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five years of persistent persecution are bearing their conservative element in Chicago, voiced by the Chi. ghastly fruit. The Russian literature of to-day is cago Dial. This periodical was one of the land. worse than none. New periodicals, new men, have marks of that city long before Mr. Fuller, Mr. taken the places of the old ones, without having re Garland and Mrs. Catherwood wrote their first placed them. The Russian government has nobody books, or the picturesque little Chap-Book raised its to fear: the field is clear, the clarion notes of genius bright, audacious head. While it is true that are dumb, autocracy has successfully swept from neither of these periodicals fully represents the new its path all that was honest, gifted, and mighty. It Chicago, yet both are potent although antipodean has only pygmies to fight with, a degenerated, de forces in the development of literature in the Lake graded nation of mediocrity and mental poverty: City. Mr. Johnson's reviews, signed E. G. J., are The great minds of thirty years ago are either in as scholarly as any papers found in the best Eastern their graves or behind iron bars: they cannot periodicals, and I know of no Eastern literary critic trouble the White Czar any more. The young man superior to Mr. William Morton Payne." on the throne can safely say to his people, 'Lay all

"WILDNESS." your senseless illusions aside;' there is no one to oppose him. He rules a nation of slaves: just what “Such is the literary life which has its home at his grandfather and his father intended has come to

the West. Such are its stories, its snatches of song, its quaint scholarship and its criticisms. It has the

ardent imagination, the intrepidity and the swing A GLANCE AT RECENT WESTERN LITERATURE.

of youth. Civilization has not yet deprived it of its N that representative magazine of the middle

picturesqueness, its breeziness nor its simplicity. Whatever its faults, it is a native literature, and it

still has an odor of the wilds in it, wilds which have briefly reviews the literary output of Western

never been fenced into closes. Its unplanted acres writers for the past two years.

could not be more felicitously described than in Mr. To the oft: recurring question, “ Has the West a

Browne's poem ofVolunteer Grain :' distinctive literature ?” Mrs. Reid replies as fol

“A field of wavering grain lows: “To me it seems that the recent works of

'Wild grown on some unplanned, unplanted space, Eugene Field, Henry B. Fuller, Mary Hallock Foote,

* Owning no fostering grace Margaret Collier Graham, Hamlin Garland, Ernest

Of husbandry save the free air and rain. McGaffey and John Vance Cheney have marked the

Not the well tended field difference in taste beyond repeal.

" Whose soil, deep mellowed by the ploughinan's share. “If one assumes that Mr. Aldrich is the ideal

Full planted, tilled with care, writer of the East and Eugene Field of the West, it

Gladdens the heart with its abundant yield. is easy enough to contrast the tastes of the two

* But some fortuitous seeds, regions. Four ideas were uppermost in the mind of • Chance blown, wind scattered, falling by the way, Eugene Field, the grotesque or fantastic, the sim.

. Growing as best they may, ple, the beautiful and the natural. All our Western

• Find soil and sun sufficient to their needs.'” writers are consciously or unconsciously discovering that the grotesque and the fantastic have a place in art; that a flavor of the crude gives a relish to the

THE PLACE OF MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. intellectual palate; but Field first marked the trend. ROFESSOR WALDO S. PRATT, of the HartHe had a greater instinct for the grotesque and the ford Theological Seminary, contributes to the fantastic than any other writer of his time. This June Forum a very well considered essay on “The use of the barbaric is partly the result of climate; Isolation of Music.” He traces the principle of color and picturesque effects being essential in order separateness throughout the history of music, and to break up the eternal monotony of the endless calls attention to the aversion to this special form prairies, the brown hills and the snowy landscapes; of art on the part of men of practical affairs. Probut it is also due to our close contact with more fessor Pratt can easily make us sympathize with primitive peoples, as the Mexican, the Chinaman, the effect on an enthusiastic and high minded musithe Japanese and the Indian, not to speak of the cian, for example, of such notions of the isolation of Scandinavian and Latin races which form so large a music as theories of the past have engenderedpart of our population. This influx from all the such theories as John Locke's for instance, who peoples of the world forces us to take a profound classed poetry and gaming together, since they interest in human nature at large. In fact, there is seldom brought “any advantage but to those who a feeling in Chicago that no people is too primitive have nothing else to live on." Church music Profor the modern man to learn from it some essential fessor Pratt notes as different from other music in truth, some lost instinct worn off by the grind of that it is a deliberate application of an artistic civilization."

mission to ends outside itself, and to ends, too, that CHICAGO CRITICS.

obviously belong to the highest moral and spiritual But the strength of the West does not lie wholly category. To a church musician of the highest aims in its newness and originality. There is a strong it must be indeed discouraging to find the popular


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and practical mind not only incapable of feeling sonality. In any one institution the balance may the inspiration of noble songs, but utterly misappre- be imperfectly struck. The close contact of differhensive of the musical artist's place in the economy ent institutions tends to correct one-sidedness in all. of society.

Music schools have sometimes ignored learning, But while there is much to deplore in the past and strict scholarship, and real character building. the present in this respect, Professor Pratt thinks Other schools have too often ignored all æsthetic that we are seeing a reaction from the extreme subjects, and have underrated the sensitiveness of view which so isolates art and espcially musical art. feeling and the dexterity of action that is indispensaHe says the estrangement of music from other topics ble in art. Both classes may be benefited in ways of popular interest is surely diminishing. Not only too numerous to specify by being set side by side." is a striking technical progress of music itself during the present century correcting erroneous conceptions, but there is also a vigorous reaction of

MUSIC AS A UNIVERSITY COURSE. thought which is steadily benefiting the status of

PROFESSOR HORATIO W. PARKER, of Yale music in common with all its sister arts.

University, writing in Music, very briefly and

concretely answers the questions put to bim conTHE PLACE OF GENERAL EDUCATION IN MUSICIANSHIP.

cerning the teaching of music in Yale University, To aid in the truest development of this better

showing that the department under his charge, popular theory of music, Professor Pratt urges

divided as it is into theoretical and practical courses a larger emphasis should be thrown upon general

of study, is engaged in instructing men and women education as a prerequisite for the popular exercise

in piano, organ and violin playing, as well as in the of musicianship."

history of music and composers. Mr. Parker says: " There are too many cases in which gifted en

A man well suited to be an eminent artist or thusiasts push their way into proininence in the

teacher will hardly be withheld from fulfilling his profession with so little breadth of information, so

destiny by any mental training to which he may be little discipline of all the mental faculties, so slight

subjected. Generally speaking, I think a boy ought a sympathetic sense of the myriad interests and

to study what he likes best. One boy likes astronforces in our complex modern life, that they are

omy, another Greek, another bugs; none of these really unable to see the problem here considered,

things will hurt his music if he loves it well enough. much less to do anything effectively for its solu

If not let him do something else. Any subject thortion. Our age is one of specialism, it is true ; but

oughly mastered will broaden the mind and help to it is also an age of the close interaction and precise

make a better musician. But of course the chief co-ordination of specialties. To pursue a specialty

study for the musician should be music. Not hissuccessfully is highly honorable, provided that the

tory nor the psychology or mathematics of music, specialist knows where he is in the universe of

nor acoustics. Interesting as these things are, they thought. Greatness may consist largely in being

are, in my judgment, no more useful than other a master in some one field ; but greatness in help

things to the musician. less or ignorant isolation is at least half wasted, if

“By real music, I mean notes, when on paper, on not in danger of being half perverted. I cannot

the piano or in the orchestra or chorus. After all, believe that in music, any more than in any other

notes, written or uttered, give us all that we have vocation, it is safe to expect the best success with

of music, therefore I think the serious occupation out genuine and enthusiastic comprehensiveness of

of the musician, young or old, should be the study of contact with the actual life of humanity, such as is

notes.” possible only for one whose education has been elaborate and well-rounded.”

The Opinions of a Vassar Professor. MUSIC IN ALL SCHOOLS.

Prof. George C. Gow, who reports on the system

of music study at Vassar College, is more compre Professor Pratt thinks that it is important, too,

hensive in the expression of his general opinions on that musical study should be closely associated with

university and music training. He says: other forms of study. “The main thing is to secure a foothold for musical art in every accessible edu

MUSIC AS A LANGUAGE. cational society, from the kindergarten to the uni- “ Education in music must, of course, aim at knowlversity. It would surely be well, also, if our lead- edge and appreciation of this music literature. But ing musical schools were all in close proximity to it cannot be too strongly insisted upon that in order institutions of recognized scholastic standing. to understand music as literature it is first necessary Proximity provokes comparison, if not affiliation. to know it as a language. One must have a speaking The spirit of one school reacts helpfully on that of acquaintance with it as a language in order to have its neighbors. Interchange of students, of in- any real sense of its literary qualities. Music is the structors, and of books and other appraatus is facili- most alive of all living languages, in that it cannot tated. Education in the large sense means learn- be disassociated from sound. In this respect it allies ing, dexterity in its use, power in independent men- itself with that art use of speech which we find in tal action, and the development of a healthy per- poetry and musical prose, where also the sound ele


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Two years

ment cannot be lost sight of. To attempt to confine

THE SCHUMANNS. one's study of the language-music to its granı

Some Reminiscences. matical and rhetorical structure as it appears in the written form is, therefore, like attempting to reach the charms of French or German poetry by a study

was undoubtedly the most interesting figure of these languages purely through the eye. Indeed

among the women musicians of this century, not it is worse, for no one would ever study poetry only for her rare musical gifts, but because of Schuwithout formulating for himself some method of mann's romantic attachment to her. The current pronouncing it; whereas the 'speaking of music'

Musical Times contains a short account of her is so difficult that to one who has not already gone through a long course of training therein, or who

Born at Liepzig in 1819, Clara Wieck was the does not take such a course in connection with his

daughter of a professor of music, who gave her grammatical one, it is practically impossible to her first instruction in his art. At the age of nine mentally frame the sounds of the symbols with she made her debut in her native city. which he is concerning himself. Indeed, profes- later she gave a concert in her own name, but it sional musicians who can sit down with a score and

was not till another two years had passed that the read it as one does a newspaper are far too few;

youthful artist made her formal entrance on her which is another way of saying that there are far future brilliant career as a pianist. This was at too many musicians uneducated in their own pro

Liepzig in 1832. About the same time the child or fession. This is not surprising, perhaps, when we

girl of thirteen made the acquaintance of Robert remember that education in one's mother tongue is

Schumann, and in 1836 Schumann declared his love carried on night and day from infancy, for years, as

and was accepted. But Wieck refused his consent, a spoken language, before the supplementary proc- and the two artists were not united till 1840. The ess of studying it as an eye language is added.

marriage was a singularly happy one, for Clara was Whereas music as a spoken language is but the oc

not only a devoted wife, but as a fellow artist she casional diversion of most people, and the written

helped her husband by her splendid interpretation form of it is usually learned in such a fashion that

of his creations. Her first appearance in London the student produces its sounds on an instrument

was in 1856, just a few months before her husband's without being aware of what is to result until the

tragic death. Since then she has been heard fretones are actually heard.

quently in London, the last time in 1888. THE PROPER ATTITUDE TOWARD MUSIC COURSES. After her husband's death Madame Schumann “In view, then, of what has been said, the stand

devoted her life to the work of making known his point of our colleges and universities in regard to compositions, and it must be admitted that it was music ought to be a simple one. Music is a lan

with great success, for the place accorded to Schuguage with a rich and varied literature, the ac- mann's music is now a very high one indeed. Latquaintance with which must enter into any scheme terly. when obliged to shun the platform, her efforts of liberal culture. The study of music should, were devoted to teaching, and among her most suctherefore, be put on a par with that of any other

cessful pupils Miss Fanny Davies, Mlle. Janotha. tongue; and the methods of language-study used Mlle. Eibenschütz, Miss Adeline de Lara, Miss and the quality of work required should be in keep.

Mathilde Wurm (Verne), and Mr. Leonard Borwick ing with college and university standards. Since it

may be named. is a living tongue the greater stress should be put

The Wieck Family. upon the speaking of it; but, as with other languages, grammatical knowledge of it must be in- A recent number of the Chorgesang gives some cluded in any scheme of adequate study. Advanced interesting reminiscences of Friedrich Wieck and courses in the literature itself and general course in Robert and Clara Schumann, by Marie Wieck of the history of the language and literature should be Dresden, half-sister to Madame Schumann. Marie afforded to those who first know the language. All Wieck was also a famous pianist, and when her of these courses, so far as offered in a college, must father settled in Dresden, his two young daughters be a part of the regular curriculum leading to the were practically the only women pianists who gave usual college degree. What the limit in the num- concerts. Marie Wieck writes : ber of courses open to undergraduates should be As soon as my half-sister Clara had acquired would depend upon the attitude of the college fame as a pianist, my father took me in hand, and toward specializing in any department. But as dis- at the age of eleven I played at a concert at the tinguished from university courses it should be Liepzig Gewandhaus. My younger sister Cäcilia recognized that college courses in music ought to also was his pupil, and she began at an early age to bear the same relation to those of a music-school play in public. But my father had a horror of proper that college courses in physiology or chem- ' prodigies' and we were not driven with our music, istry do to the work in the same department of a in fact we were not required to practice more than medical school, or that a course in Roman law in two or three hours a day, but we were made to take college does to law school courses.”

daily walks in the open air. My father took his art

seriously, but he was not severe. His greatness as

FEEDING THE METROPOLIS. a teacher consisted in the power to wake the hidden

N the Ladies' Home Journal for July, Mr. John talent by word and look, and by patient teaching.

* In 1844, Schumann and his wife settled in Dres- his article on Feeding a City Like New York.” den. Here Cäcilia and I were often guests, and we

He tells us that if New York were reduced to a often played dominoes with Schumann. Later,

state of siege the food within its limits could be I became a pupil of Schumann's at the Singakade

made to last, used plentifully, for four months, mie which he founded, and the Wieck and Schu

while Gothamites could live in reckless abundance mann families were much together. The marriage half that time and could manage to get along, withdifferences were forgotten, and Schumann's attitude

out having recourse to the car horses, half a year. to his father-in-law became extremely friendly.

But this is in spite of the fact that it takes an ap“ In 1852, I went to Düsseldorf, where the Schu

palling amount of meat and drink to satisfy such a manns were then living. At that time Schumann's

city. The cold storage warehouses have produced condition was very uncertain. Everything worried

great changes in the consumption of fruits, fish, him and his wife was constantly endeavoring to

meat, eggs, butter and so on. Instead of selling at quiet and comfort him. Gradually he became

ten cents a dozen in the summer time, when the worse, and it was deemed advisable for us to try

hens are fruitful, and seventy cents a dozen in the Scheveningen. We led rather a monotonous life

winter, eggs are now taken from cold storage at there, and only very occasionally was there an inter

any season at a reasonable outlay, and producers esting interruption. One day Jenny Lind rushed in

can always keep the market from being uncomupon us, exclaiming, “I eat and drink your songs !'

fortably glutted. Mr. Speed tells us that more than * We did not hire a piano, and Schumann gen

$100,000,000 a year on eggs and other perishable erally sat on the sofa when he was composing. One

food is saved by this cold storage device Incidentday he said Clara's playing was always masterly,

ally he tells us that in 1894 New York consumed even when she did not study. He would like to

80,000,000 dozen eggs, which the consumers bought travel with her, but where? My father did not

at an average price of 18 cents a dozen. New York like all Schumann's compositions, but he was always

seems to be especially fond of potatoes, as she eats enthusiastic about Schumann's splendid talent.” up 24,000 bushels a day, every day in the year, to Madame Schumann.

supply which demand 90,000 acres of land are

needed. This seems like a large quantity, and it Of Madame Schumann, Miss Mathilde Wurm has costs $13,000,000 a year, but the one item of butter given the following picture:

alone exceeds it ; 290,000 pounds a day is the Madame Schumann's methods of teaching are amount needed to satisfy New York, and $18,200,individual, and one feels rather than understands 000 is the cost annually. Milk is nearly as expenthem. She insists upon constant practice of one sive an item as butter, as New Yorkers drink anpiece till it is mastered. She makes her impres- nually $16,250,000 worth, or 297,000 gallons a day. sions upon the pupils more by what she does not say It gives a striking idea of the importance of the than through the medium of language. She watches dairy industry to hear that in this one city alone the pupil intently, and often with a naive apologetic $44,450,000 is spent each year for milk, butter and remark plays a passage here and there when she cheese. is not fully satisfied. • One must caress the piano, Such an array of statistics prepares us for large not hit it,' she will say. When she is pleased she things in the way of meat bills, and it is rather surrelaxes a little, but she never praises extravagantly. prising that they should in total so little exceed the When she is displeased she agitates her hands ner- cost of dairy products ; $59,000,000 a year covers the vously and rubs them together.

beef, mutton, pork, lamb and veal. The butcher “Madame Schumann rises at seven o'clock and business is rather hazardous, owing to the inabilbreakfasts at eight. She gives three lessons a day, ity to dispose quickly of what are considered the inand these in the morning only. Then she takes a ferior parts of the beef, and the transactions in meat walk and lunches at one. Tea is served at five, En- are going inore and more into the hands of men glish fashion. On a quiet sunny afternoon she may with large capital. A beef which weighs, when be found in her garden, plying her knitting needles dressed, 1,500 pounds, will furnish but 60 pounds and listening to the song birds in the branches of of tenderloin and 150 pounds of sirloin, which are the trees near by.

not difficult to dispose of ; but the remainder of the “On one occasion when playing Schumann's F animal is apt to be a drug on the market. minor sonata, which was written just before her Live poultry arrives in this city at the rate of marriage, some early memories must have arisen 40,000 to 80,000 per week, and the dressed poultry before her, for tears trickled down her cheeks. The in refrigerator cars amounts to four times as much. audience understood and appreciated, and the artist In fact, it is only the demand of the Hebrews for at the instrument, seemingly oblivious of her sur- live fowl, which can be killed according to their roundings, gave them such an interpretation of religious regulations, which encourages the shipSchumann as they are never likely to hear again." ment of other than dressed poultry. Incidentally



Mr. Speed has found out in his investigations that salary from $1,000 to $1,400. The two deputy chiefs the popular advertisement, "Philadelphia Spring each receive a yearly salary of $4,300, and the six Chicken,” is a pure myth. About 1 per cent. only chiefs of battalion each have $3,300 a year. A cap. of the poultry supply comes from the State of Penn- tain gets $2,160, a lieutenant $1,800, and an engineer sylvania, and Philadelphia eats nearly all her own $1,600, while the chief of the department is paid chickens. If it will not spoil the reader's appetite $5,000 a year. At the end of twenty years of service to hear further marvels of New York's capacity, it a fireman, if he so elects, may be retired on half will be interesting to hear that each year 45,000,000 pay for life, and in case of death by accident or pounds of fish are received ; 11,000,000 pounds of otherwise the widow or nearest of kin receives codfish, 5,000,000 pounds of bluefish ; 4,500,000 $1,000 and a pension of $25 a month. pounds of halibut, and 25,000,000 pounds of thirty or forty other different varieties.



Bankers' Magazine in favor of the more N June 19 there will be held in London an In- general employment of professional accountants

ternational Firemen's Tournament, which by banks and corporations. He suggests that frewill be attended by representative fire brigades of quent investigations of the books of such institutions, nearly every American city. Mr. R. R. Wilson if scientifically conducted, will have a direct value writes in the July Godey's about “The Training as insurance against loss from bad or dishonest acand Life of a New York Fireman," apropos of this counting event, and to show that our representatives in Lon- “The custom of instituting investigations of this don ought to vie in their equipment and skill with character prevails to a large extent in England, has the best in the world. The training school for New been adopted to a limited extent in some cities in York firemen is a handsome structure costing half a this country, and appears to be extending and inmillion dollars, and in it during the past sixteen creasing in favor on its merits, and especially beyears more than forty thousand men have been cause of its recognized value and importance in the drilled in the essentials of the profession.

matter of credits in the mercantile community. TRAINING IN LIFE-SAVING.

As bearing upon this subject the remark of a The first lesson is the use of the scaling-ladder.

recent traveler abroad is in point. He writes : “As The men learn how to handle the ladders while

regards American securities, while English confi· standing on the window sills and swinging from

dence in ultimate values is undisturbed, the lack window to window-a department of the service

of accounting facilities prevents a clear understandmost useful in life-saving. Then coines the life-line

ing of the situation and to a great extent obstructs drill, in which the men are taught to shoot a rope

business.' from the street to the roof. When a lighter line

“ It may be stated as a fact beyond dispute that has been caught and made fast, it is used to draw a

in by far the majority of cases of failure and fraud, heavy life-rope to the roof, after which a life-belt is

certainly in the worse class of those cases, it is

found that the books were in bad condition, had given to each man, to be used in sliding down the

either been loosely kept or skillfully manipulated, life-rope. This belt has a large hook attached to it called the snap. One end of the life-rope is fastened

or both. These are the cases where long delay is to the roof of the building, and when ready to de

had in ascertaining the true condition of affairs, scend the fireman twists the rope twice around the

assets, liabilities and contingent claims, and where

the heaviest losses are sustained and the most unsnap in his belt. If he is to take another person down with him, three or four turns are necessary,

satisfactory and disastrous results are realized.

“ Had the books of such concerns been properly according to the weight of the second person. The friction of the rope around the snap eases the de

audited at intervals by a skillful and experienced scent, so that a man has only about five pounds

accountant, many of the cases which have resulted pressure to hold on his hand in lowering himself

in serious and widespread disaster might have been down the building. A final exercise is in the man

nipped in the bud, the irregularities reported and ipulation of the drop-net, used to save life by break

corrected, or if continued might have been shown to ing the fall of persons jumping from upper win

have been willfully overlooked and persisted in, and dows. In this drill dummies made of elongated

thus have furnished cause for criminal proceedings bags filled with sand and weighing from 75 to 150

in aggravated cases. In many instances subsequent

events have shown that occasional careful and thorpounds are used. After these various arts are mastered the men are duly enrolled in the service at a

ough investigations would have prevented the dis

aster or given such warning that the transactions salary of $83 per month.

leading to it could not have been consummated.

“ It will be seen that such a course contemplates Three years of service advances a fireman from that large and important interests are to be enthe first to the third grade, and increases his annual trusted to the accountant and responsibilities of no


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