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experiments of the Bland and Sherman laws. What that no practical proposals were brought forward. silver wanted was not the demand, for that is uno He insists that the United States alone cannot eslimited. Silver has never yet lacked purchasers. tablish the double standard, and that free coinage in What has been lacking since the abolition of the America would only mean a shift from the single double standard is the fixed place of exchange be gold standard to a single silver standard. He de. tween silver and gold, which can only be created by clares that an international agreement is the only unlimited demand for both precious metals at a method by which a double standard can be estabfixed ratio of values. Hence, limited coinage or lished, and that European sentiment is working limited purchases, such as were made in the United slowly but healthfully and surely toward that conStates from 1878 to 1894, are altogether inadequate. clusion. His practical advice to Americans thereThey wrought harm to the bimetallist cause, be fore is to maintain the gold standard without comcause their failure was exploited by the gold party, promise for the sake of bringing Europe the more and because they stimulated the silver production. speedily to the point where an international bimetalHad the United States declined every compromise lic agreement will have to be made. and solely aimed at international bimetallism, the silver depreciation and the scarcity of gold would have been more severe in Europe, and a transition CARNEGIE ON POLITICS AS RELATED TO to bimetallism would long ago have been found.”
PROSPERITY. As to the consequences of success by the silver party in the United States, Dr. Arendt makes the
NDER the title of “The Ship of State Adrift,"
Mr. Andrew Carnegie contributes the openfollowing prediction:
ing paper in the June North American Review. He WARNING AGAINST SILVER MONOMETALLISM. points out the extraordinary prosperity of this coun“If it is now desired to perpetuate the gold stand
try under President Harrison's administration, and ard in Europe, let the government at Washington
the frightful contrast which the past few years have
shown. adopt free coinage of silver at the ratio of 1 to 16.
Mr. Carnegie attributes the existing unfor
tunate conditions primarily to the legislation beginAt present, after the closure of the Indian mints, this step could not possibly have any other result ning with the Bland-Allison bill of 1878, which atthan to make the American standard a silver stand
tempted to push the United States from the solid ard. The price of silver of course would rise, but
rock of gold as the standard of value and to induce
by artificial means a rival standard.” He considers not to 59 pence and not permanently. The United States would have a standard not materially differ
this a forcing of poison into the hitherto pure blood ent from that of Mexico. All the disadvantages and
of the body politic, which from that day to this has all the advantages of a fluctuating and depreciated Speaking as a Republican he takes the blame upon
slowly and surely undermined the national health. money standard would follow. Gold monometallism would be replaced by silver monometallism;
his own party. Even if President Harrison had the double standard would become nominal. No
been re-elected in 1892, Mr. Carnegie thinks that the bimetallist can approve of this. Free coinage of
country's business troubles would not have been silver in the United States would result in harm to
averted. He thinks, on the other hand, however, Europe no doubt, but also in advantage. Perhaps
that these troubles were greatly aggravated by the the harm would predominate; but one thing is cer
passage of the Wilson tariff bill, and that if the Retain: the absorption of the American gold, the con
publicans had remained in power the depression
would not have been so severe. tinual supplies coming from the American gold pro
He sums up as fol.
lows: duction, would for a long time to come relieve the
“ We have here, then, the two causes which are European powers of all anxiety for their gold standard. The monetary anarchy would thus be
responsible for the drifting of the ship, for the lack
of enterprise, for the stagnation in business, and for perpetuated for a space of time beyond estima
the failure of the United States to continue upon a tion. Only by insisting in all countries in an un
career of progress. equivocal manner on the international solution of
“1. By her silver legislation she has lost the confithe currency question can international bimetallism be attained. No more experiments !” is therefore
dence of capital throughout the world and also at the only appeal which the European bimetallists ad
home. Europe will no longer invest its surplus in dress to those of America; no silver purchases, no
our railway bonds, real estate, or other securities. silver coinage, otherwise than on the basis of inter
On the contrary, it has drawn hundreds of millions national agreement; and no more abortive attempts
of capital from investment here, thus draining the to bring them about."
country of its gold. Capital at home is almost as
timid. It will not invest gold dollars worth one WHAT SHOULD BE DONE?
hundred cents permanently as long as a section of Dr. Arendt, who was present in Brussels at the the people threaten to repay in silver dollars worth time of the Monetary Conference of 1892, declares one-half in the markets of the world. that the failure of that conference was due to the “ 2. The country has been shaken by a violent fact that it was called at an inopportune time, and cbange in its fiscal system, and duties upon imports
no longer produce sufficient revenue, because duties the identical volume of hot air which blights their have been lessened upon the luxuries of the rich, crops has traveled many hundreds of miles. The and the ad valorem system, substituted for the spe truth is that the hot winds, while they may prevail cific, opens the door so wide to frauds upon the rey over a very large extent of country on the same enue through undervaluations that the government days, are always of local origin, and are caused by does not receive more than two-thirds of the duties the rarefaction of the air on broad areas of uncultiit pretends to levy."
vated and sun-scorched plains.
“ The natural conditions must be combated
either by drawing upon the store of subterranean OUR SUB-ARID LANDS.
water through artesian wells, or by methods of tillN the Forum for June Mr. E. V. Smalley, author age which will retain the surface moisture in the
of our character sketch of Mr. McKinley in soil of the growing crops—if the many millions of this number of the REVIEW, writes concerning “ Our rich acres which now lie open and vacant are ever Sub Arid Belt.” He defines the sub-arid belt as fol. to be made into farms and peopled by a race of inlows:
telligent cultivators, like that which already occuWHERE IT LIES,
pies, with contiguous homesteads, the adjacent
It “ This region has no natural boundaries.
prairie of the eastern portions of North and South
Dakota, Nebraska and Kansas." merges insensibly into the distinctively arid country on the west and into the humid country on the
HOW IT WAS SETTLED. east. It extends from the Saskatchewan Valley on
Mr. Smalley proceeds to show how, during the the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the south, and
flush times of the latter 'seventies and the early may be said, roughly speaking, to have a breadth of
'eighties," there was much railway building, fol. about two hundred miles. It has no topographical lowed by a large immigration, in this sub-arid redistinction from the rest of the great plains, except,
gion. This rapid settlement happened to be coinperhaps, that it is less level than the country to the
cident with a period of two or three years of excepeast that receives more rainfall, and less broken
tionally large rainfall and consequent good crops; than the country farther west that receives less
but those who made haste to choose this region for rainfall. The soil is a brown loam and would be
homes soon became disillusionized. The lack of rain highly productive if nature would only furnish
in the summer time has made farming fatally unabout a dozen more inches of annual precipitation.
certain. The consequence has been that most of the The region is traversed by great rivers, fed by melt towns in the sub-arid belt have lost half the popuing snows in the distant Rocky Mountains or in the
lation which they boasted ten or fifteen years ago. nearer Black Hills ranges; but streams of local
To put these assertions on a statistical basis Mr. origin are few and far apart and are nearly dry in ' Smalley proceeds as follows: summer. Perhaps the most characteristic of these local streams is the James River, in the two
DESERTED VILLAGES OF KANSAS AND NEBRASKA. Dakotas, which has a course of more than five hun “ In 1890 Kansas had 1,427,096 people. In 1895 dred miles, draining a larger area than the entire the state census found only 1,334,668 within her state of Ohio. It has hardly any perceptible current borders. The counties in the eastern part of the during the months of July, August and September, state, which enjoy a sufficient rainfall for agriculand can be forded at almost any point. In the dry ture, exhibited gains, but in the western-central and season it becomes little more than a series of water western counties there was an absolute loss of about holes. Indeed at one place in South Dakota a farmer 200,000 people—a greater number than is contained sunk a well in the bed of the river last summer to in the entire state of North Dakota. In some localiget water for his stock. The James River is said to ties population has almost entirely disappeared. In be the longest unnavigable river on the continent." sixty-two villages there was a total loss during the
past year alone of 15,827 inhabitants. All these LIGHT RAINS, HOT WINDS.
200,000 people were forced to leave the western part “Light showers fall in June, but there are usually of Kansas because they could not make a living. six or seven rainless weeks in July and August, and They were not frozen out, but they were dried out during this period there is always danger from hot by the arid climate. They went to Kansas with winds that blow for two or three days, sucking the high hopes of being able to make permanent and moisture out of the growing crops. In spite of the prosperous homes for themselves upon her rich general diffusion of knowledge about climatology, prairie soil and in her mild climate, but they failed many settlers on the great plains continue to blame to reckon with nature and to take account of the the regions south of them as the birthplace of these fact that it is impossible to farm safely with only dreaded winds. Thus the North Dakota people sup fifteen or twenty inches of annual precipitation. pose that these winds start in South Dakota; the No state census was taken in Nebraska in 1895. South Dakota people attribute them to Nebraska; The causes which produced the partial depopulathe Nebraska people to Kansas, and the Kansas tion of the western part of Kansas were equally oppeople to the Indian Territory,-all imagining that erative in western Nebraska, and if a census had
been taken it would undoubtedly have shown a decline in the total number of inhabitants during the five years in question, in spite of a considerable gain in the eastern counties, where the rainfall is fairly adequate for general agriculture. The state census of South Dakota for 1895 showed a total population of 330,975, against 328,808 in 1890, a gain of 2,167, which is far short of the natural rate of increase of a community of that size under the healthful conditions of farm life. The extreme western part of this state embraces the Black Hills mining region, which is prosperous and gaining steadily in population. Between this region and the region of sufficient rainfall in the eastern part of the state lies a belt of semi-aridity, similar in its general conditions to that which extends across Nebraska and Kansas, and th belt there has been a noticeable decline of population. In North Dakota no census was taken in 1895, but the vote of that year showed some increase over that of 1890, warranting the conclusion that the loss of population in the central and western counties has been more than counterbalanced by the gain in the Red River Valley, which receives enough rainfall for prosperous agriculture."
ARTESIAN IRRIGATION. As to the future of this region, Mr. Smalley is not altogether sanguine, but on the other hand he does not think the case hopeless. A large part of the region may become regularly fruitful through irrigation by means of artesian wells.
“It already begins to be evident that this vast belt of fertile land, as wide as Ohio and in length reaching across the whole United States and a portion of Canada,-a belt already traversed by many railroads and occupied by a thin skirmish line of agricultural settlement,—will not be allowed to relapse into its former condition of a cattle range without another effort to subdue it for the uses of the farmer. In South Dakota a remarkable movement is in progress for irrigation by artesian wells. Nearly the whole of this state and of its northern neighbor is underlain with the water-bearing for. mation known to geologists as the Dakota sandstone, which forms a vast artesian basin, fed by the rivers that flow over and the rains that fall upon its western rim in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, the Big Horn Mountains and the Black Hills. This formation has been fairly accurately traced already by government explorations and by the sinking of artesian wells here and there to afford a water supply for towns, and the recent borings for irrigation wells confirm the earlier theories of the geologists. The water bearing stratum is found at Yankton, in the extreme southern part of South Dakota, at a depth of six hundred feet. It is about a thousand feet below the surface in the central region of the state, and at Jamestown, in North Dakota, the well that furnishes fire protection and local water supply is down about fifteen hundred feet. The irrigation movement is at present confined to the lower James River Valley and the counties lying along the east
ern side of the Missouri River, in South Dakota. A single statement will show how important this movement has become. There are now more than eleven hundred wells completed or in process of boring In many cases townships have bonded themselves to carry on this work; in others, farmers have combined to buy machinery and sink wells for themselves. Financial projects are now being formulated by which wells will be sunk by stock companies and sold to farmers on annual payments, with security in the form of mortgages on the land to be watered. The subsoil in this artesian basin holds water so well that experience has shown that it is not necessary to irrigate a field every year. Once thoroughly soaked the land will produce good crops for two and perhaps three years without further irrigation. This is a very great advantage, for it doubles and trebles the irrigating value of a given amount of water. Of course the natural rainfall helps out the crops and lessens the duty of the irri. gation system. Thus good crops can be raised in this region with perhaps one-third or even less water than must be applied in more arid regions, such as Colorado, Utah, and Idaho, where little aid can be expected from rains and where the subsoil along the river margins is usually gravelly. The results of irrigation in South Dakota have been very favor. able. Irrigated fields produced last year thirty-five bushels of wheat to the acre, while adjoining fields which depended on rainfall produced only twelve. It will be seen that with this enormous gain in the yield of crops, a well costing from two to three thousand dollars and watering an entire section of six hundred and forty acres will pay for itself in a single year.”
How much of the sub-arid belt may be reclaimed by artesian wells, is a question for further experiment; and Mr. Smalley believes that thi work of investigation should be undertaken by the United States government under the direction of the Department of Agriculture. The agricultural experiment stations also can do a great deal to discover and inculcate the best methods of soil culture in these regions of limited rainfall.
THE STATE OF OHIO. N the July Harper's President Charles F.
In Thwing, Western Reserve University, has
an informational paper on “Ohio" which possesses an added interest now by reason of the large part which that State and its leaders are playing in the coming Presidential campaign. President Thwing points to the fact that Ohio's development was geo graphically favored above most Western States by means of water communication. A great river was on its southern and eastern boundary, and on its no ern a great lake, and the progress of a people in a new country is so largely measured by means of communication and transportation that the presence of these water routes possessed great impor
“TH SubTech Bf a foreibly written and exhaus
tance. And the natural resources of transpor
AN IDEAL NEWS SERVICE. tation were supplemented by the Ohio Canal
HE TELEGRAPH MONOPOLY” is the and the Miami Canal, so that when in 1842 the system was finished, there were found to
tive series of papers now running in the Arena. be 796 miles of navigable water open to com
The author, Prof. Frank Parsons, in considering At the beginning of the century. Ohio had
the evils of the present system, devotes much atten45,000 people, ranking eighteenth among the States,
tion to the control of press dispatches now exercised but already by 1820 it had sprung to the fifth place
by the Western Union Telegraph Company, and in with more than half a million ; it now holds the
this connection suggests a model system of newsfourth position in order of population, as Illinois has
gathering which we are sure many of our readers passed it in 1890 to take the third rank.
would rejoice to see adopted. President Thwing shows how Ohio resembles the
“ It is a good thing,” says Professor Parsons, “ to Massachusetts Bay Colony in having been developed gather the news to a central point and edit it to the under the leadership of great men. What the Win
country. An enormous amount of useless repetition throps, the Mathers, the Adamses, the Brewsters,
is thereby avoided, and a better distribution of news and the Everetts were in Massachusetts, Putnam,
secured. But very careful provision should be made Manasseh Cutler and Moses Cleveland were to Ohio.
to insure the impartiality of such editing and disOHIO MEN IN PUBLIC LIFE,
tributing If the association were to open all He says it is significant that the great men of newspapers on equal terms, and the editor-in-chief Ohio had usually been men engaged in political life. were elected by all the newspapers, each casting one “ There are, of course, certain exceptions to which vote, and were sworn to impartial service, subject I shall allude, but on the whole the great men have
to removal by a vote of dissatisfaction on the part been statesmen and generals. There are a few law. of 15 or 20 per cent. of the constituent papers,.-if any yers, Ohio born and bred, who can be seen from be paper or papers choosing to pay extra for a yond the boundaries of the State so tall are they." special representative could have one entitled to President Thwing mentions Chief Justice Waite, a seat in the editing chamber with full access Stanley Matthews and Thurman as examples. He
to all materials received, and authority to add a notices the similarity between Ohio and Maine in supplement to the chief's report, to cover imporiant having their great men political leaders.
matters omitted or misstated by the chief, -if the " The origin of the remark made half in jest, half report and supplements in full were sent to central in earnest, as to the ubiquity of the Ohio man, lies points in various parts of the country, set up and largely in his ubiquity and power as a statesman. sold as plate matter, at uniform rates, to all subThe causes that have contributed to this civic great scribing papers,—if each and every paper were free ness are, of course, general and particular. One to criticise the dispatches.then we should have laid cause to which I allude is the ubiquity of the Ohio
the foundation for a free and impartial press. The college. Ohio is a State of colleges. And yet it very presence of the supplemental editors would must be acknowledged that many of the great probably, as a rule, prevent the necessity of supplepolitical leaders were not college men. Giddings mental reports by their potential effect upon the was not. Wade was not. Chase was a graduate
chief's reports. of Dartmouth. Ewing was a graduate of Ohio “ The first step toward the establishment of an University, at Athens, and received the first degree unfettered press is a National Telegraph System of A.B. ever given in Ohio. Hayes was a graduate carrying the news or renting wires at very low of Kenyon. Garfield was educated in part at rates on condition of impartial editing and distribuHiram, in Ohio, but finished his education at Wil. tion of dispatches on some such plan as that outlined liams. But the rank and file of these men who above or a better one. The chains of the Allied have made Ohio history have been college trained." Monopolies will thus be broken, and the co-ordinate
The typical Ohio college of forty years ago was a growth of intelligence and co-operation will gradvery sorry institution, except in the nobility of its ually free the press in larger and larger degree from purposes and in the character of two or three men the limitations placed upon it by ignorance, prejuwho sat in its professors' chairs.
dice, and the strife of competitive business and of course, exceptions. The old Western Reserve politics.
UNIFORM NEWS REPORTS. College, at Hudson, was an exception, in which such teachers as Laurens P. Hickok, afterward president “I hope the time will come when the news reof Union, Professor Loomis of mathematical fame, ports in chief and supplemental will be published Barrows, the great Hebrew scholar, President Bart each day at central points on sheets of uniform size lett, Clement Long, Henry N. Day, Professor devoted exclusively to condensed and classified Charles A. Young and the elder Seymour were statements carefully indexod and divided into sec gathered. But any college, poor in money and re tions with black-faced headings. A file of such sources, if it be true and honest, may do a great sheets would constitute a day-book of the world's work for the student if he be honest and not too history free of all extraneous matter. A man could poor.
buy the news without purchasing several rods of
exceptionally low and immigration was likewise naturally affected. These years cannot, therefore, properly be taken as a basis for comparisons. It is also true that since about the middle of March there have been detained at this port an unprecedented number of immigrants, either for special examination or for deportation, but this condition was not due to any unusual undesirability on the part of these immigrants, but solely to the strict enforcement of the latest law (of March 3, 1893), which made it the duty of the Inspectors of the Immigration Service to detain for special inquiry every im. migrant who was not clearly and beyond doubt entitled to admission. That it has been possible with a very small force of available employees to preserve order and peace to the fullest degree upon Ellis Island, although as many as 1,020 immigrants, of whom over 500 were sentenced to deportation, have been detained over night, is convincing proof at least of the fact that the Italians, who form the largest percentage of the detained, are by no means as unruly, violent, dangerous or anarchistic as they have been assumed to be by the imaginative newsgatherers of the public press.'
FORMERLY BIRDS OF PASSAGE.” Dr. Senner reminds us that of all the Latin peoples the Italians alone have developed the migratory tendency to a degree almost equal to that of the An. glo-Saxons, and that it has not been the policy of the Italian government to interfere with emigration. Heretofore for a good many years the Italian laborers have been in the habit of crossing and re. crossing the ocean, spending the busy part of the year in the United States and carrying their gains back to Italy. Certain sections of Italy have shown an especial prosperity due entirely to this fact.
But these advantages to the old country are about to cease definitely. The rigid enforcement of the Federal statutes since 1893 by the United States immigration officials has made it very hard for Italian “birds of passage' to come and go at their pleasure. Besides, quite a large proportion of those who originally came to the United States with no intention of acquiring residence found the coun. try so advantageous and congenial to them that they changed their minds, sent for their families and settled permanently within the United States, ac quiring, in time, rights of citizenship.”
COMING NOW TO STAY.
advertisements, and the cost would probably not exceed twenty-five cents a year to each subscriber. For the local news of towns, bulletin sheets, or, in inany cases, bulletin boards would be amply sufficient. Some such organization of the business of distributing news is sure to come because of its inherent economy and its manifest advantages over the infinite confusions, entanglements, and duplications of the present system.
* With the growth of co-operation advertising will no longer be a battle of rival wares, each seek ing to force itself upon the public by the size and multitude of its appeals, but will shrink to the moderate bulk required by its true function of affording information to those upon a quest. The mass of this service will also probably differentiate into a series of bulletins devoted exclusively to advertising
“ Freed from the burdens of obtaining, arranging and printing vast duplications of news and advertisements the papers will be able to devote themselves to the criticism of men and events, the enlightenment and amusement of mankind, and the molding of public opinion Papers would live then, not because they controlled the press dispatches or had a large advertising patronage, but because they said something the people wished to hear, because their editors were leaders of thought, selected by the subscribers to represent large co-operative in. terests as is now the case with the church papers and trade journals, or drawn to the work by their love of it and adopted by a wide constituency because of demonstrated power.”
IMMIGRATION FROM ITALY. THE newspapers for several months past have counts of the great increase in immigration from Italy to the United States, on the part of young Italians desirous of escaping the chances of being forced into the war of Italy against Abyssinia. The whole subject of Italian immigration is discussed with great care and with fullness of knowledge by Dr. J. H. Senner, United States Commissioner of Immigration, in the North American Review for June. Dr. Senner informs us that the newspaper reports have been greatly exaggerated.
"To dispel the notion that this year's influx is unusually large, I need but refer to the facts that immigration from Italy to the United States amounted in the fiscal year 1887-88 to 47.622, in 1888-89 to 51,558, in 1889-90 to 52,003, in 1890-91 to 76,055, in 1891-92 to 61,631, in 1892-93 to 69,437, the largest part of which in each year was crowded into the-spring months.
“ It is quite true that this year's immigration from Italy exceeds that of the two preceding fiscal years, 1893-94 and 1894-95, of 42,074 and 33,902, respectively; but during that period the tide of all commerce was
The Italians are now giving up this habit of passing to and fro, and those who have had some experience of the United States are coming here for good and for all. Dr. Senner shows this to be the case by very interesting statistical data which he has gathered in the past three years. The Italian workmen already here are sending for their families, although when they first came over doubtless many of them expected to go back.
“ The statistics carefully prepared at this station reveal the astonishing fact that, of some 94,700