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light order assumed by him. His is no commonplace population at not less than 30 per cent. Leaving routine of work. Experience is requisite. The aside the question as to the accuracy of the above processes of rigid, searching examination and inves estimates and the various circumstances that must tigation, of analysis, classification and comparison be taken into account in judging them, they are adof details, of generalizing and summarizing, are in duced here simply for the purpose of showing that cident to his calling, which requires close applica statements to the effect that the influence of the tion and persistent research, and in the more com Christian Church is declining in this country are plicated cases is exacting in the extreme.”

not supported by the only figures obtainable on the subject. Nor is there any good reason to believe

that the church is losing its influence over the laborCURRENT ETHICAL PROBLEMS.

ing classes. There are no reliable figures available

on this point, and the statement is supported only HE Ethics of Religious Conformity,” as set

by individual experience of those who make it. forth by Mr. Henry Sidgwick, take the first

* Estimates are sometimes given of the numbers place in a very good number of the International

of church members in a given locality. These may Journal of Ethics. He concedes broadly the legiti

show a defection or an increase. In large cities macy of a man clinging to a religious community

there are many lines of work in which men are comwhose influence he values, but whose beliefs he no

pelled to labor every day in the week. There is allonger holds. A member of the Church of England, though formally pledged to believe the Apostle's

ways a large amount of labor that must be per

formed on Sunday, and this must prevent many Creed, is not, though not believing it, bound to with

from attending divine worship. But there is no evidraw. The verbal pledge is relaxed by the common

dence of general or growing antipathy or indifferunderstanding. Where it is a condition of holding

ence to religion on the part of laboring men. There office, the non-believer ought to state the way he

is no evidence that the families of workingmen are interprets the pledge.

less interested in religious affairs than formerly. With the officiating minister the case is different.

Sentiments of hostility to religion would not be tolThe obligations of veracity and good faith inexor

erated in workingmen's assemblies in this country. ably rule out non-believers accepting Anglican

Finally, there is no reliable evidence to show that orders: “ No gain in enlightenment and intelligence laboring men have less interest in religious matters which the Anglican ministry may receive from the

than formerly. The common complaint, however, presence of such men can compensate for the damage done to moral habits and the offense given to

is that the young people are becoming indifferent

and falling away; but this has been a complaint in moral sentiments by their example."

all ages, and in spite of such defections there has Prof. Harald Höffding describes the conflict be

been a great increase in the religious membership tween the old and the new, and proceeding from the

in this country, and there is every indication of a rival tendencies of Positivism and Romanticism, he

continuance of this increase. It is safe to say that forecasts the spirit of the coming era as one likely

very few Catholic priests find these statements to do full justice to the idea of mechanical order

about the defection of laboring classes confirmed by which Positivism insists on as fundamental and to

their individual experience." the idea of personality which Romanticism glorifies:

“By confidence in the power of each personality to discover its own laws and to work itself out of

CATHOLIC CANDOR ON THE BORGIAS. each crisis of negation and doubt into a new organic stage,-and by keeping our eyes fixed on the great ROTESTANTS are too ready to suppose that ideals, — shall we succeed through the ordeal of criticism and apparent dissolution, in preserving the

involves the rejection or falsification of all history real values of life.”

imputing scandalous conduct to any one of the

popes. It is well to be reminded, as we are re. INCREASING INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH.

minded by Father Scannell's paper on Alexander

VI., in the Dublin Review, that orthodox Catholics HE frequent assertions that the influence of the can use language of the severest reprobation con

cerning occupants of St. Peter's Chair. The rev. clining, are answered in the Catholic World by the erend writer refuses to allow that the character of Rev. Francis Howard, who applies the census test the Borgias can be rehabilitated. He recalls Rodas follows:

rigo Borgia's earlier immoralities and the liaison “For the Protestant denominations of the coun with Vanozza, by whom he-priest and bishop and try the census of 1880 gives 9,263, 234 communicants, cardinal-had four children. Two elder children and the census of 1890 gives 13,158,363; an increase of his were probably born of another mother." of 42 per cent. The increase of population for this The conclave which elected this profligate pope decennial period is estimated at 24.86 per cent., says Father Scannell, ever be infamous in showing a net increase over population of 17.19 per the annals of the Church." cent. The census estimates the increase of Catholic Here we may well pause and ask how it came

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about that a man who was utterly unfit for the very were the things studied, the scholars who studied lowest of the Church's offices should now have at- them most deeply and most fruitfully were those tained to the highest. No words can be too severe who studied them as phases in a process of developto apply to the conduct of the cardinals. If they ment. The work of such scholars has formed the believed him to be unworthy they basely sacrificed strong current of thought in our time, while the the welfare of God's Church in retarn for his bribes. work of those who did not catch these new methods But the case would seem to be far worse. Sone of has been dropped by the way and forgotten ; and them, at least, actually thought him a good man for as we look back to Newton's time we can see that the post! His scandalous life was well known to ever since then the drift of scientific thought has them but what of that?

The cardinals been setting in this direction, and with increasing hardly seem to have given a thought to the fact that steadiness and force." they were choosing the Vicar of Christ.”

THE ONE INDISPUTABLE GAIN. The vices of the new pope and of his sons are not

“ It means that the world is in process of develophidden or extenuated. A good word is put in for

ment, and that gradually, as advancing knowledge Lucrezia, who, the writer urges, has been too hardly

has enabled us to take a sufficiently wide view of dealt with. . After Alexander had been eight years

the world, we have come to see that it is so. The in the papacy a certain Roman woman bore him

old statistical conception of a world created all at a son whom he acknowledged as his own. Thus

once in its present shape was the result of very “Alexander and his family were desecrating the

narrow experience ; it was entertained when we Vatican by their scandalous lives.” The reverend

knew only an extremely small segment of the world. reviewer declares “it is no wonder that the pilgrims Now that our experience has widened, it is outwho came flocking to Rome in this year of the great

grown and set aside forever ; it is replaced by the jubilee (1500) were profoundly shocked.” “The

dynamical conception of the world in a perpetual successor of St. Peter, whom they came to venerate, process of evolution from one state into another was an old man still living in sin with his children

state. This dynamical conception has come to stay around him. His son, a brilliant young libertine, with us.

Our theories as to what the process of was openly selling nominations to the Sacred Col.

evolution is may be more or less wrong and are conlege.” Nine new cardinals bought their promotion fessedly tentative, as scientific theories should be. at the price of 20,000 ducats each. The story of But the dynamical conception, which is not the Alexander's end leads Father Scannell to exclaim, work of any one man, he be Darwin, or Spencer, or “ At last God had delivered His Church from the

any one else, but the result of the cumulative exfoul clutches of this Judas of the Papacy." Could a perience of the last two centuries, is a permaProtestant have used stronger language? The re.

nent acquisition. We can no more revert to the viewer observes in conclusion that “the after history

statical conception than we can turn back the of the Borgia family gives us the most striking ex

sun in its course. Whatever else the philosophy of amples of the happy change which came over the

future generations may be, it must be some kind of Papacy and the Church.”

a philosophy of evolution.'


Professor Fiske calls the scientific conquests of the past century “a marvelous story, without any

parallel in the history of human achievement.” July Atlantic an essay which he entitles “ A He attributes the swiftness of the advance partly Century's Progress in Science.” Beginning with to freedam from the old legal and social trammels Dr. Priestly's discovery in 1774 of oxygen, Professor that beset free thinking, and partly to the use of Fiske outlines the revolutionary developments in correct methods of research. In former ages most chemistry, in astronomy, in geology and biology, of the intellectual effort had been mere waste, and which have so vastly enlarged the mental horizon we owe Galileo, Keppler, Descartes and Newton no of the world within four generations. In the course greater debt than the introduction they gave to a of this survey, which it would be unprofitable to sound scientific method which must be a slow acdissect, Professor Fiske says that one fact stands

quisition for the human mind. out with especial pre-eminence :

The one great lesson to be derived from a retro“It appears that about half a century ago the

spect of the century's scientific evolution is, Proforemost minds of the world, with whatever group fessor Fiske says, the dignity of man, whose perof phenomena they were occupied, had fallen, and sistent seeking after truth is rewarded by such were more and more falling, into a habit of regard. fruits. “We may be sure that the creatures whose ing things, not as having originated in the shape in intelligence measures the pulsations of molecules which we now find them, but as having been slowly and unravels the secret of the whirling nebula is metamorphosed from some other shape through the no creature of a day, but the child of the universe, agency of forces similar in nature to forces now at the heir of all the ages, in whose making and perwork. Whether planets, or mountains, or mol- fecting is to be found the consummation of God's lusks, or subjunctive moods, or tribal confederacies creative work."



It is very

DR. NANSEN'S "THROWING STICK." searches in Alaska, convinced Mr. Murdoch of the

identity of Dr. Rink's find with the Alaskan impleTHE HE Alaskan “throwing stick," picked up on ments. It could even be identified with specimens

the southwest coast of Greenland, which is from a particular region near Bering Strait. said to have been an important factor in determining Dr. Nansen's belief in a steady westward current across the pole, is described by John Murdoch

“So, from all this, two things were pretty cerin Appleton's Popular Science Monthly. This writer

tain: First, that the stick was made in Alaska; and, has correctly assumed that most people are in doubt

second, that it was picked up on the beach at Godas to just what a “throwing stick” is, and how the

thaab. Now, how could it have got there? It finding of one on the Greenland coast could have

surely could not have drifted round by way of the been thought to give such conclusive evidence of a drift from western America to Greenland. Mr.

Northwest Passage, for that way is barred by such

a network of islands that the stick would undoubt. Murdoch proceeds to answer these suggested ques

edly have been stranded long before it reached tionings as follows: “In the first place, a 'throwing

Greenland. stick,'' throwing board,' or 'spear thrower,' as it is

Some people have said, “A sailor on an Amerisometimes called, is a contrivance for casting a javelin or harpoon, which is employed by various

can whale ship might have brought it home with savage races, such as the Australians, some South

him from Bering Sea, and taken it to Greenland,

but to anyone who is familiar with the customs of American tribes, and especially by the Eskimos,

American whalemen knows that the same ships among whom its use is almost universal. Roughly

never go to the North Pacific and to Davis Strait, speaking, it is a narrow grooved board a foot or so

and that very few men in the fleet have been to long, with one end cut into a handle and the other

both regions. Moreover, the American whale ships provided with a stud or spur for the butt of the spear to rest against. It is used thus: Grasping the

keep over on the other side of the strait.

unlikely that the stick could have reached God handle as he would a sword, the man fits the shaft

thaab in that way. As for the suggestion which of the spear into the groove, with the butt resting

has been made that it was dropped somewhere off against the stud, steadying the spear with the finger.

the Atlantic coast from a ship coming home to New Then, extending his arm and bending back his hand

Bedford from Behring Sea, that may be dismissed till the spear lies horizontal, he aims at the mark

in a few words. If it were dropped near shore, it and propels the weapon by a quick forward jerk of

would fall into the inshore current and drift south; the stick. In this way I have seen the Eskimo boys casting their forked javelins at wounded water

while if it were dropped farther off, the Gulf Stream fowl."

would take it to Iceland or Norway.

“But it is well known that a current sets north FINDING OF THE STICK.

through Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean, and “ I had spent two years among the Alaskan Eski that north of the strait the current moves steadily mos when I was one of the naturalists of the Point westward, as shown by the drift of the Jeannette. Barrow Expedition in 1881-83, and was especially in It is very easy to believe that the stick drifted in terested in anything concerning them, particularly this way, keeping on till it met the current that about their implements and weapons, as I had made sweeps down between Iceland and Greenland, and a thorough study of these while preparing the re then turned northward again round Cape Farewell. port on the ethnological results of the expedition. Indeed, it is hard to see how it could have got there Consequently, my curiosity immediately otherwise. aroused by a little notice that I accidentally ran “So this is the way that the finding of this little across in the Norwegian scientific paper Naturen. piece of wood came to be a link in the chain of eviSpeaking of the meeting of the Videnskabs-selskab dence that led Dr. Nansen to form his adventurous (Scientific Society) of Christiania, on June 11, 1886, plan of trusting his stout little vessel to the current the paper said that the curator of the museum ex which he believed would take him over the very hibited a throwing stick found among driftwood at pole. Godthaab, Greenland, different from those used in * For my part, I believe that he was right, and Greenland, but just like those used in Alaska. It that, even if the present rumor turns out to be unwas suggested that it had made the same journey true, there is a very good prospect that he will atas the · Jeannette relics' found at Julianehaab." tain his object."

Mr. Murdoch says that he had been skeptical Another American who has made a careful study about the Jeannette relics,” but the “throwing of Alaskan “throwing sticks” is Prof. Oits T. stick” story he thought might be corroborated. He Mason, one of the curators of the National museum. accordingly sent to Dr. Rink, of Christiania, who He has found that these implements differ greatly had found the stick, and obtained a drawing of the in detail, while all are made on the same general specimen. Consultation of the extensive collection plan. One kind will have a plain handle, while anof Alaskan “ throwing sticks” in the National Mu other will have projecting pegs, or holes or sockets, seum at Washington, confirmed by his own re to give a firmer hold for the fingers.





HORSELESS CARRIAGES, A HISTORY AND A This gave the supporters of horse traffic their oppor. PROPHECY.

tunity." HERE is a delightful article on this subject in


The question was brought before the House of tainly appears to know what he is writing about.

Commons, and a committee inquired into the subThe history of the horseless carriage as he tells it ject, which, however, came to no very definite conis very interesting and suggestive, and would afford

clusion. But the advocates of horse traction many useful texts for Mr. Herbert Spencer, when were victorious in the end, and “in 1861 the next he wishes to illustrate the inaptitude of legis blow fell, and the first act for regulating the lation :

of locomotives upon common roads was * Road locomotives were pronounced perfectly passed. It placed the making of regulations for practicable by a parliamentary committee which these vehicles into the hands of a Secretary of sat in 1832. In the year 1834 a road car made by State, but provided in addition that the tires of the Messrs. Summers & Ogle attained a speed of thirty wheels were to be three inches wide, that the en. two miles an hour, and ran long distances at an gines were to consume their own smoke, that they average speed of twenty-four miles an hour. In the were to have at least two drivers, and were not to same year so, Hancock organized a regular steam exceed ten miles an hour in the country and five coach service at from twelve to fifteen miles an miles an hour in towns. The act concluded that no


locomotive might be used so as to be a nuisance." With this promising start it might have been ex These restrictions were tolerably onerous, but they pected that horseless carriages would have been in

were nothing compared with those which followed. troduced long ago ; but the ease and rapidity of “In 1865 it seems to have been determined to de. the railway diverted attention from the use of loco stroy all prospect of ever driving coaches or carmotives on main roads :

riages by steam. It was this act which to this “ But in 1857 fresh interest was aroused in road

day blocks the use of autocars in England. No one engines. There were many routes too unimportant was allowed to use a horseless carriage unless it to warrant the construction of a railway, and yet was preceded by a man on foot carrying a red flag. sufficiently frequented to require regular coach Any one in a carriage could stop it by merely raisservice. Accordingly, Rickett and others con ing his hand, and no greater speed than four miles structed some excellent carriages designed to run at in the country and two in town was permitted. In a speed of from twelve to fifteen miles an hour. At 1878 local authorities were given the right to this date it may be said that the problem of road levy license fee up to £10, with the result that “as engine locomotion had been solved. Much remained

the law now stands, a person with an autocar to be done in points of detail, but a possible speed who desires to go from London to Newcastle must of over thirty miles an hour had been reached, and take out nine separate licenses, at a cost of £85. He regular coach services had been run.

must take a week at least over the journey. He A SUCCESS FORTY YEARS

must procure nine sets of conflicting by-laws, wbich

he must be careful to obey, and his groom must How was it then that with such a brilliant success

walk in front of him the whole way with a red flag. achieved in 1857 we are still without horseless car

Thus perished the nascent industry.” riages in 1896 ? The reviewer answers this question by

It was hoped that the legislation levied against telling a pitiful story of popular prejudice and legis

traction engines would not be used against cycles ; lative folly. He says :

but“ in 1881 Sir Thomas Parkyn (who died last year) “No sooner had the possibility of road engine

employed Mr. Bateman (a manufacturer of emery locomotion been demonstrated than all the opposi

wheels now living) to construct a steam tricycle. tion which had been fruitlessly exerted to prevent

Sir Thomas Parkyn was at once prosecuted ; althe development of railway engines became con

though his machine emitted no steam and made so centrated upon their unfortunate rivals.


little noise that the policeman who gave evidence were hooted at ; they were refused admission into

respecting it was doubtful how it was driven, the inns ; stones were placed to impede their progress,

magistrate had no option but to enforce the law, and holes dug in the roads over which they were to

and the sentence was ratified by the High Court of pass. Even the local authorities joined in the

Justice.” attack. Such methods, of course, were insufficient

ADVANTAGES OF THE AUTOCAR. of themselves. The engines were, according to the law as it then stocd, perfectly legal, provided they Mr. Chaplin's bill which is now before the House were so run as not to constitute a nuisance. They of Commons repeals most of this legislation, and if had been proved to be safe and cheap. It was nec it is passed will render it possible for Englishmen essary, therefore, to devise soine more effective to avail themselves of the motors which at present measures to suppress them. At last it was discov are being used far and wide on the Continent and ered that they were not subject to the Turnpike have been introduced in the United States. It is not act, which only related to vehicles drawn by horses. difficult to understand why the horseless carriage


beats its competitor out of the field. The reviewer recognize these advantages. Again, the high speed says :

of the motors, say from 200 to 400 revolutions per It may be estimated that the price of a good en- minute, causes great vibration, and in all the gine carriage will be about the same as that of a carriages of this type hitherto made the whole corresponding carriage, horse and harness. And it frame trembles, and when they are standing still, is probable that the repairs, painting and lubrica- the wheels being disengaged from the engines, the tion of the engine will nearly correspond with the vibration is most unpleasant." repairs and minor expenses attendant upon a car- The steam carriages have also their disadvanriage and horse. The stabling will be less, but the tages : driver will probably be paid about the same wages · The inventor of a good condenser of small size as a coachman. There remains, then, only the and little weight is wanted before steam autocars comparison of the provender and litter of a horse can be made completely successful. In order to with the consumption of oil of the car. A horse's reduce the size of the condenser, and at the same provender will cost about £1 a week. Suppose we time to cause less loss of heat, petroleum spirit has estimate the average day's work of a horse at twenty been successfully employed in the boilers, so that miles, then the week's work of six days would be the vapor of benzine replaces steam. The furnace one hundred and twenty miles, which would work may be fed with petroleum oil, and thus be less out at twopence a mile. The corresponding cost of a dangerous. It has also been proposed to drive carpetroleum motor of two and a half horse-power riages with a carbonic acid gas engine, in which would however, be only one-half penny a mile—that carbonic acid is used instead of steam." is to say, one-fourth of the cost of the horse."

Some have looked to electricity; but the great This economy is not the only advantage on the weight of the storage batteries renders the use of side of the antocar :

electricity practically impossible. In order to hold “ As the length of an engine carriage will be sufficient force to drive a carriage for eight hours about half that of a horse and carriage, its powers it is necessary to carry half a ton of lead : of turning will be much greater. It will not kick “In practice a four-wheeled carriage ought not to nor run away ; it can be left to mind itself in the have less than about a ton of accumulators in addiroad ; and if it breaks a part a new one can be im- tion to the dynamo. This is a considerable weight; inediately procured to replace it. Besides, an en- and if 600 pounds is put down for the carriage, 600 gine carriage will easily run a hundred miles in pounds for the dynamo, and 800 pounds for four seven or eight hours, which no horse could accom- passengers and their luggage, we should have a plish. Hence we may anticipate that within a total weight of two tons." measurable interval of time engine carts will re The writer's net conclusion after a survey of the place the huge vans which are now seen every- whole subject is : “So far as a forecast can be where in London, and that our hackney cabs will made, it seems probable that some form of petrobe replaced by engine cabs. This will probably leum engine will eventually be the most successbring about six penny fares."



Cassier's for April contains an instructive sketch The writer then enters into a lucid discussion of by Mr. B. F. Spalding of the evolution of the horsethe merits of the various motors. The most suc- less carriage. He starts with its originator Cugnot, cessful horseless carriages at present are operated by a Frenchman, born 1729, died 1804, whose steain petroleum spirits used in an engine closely corre- carriage was condemned for whirling through the sponding to the familiar gas engine. But these pe- streets at the dangerous rate of three miles an hour, troleum motors have their disadvantages :

and he brings the story up to date. “The cylinders by virtue of these explosions “ Tests of an electric carriage built in Chicago in become heated and require jackets of water to cool 1894, by G. K. Cummings, showed that over a level them. This is a great disadvantage, because a road, at a normal speed of from ten to twelve miles heavy tank of water, containing about ten gallons, an hour, the power consumed was from 114 to 2 must be carried in the carriage, and must be re- horse-power, and it was estimated that the cost of plenished with cold water from time to time upon board for one horse would be greater than the cost the road. The fuel used is either what is known of electricity, the carriage to run fifty miles a day. as petroleam spirit--that is to say, light petroleum, At the published rates, the expense for power would or · benzoline'-or else the heavy oil which is burnt be $10 a month. Mr. Salom estimates that in Philain ordinary paraffine lamps, called petroleum oil. delphia, with a population of 1,000,000, the cost of The advantage of the former is that it is clean, it the work done by horses costs not less than $30,000,does not clog the engine with soot, it contains great 000 a year, and that the same work could be perworking power in a small bulk, and, being volatile, formed by the use of electricity at one-half of this the smell of it soon passes off. Any one who has expense. He believes that ordinary delivery wagon used a carriage or launch driven by petroleum can be constructed in America for from $600 to $800, spirit, and also one driven by heavy oil, will easily and other vehicles in proportion, the prices varying

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