definite stages of baby talk."

As with children vowels come before consonants, so he thinks “we are justified in adhering to a vast period of vowel language preceded by a long interval all consonant speech-a transition period of great wealth and variety, where breathings and semi-vowels were added to pure vowels, then probably nasals, and, last of all, pure consonants or full contacts, of which, in highly developed languages, there are five varieties.”

tance. Mr. John Herlihy pronounces the Parliamentary session this year a failure, Mary Husband assails the morality of “ Trilby,” for making its heroine unconscious of the guilt of her early sinful practices. Maurice Todhunter objects strongly to the “ dogmatism” of Professor Saintsbury in his history of nineteenth-century literature. Mr. Maxwell Lyte pleads for the gradual introduction of the metric system into England. Like many other advocates of the decimal system of measures under a decimal notation, he forgets the prior question, which checks the decimal ardor of some minds, Is not a duo-decimal notation to be preferred to a decimal? If we are ever to count by twelves, and not by tens, then to change coinage and measures to a decimal system first would be a waste of energy ?

A CURIOUS FEAR. Colonel White writes on “ The Revival of Jacobitism." He is alarmed at the demonstration of Jacobite fanaticism witnessed at Charles' statue this year on January 30th. He proceeds to prove by Star Chamber and other records that Charles I. was neither saint nor martyr ; nor did he die for his religion. He regards as weighty, and deserving serious attention, Bishop Ryle's foreboding that England may see a Papist on the throne, and Papacy made the national religion. He fears that if the Jacobite reaction is allowed to go on unchecked Parliament may, on the demise of the Queen, alter the succes. sion from the present line to a living descendant of Charles I. The delusion, running on the lines of Ritualism and Romanism, “seems to be fast taking possession of the public mind."

UNDERPAID JOURNALISM. Mr. Fred Wilson treats of “ Journalism as a Profes. sion," and while extolling the advantages of London journalism, complains that journalists are lamentably underpaid. Reporters, he says, average £100 a year, editors, chief sub or assistant, at £20 or £30 more. Newspaper men ordinarily receive less than clerk or artisan. He pleads for a more effective union. The Institute of Journalists, he declares, to be a laughingstock. The Newspaper Press Fund has done better, but is not enough. A union is wanted which would guarantee help to journalists when disengaged, assistance in time of sickness, and protection from persecuting employers.

THE BAR TO REUNION. There are two distinct pleas for closer religious union. Rev. Angus Mackay finds “the middle wall of partition"

HOW TO CHECK THE GROWTH OF INSANITY.

The interminable dispute between the Lunacy Com. missioners and Mr. Corbet as to whether or not insanity is increasing is touched upon by Mr. Thomas Drapes, into whose arguments we need not enter. I prefer to quote bis suggestions as to the way in which the growth of insanity can be checked :

“Let the general public do their duty in the matter, and begin to regard drunkenness as what it really is, an act of immorality. It is nominally held so, but not so in practice. It is a weakness, a failing, a thing to smile at, wink at, excuse, condone. Anything but a vice. Let the public, who are largely to blame in this matter,

to consist in a theory of Anglican Orders which has sprung up during the last fifty years. He argues against the validity of this view by an appeal to the words of the prayer book, and to the fact that “for a century and a half after the Reformation nearly all the most eminent sons of the Church, including the great High Churchmen, recognized Presbyterian and other orders as valid, though irregular.” For one hundred and ten years after the Ordinal was drawn up and the Articles signed, men who had received no Episcopal ordination were admitted without further ceremony into the English Church ; and this was done by High Churchmen" like Bancroft, Cosin and Bramhall. Mr. Charles Ford pleads for a mutual approach of Christianity and the ethical spirit, the separation of which he bewails. He urges that the line of cleavage should be at character, not creed, and that hostile controversy be abandoned for friendly co-operation. He has no difficulty in pointing out the resultant gain to Christianity and to morality.

public school product is not worth the price that is paid for him,"

Mr. Ready knows what he is writing about, and puts the case with a vigor and force of conviction sufficient to satisfy even Mr. Walter Wren. He has no objection to the teaching of Latin, but he maintains that “the fact is that, as Latin is at present handled for the training of the mind, it would be fifty times better to teach the boys to play whist.”

His special wrath is specially kindled over the nonsense that is talked about giving boys a taste for play. On this point he carries the war into the enemy's camp with a vengeance, for he says :

“ The boys get to hate games. The present writer was at a preparatory school for Rugby, where lines were set for not playing up at 'footer.' The time devoted to games is quite inordinate. In fact, it is games, as much as anything, that drive boys away from public schools and account for the existence of the 'crammer.'

THE BRITISH SUGAR TRADE.

BLACKWOOD.

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gins “ Dariel : A Romance of Surrey.” Forsaking Devonshire with its moors, Mr. Blackmore has now come to more civilized regions, and his hero in the opening chapters, we are told, lives within twelve miles of Guildford. Another interesting feature of Blackwood's is Mrs. Oliphant's article upon Mr. Gladstone's book on Bishop Butler. It is entitled “TH Ve lict of Old Age." General Bingham's diary is noted elsewhere. There are articles on “ The Stabling of Cavalry," and one rather vicious article on • Arbitration in Theory and in Practice.” Arbitration finds scant favor, as might naturally be expected, from the traditions of the magazine. There is also an article upon Li Hung Chang's visit. “Looker-on” is as discursive as ever. The most painful paper in the magazine describes the utter wreck of intelligence that is brought about in large English pauper schools. The writer received a girl of seventeen from a large barrack school where she had been trainedHeaven save the mark !-with eight hundred others. The poor child was next door to an idiot, knew nothing, took no interest in anything, and was utterly ineffective. After some months, however, she burst out crying, and the walls which divided her from the rest of her kind seemed to break. The story should be printed as an appendix to the Poor Law report, or rather the report concerning the Poor Law Schools.

Mr. Williams, the author of “Made in Germany,” describes the way in which England's sugar trade has been destroyed, and, after passing in review all the other remedies, sums up in favor of the proposed customs union of the British Empire. He says :

“ Under that union raw beet-sugar, entering this country, would be discriminated against in favor of cane-sugar from British possessions ; and in this way the colonial industry would be amply protected against the artificial, the unfair, the deadly competition of bounty-fed beet-root. Refined sugar from Europe would pay a duty on entering British ports ; and in this way it wrould be made possible for the refining industry once more to lift its head in Britain. In fixing the amount of these duties our government would have regard to the amount of the bounties paid by foreign governments, and would take care that the tariffs were high enough to act as countervailing duties. Germany and the rest could then arrange their bounties, after their own sweet wills, without affecting us. We should only need to shift our scale in correspondence with any important alterations they might make in their export premiums. These they would soon abandon, our free and open market being the only reason of their existence; and whether they did abandon or not, indifference would cover us like a garment. This seems to me better than any number of conventions."

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THE NEW REVIEW.

IN

N the New Review for October there are several arti

cles of considerable interest. One upon “ The Em. pire and Downing Street,” by “ Colonial,” we notice elsewhere. Mr. Arthur Morrison continues his depressing series of photographs of squalid criminal life in the East End. Mr. Watt tells us all about “The Original Weir of Hermiston.” Charles Whibley praises to the skies“ Petronius,” with whose peculiar genius he is in complete sympathy.

AN ATTACK ON THE ENGLISH PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Mr. A. W Ready, writing on “ Public School Products,” maintains “that our present system of upperclass cultivation is a costly farce ; that its expense is quite disproportionate to its actual value ; and that the

THE NATIONAL REVIEW.
HE National Review for October begins and ends

with articles about bimetallism, some of which are reviewed in our “ Leading Articles." Lord Alden. ham, President of the Bimetallic League, writes on “ The Empire and the Gold Standard," while the two VicePresidents of the same League, and the Assistant Secretary wind up the number by writing on the bimetallic side of the American crisis. Admiral Maxse has a congenial theme in his dissertation concerning “Anglophobia” which rages in the press of the Continent. Admiral Maxse feels it more than other people, because he takes the trouble to read some of the European newspapers, an exercise which is not congenial to John Bull. Spenser Wilkinson writes with his usual painstaking and statistical methods upon the military strength of Russia. Mr. Wilkinson's point in this article is that since 1887, Russia has concentrated her troops on her western frontier, leaving not more than 75,000 men in Asia. Hence she is

prepared for contingencies with either Germany or Austria, but in any other direction she is hardly prepared for a great effort. Her strength lies, not so much in her own arms as in the fact that she can dispose of the armies of France.

THE REAL ROBERT ELSMERE.

Mr. F. Reginald Statham, in an article under this heading, says that Robert Elsmere was James Cranbrook, and that James Cranbrook was the real Robert Elsmere. Cranbrook about thirty years ago accepted a call to the leading Congregational Church in Edinburgh. In 1866 he preached a sermon against praying for the removal of the cattle plague, which made so much controversy that he threw up his pastorship, and commenced a series of services in a large hall. Had he been a less sincere and earnest man, he might have founded something like a new church in Scotland ; but the critical spirit once set free would not rest satisfied. He launched out into fields of speculation and negation which offended even those members of his flock who had followed him into the hall. Domestic difficulties set in ; he was a disappointed man, and he gradually drooped under the mental and moral strain to which he was subject. The movement which he started has disappeared, swallowed up in that general liberalizing of religious conceptions which the slow course of time has done so much to bring about. Mr. Statham probably goes too far in declaring that Cranbrook was Elsmere, for he himself admits that Mrs. Humphry Ward in her book wrote the history of a man whom she had never seen, of whom probably she had never heard, more than twenty years after his death.

Tymms, the Hon. and Rev. E. Lyttelton, Dr. R. F. Horton, Mr. John Hawke and Mr. F. A. Atkins.

Mr. Gladstone's contribution amounts to little more than a general authorization to all and sundry to swear as hard as they please at the abominable practice of gambling :

"My engagements forbid me to enter upon this very important subject of which you propose to treat. But, in my opinion, there can be no words too strong for denouncing suitably the abominable practice of gambling -now, I believe, more rife even than during my youthand the ruinous consequences to which it directly leads. I am aware of the arguments raised upon the definition of the word, but I regard them as little better than mere quibbles.”

Mr. Hawke makes a direct appeal to the Prince of Wales, which is worth quoting :

"Is it not incumbent upon the heir to the throne, if he, too, is not in chains, to turn his back upon this vile system? At such a signal the machinery of the law would begin to work with smoothness, rapidity and thoroughness. The bookmaker's trade is the backbone of the gambling curse. Destroy it, and you give the moralists fair play with the poor tempted populace. It can be destroyed-yes, in the present condition of the law, whatever the Prince of Wales may do ; but it will take longer without his help ; and a considerable share in the moral responsibility for each succeeding year's record of suicide, embezzlement, crime and ruin, desolate homes and blasted hopes should be a heavy burden even for a prince.”

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THE TEMPLE MAGAZINE. HE latest addition to the list of English periodicals

THE PROGRESSIVE REVIEW. HIS is a new English monthly, the first number of

is Mr. Silas Hocking's monthly, the Temple Magazine, the first number of which is issued this month. Mr. Hocking is a popular novelist, and he has come to the oonclusion that it was better to run his novels as serials in his own magazine than sell them to any one else. Mr. Hocking's idea seems to be to produce a kind of semi-religious Strand. His own account of his aim and object had better be given in his own words :

“ This is intended as a magazine for the home, the church, and the school-a magazine that may be read on the Sunday and week-day alike, and will be of interest to all classes and denominations. It will not be narrow or sectarian or goody-goody. It will be broad, tolerant, strong and devout."

Besides Mr. Hocking's serial there are three short stories : one by “Q," another by Baring Gould, and the third by Rosa N. Carey. There are to be papers on the " Churches that Live and Move," which Mr. Arthur Porritt begins by describing Dr. MacLaren's church and work at Manchester. “ Preachers in Their Pulpits” are sketched by the artist, the first selection for such treatment being Canon Scott Holland. Dr. Parker is to preach a sermon every month for “ The Home Service.” Ian MacLaren contributes a little sermonette cn “ The Right Appreciation of Riches," Mr. Haweis discourses concerning Marie Corelli, and Mrs. Tooley tells the lifestory of Dean Farrar. There are also “ Notes for Mothers and Housewives,” and a kind of symposium on topics of the day, entitled the “ Temple Parliament." The irst subject dealt with in this new Forum is the “Gambling Curse," and those who take part in it are the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, the Rev. T. Vincent

which appears this month. It is announced as a monthly review of progressive thought. Besides the introductory article, it consists of three editorials, two signed articles, a meagre survey of the progressive movement abroad, a causerie of the month, some book reviews and some book notices. The earnestness of the editors is more conspicuous than their lucidity. A care. ful study of the introductory editorial fails to make it clear exactly what they want to do in the world. In its concluding sentence we read :

“The Progressive Review claims for its adherents all who realize this present urgent need for a rally of the forces of progress upon the newer and higher ground which the nineteenth century has disclosed. Faith in ideas and in the growing capacity of the common people to absorb and to apply ideas in reasonably working out the progress of the Commonwealth forms the moral foundation of democracy. It is upon this that we take our stand, and summon all well-wishers of democracy to aid in making it a reality in the world of thought and of action."

The drift of the editorial is that the old Liberalism is more or less played out, that the Liberal party more or less has gone to pieces, and it is therefore necessary to look at the new problems from a new point of view.

The editor says :

" A policy built upon a recognition of these principles of collectivist development is of course in no sense a compromise. It claims for collective action all work which the community can profitabiy undertake ; it recognizes that the absolute area of that work is constantly growing in two directions, first and foremost by the ripening of 'routine' industry into the form of private

anti-social monopolies, secondly by the growing capacity of public management which experience should evolve in public bodies. But it also recognizes that since the direct object of collective action will be to so economize the claims which society shall make upon the individual as to leave him an ever-increasing proportion of his energies for self-expression, the amount of energy which is organized directly for collective work will be a dimin. ishing proportion of the aggregate energy of individuals, and that therefore the field of private enterprise in all departments of effort will grow faster than the field of collectivism."

From which it may be gathered that the chief object of the Progressive Review is to arrange a modus vivendi between the hostile forces of individualism and collectivism, to reconcile the devotion to liberty of the old Liberals with the passion for social welfare of the new school. It is a good object, but if the editors would but think in French their style would gain in lucidity, and we would better know what they are driving at. At present, the editorials in the Progressive Review seem as if they had been thought in German and then translated into English. The article on the Eastern Question will be found noticed in its place.

people still write letters by making a few extracts from those which he received while he was in India, choosing only, of course, passages which seemed to him to be good from a literary point of view, considered by themselves, and absolutely irrespective of any interest which they might gain if they were published with the names of their authors. He challenges comparison with the best English letters written during the last four centuries, and concludes :

“Hundreds of people, if they will only carefully observe the letters which they receive from their friends at a distance, not from those in the next street, will, I am sure, come to the conclusion that they have hitherto underrated the epistolary merits of some of their correspondents, and will thank me for having suggested to them a new pleasure."

Mr. W. B. Duffield supplies an agreeable study in “The Wit and Wisdom of Lord Westbury," in which admiration for the great lawyer's abilities is not allowed to obscure sterner ethical judgments. “ Pages from a Private Diary' tell of a dream in which the dreamer saw reflected in the windows of a passing train the crime committed in the compartment next to his own. The suggestion is made over to any author of detective fiction who may care to use it.

THE LADY'S REALM. ET another new English magazine makes its appear

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THE BADMINTON MAGAZINE.

BAbright and varied interest. containine gore is

great success. Messrs. Hutchinson & Co, kindly favored us with an advance copy of the November number of the Lady's Realm, the new sixpenny illustrated monthly magazine for ladies. It is beautifully got up, contains one hundred illustrations, which are quite as good as those of the Pall Mall Magazine, and the contents are varied and interesting. It is edited by Mr. W. H. Wilkins, the literary executor of Lady Burton, upon whose life he is believed to be at present engaged. This periodical lays just a trifle too much stress upon the fact that it is to be written by ladies for ladies, to parody the old saying about the Pall Mall Gazette, and the first number contains articles by a duchess, a countess, and an ambassador's wife. The frontispiece is a portrait of the late Duchess of Leinster, by the Marchioness of Granby. The first article is devoted to “ The Childhood and Youth of the Princess of Wales." In fiction there is a complete story by Marie Corelli, a prose idy:11 by Mr. Crockett, and a short story by Mr. Norris, and an autobiographical article on “ How I served My Apprenticeship,” by Mrs. Burnett. Mrs. Haweis contributes an article upon the “ Home Beautiful," and there are to be papers on fashions, and all the rest of it. The Lady's Realm promises to be one of the most popular of magazines that have been started this year.

bright and varied interest. “ Marine Golf” is a novelty which claims separate notice. As effective foil to this thing of yesterday stands Professor Church's review of the hoary antiquities known as games of the Far East, as set forth in a work published by the University of Pennslyvania a short time since. It appears that Coreans or Japanese have the games“ tug-of-war," wrestling, ball-batting, or hockey, football, battledore and shuttlecock, pitchpot, pitch and toss, kite-flying, tops, chess, pebble-game, and other Western favoriteswith variations. • Cycling Gymkhanas,” by A. R. B. Munro, is a paper full of suggestions for turning cycles to account in feats of fun hitherto reserved for horse manship. The first article is devoted to pheasants and is from the pen of A. I. Shand. “The American Quail” is described by A. G. Bradley, who declares that this bird, which is really a partridge, is beyond all comparison the finest on the American game list.

THE IDLER.

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CORNHILL.
HE October number of Cornhill is scarcely equal to

the brilliant standard maintained in recent issues, but its contents are highly readable. Mr. W. Laird Clowes contributes an anniversary study on “ Trafalgar from the Spanish Side,” as set forth in Don Perez Galdos' well grounded historical romance. The formation of the allied fleets is represented differently from accounts in English histories. "Amicus” chats pleasantly of the transit of Earl Li. Sir M. E. Grant Duff runs counter to the general notion that the age of letter writing has passed, and illustrates his assertion that

HE Idler for October is a very good number, and

the character of this magazine has been steadily improving of late. Archibald Forbes continues his illustrated life of Napoleon III., and adds what will be more generally read, a story of the Franco-German war enti. tled " Ambush Against Ambush." There are several short stories ; Mr. H. G. Wells being well to the front, and plenty of specimens of the new humor by the new humorists. The illustrated article entitled “ Among the Lions" is a pleasantly written interview with Mr. Nettleship, the famous painter of wild animals. Mr. Hatton continues his papers entitled “ Revelations of an Album," which deal this month with Miss Braddon in 1866, Charles Reade in 1880, Ouida in 1870, and Victor Hugo in 1869. The topic of the Idler Club is on the giving of presents.

THE FRENCH AND ITALIAN REVIEWS. .

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any increase in what may be called the German vote can be directly traced to the considerable German immigration which has taken place there of late years. The Berlin press, and even the semi-official Cologne Gazette, frankly recognizes this state of things. There seems to us, however, one danger against which the French Party of Revenge will never be able to struggle-namely, the constant and increasing emigration of the older families of the two provinces. As is natural, the German subject whose sympathies are wholly French takes whenever it be possible the pleasantest course open to him, that of moving his household gods over the border and becoming a Frenchman by law; and as fast as an Alsatian family leaves the province two German households come in.

METZ BATTLEFIELDS REVISITED. In the second number of the Revue the two brothers Margueritte, sons of the general who led the historic charge at Reichophen, describe a pilgrimage lately undertaken by them to the fields of battle around Metz. With considerable literary skill they tell once more the story of those terrible days, and pay a sincere and unaffected tribute to the valor of the Gerinan troops, pointing out, however, that in modern warfare personal bravery has far less to do with the result of any one battle than the state of mind and spirit of disci. pline reigning at headquarters. A stirring and sinister picture is given of the frontier line as it is to day. The whole country is one vast graveyard ; green mounds, supported by crosses and stones, and still bestrewn with wreaths and flowers, bear silent testimony to what war really means. Too often twenty and thirty soldiers were buried in one grave. On either side of the frontier monuments are even now being freshly erected to the memory of those who fell in 1870, and yet the rural populations are entirely friendly, not only with one another but with both the French and German regiments which lie always on watch, each on their own side of the invisible line.

“ Jean Hess" gives a pleasant biographical sketch of General Galieni, who has been sent to Madagascar in order to restore peace and order. This officer, whose excellent, if Francophobe, work on the Soudan attracted some at tention, also served in Tonkin, where he may be said to have practically driven out the so-called Chinese piracy. The General seems to possess what is comparatively rare in France, a keen administrative gift. He has all the military horror of red tape and knows how to win the hearts of both his men and officers.

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THE REVUE DES DEUX MONDES. E have noticed elsewhere M. de Pressensé's article

de Paris devote a good deal of space to historical studies, and those interested in the little known facts that go to make history will find much that is curious and more or less new in M. Lavissé's account of the relations which at one time existed between Colbert and Mazarin. Of more immediate importance to English readers are the very curious letters written by Voltaire to Charlotte Sophia, Countess of Bentinck, her father-in-law, the Earl of Portland, having been the intimate friend of William the Third. This lady, who was to all intents and purposes German and Dutch rather than English, at first made the acquaintance of the philosopher in Berlin, and each seems to have found in the other an elective affinity. They corresponded for years.

"THE GENTLE ART OF LOVE AT THE RENAISSANCE."

Yet another historical study consists of some curious notes on the life led by private citizens during the Italian and French Renaissance. The writer, M. Bonnaffé, has been at some pains to discover in what fashion the gentle art of love differed from that practiced in our own day. Romance played an overweening part in the court, the camp and the town, and most of the literature of that day which has come down to us is concerned, with one or two notable exceptions, with the tender passion. In those days France, even more than Italy, had a reputation of lightness of heart and constant merry-making. Robert Dallington, secretary to the English embassy during part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth, declared it to be his opinion that the French nation would soon become converted to the reformed religion, were it not that nothing would induce them to give up dancing, an exercise forbidden by the Huguenot ministers.

POLAR EXPEDITIONS. More topical is a clever analysis of past and present Polar expeditions, beginning with that of Willoughby, undertaken in 1653, and concluding with the journey of Dr. Nansen and the proposed balloon expedition of André. The writer, 0. G. de Heidenstann, evidently believes that the latter will next year achieve a certain measure of success, and he points out the moral courage which it must have required to put off a start which had been so widely advertised. Some curious details of the estimated cost of such an expedition as that of Dr. Nansen's are given, and certainly the sum of £14,000, which included the building of the specially constructed vessel and all incidental expenses, seems marvelously little when compared with the prices often paid for large yachts and passenger steamers, but Dr. Nansen supervised every item himself.

ALSACE LORRAINE AGAIN. The visit of the Emperor of Russia is evidently regarded as a hopeful sign by those optimistic spirits who look forward to a day when Alsace and Lorraine will once more owe allegiance to France, and it is significant that in both numbers of the Revue de Paris the old vexed question is brought forward and treated, in the one case from the sentimental and in the other from the practical point of view. The anonymous writer of " Al. satian Voices" points out that the electorate of the conquered provinces has remained extraordinarily faithful to France duriag the last twenty-five years, and that

on the International Socialist Congress in London in the first September number of the Revue. The rest of the number is full of interest.

M. Boissier of the French Academy adds another to the series of articles on the archeological aspects of Africa which he contributed to the Revue in 1894. M. Boissier formed one of the party of some sixty French savants recently entertained in Tunis by M. René Millet, the French Resident there. They did not spare themselves discomfort in studying the profoundly interesting features of the country which M. Millet administers with such conspicuous ability. Tunis contains traces of six or even seven extinct civilizations, and M. Boissier's

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