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As a further recognition of these manifestations of good will toward the United States a note of acknowledgment and thauks was promptly addressed to the minister of foreign affairs.
I have the honor also to inclose herewith paragraphs from the leading newspapers of this city noticing the anniversary and its observance. I am, &c.,
THOMAS O. OSBORN.
(Inclosure 1 in No. 15.)
UNITED STATES LEGATION,
Buenos Ayres, July 4, 5 p. m., 1874. Sir: The Argentine Republic having paid distinguished honors to our national anniversary, not only by the presence of his excellency the President and their excellencies the several ininisters of state and justice at this legation to-day, but also by the auljournment of the National Congress and supreme court of justice; by saluting our flag with guns; by trying the Argentine flag from the public buildings, and by giving other evidences of fraternity, friendship, and cordial good-will toward the United States Government, I have the honor to request, if consistent with the rules and regulations of the Naval Department, that you canse a proper salute to be given by your guns to the Argentine flag on the 9th instant, which is known as the “independence day” of the Argentine Republic. With the highest consideration, I am your obedient servant,
THOMAS 0. OSBORN,
Minister Resident. Capt. A. T. MAHAN,
Commanding United States Steamer Wasp.
[Inclosure 2 in No. 15.)
Buenos Ayres, July 6, 1874. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your note of the 4th instant requesting me to salute the Argentine flag on the 9th of July, for the reasons you specify. In reply I bave to say that, while I desire to manifest by every means in my power be friendly feeling of our Government to that of the Argentine Republic, the fact of their courteous salute to our flag on the 4th of July would not alone be sufficient to jastify my disregarding my general instructions and the custom that vessels with the small armament of the Wasp do not salute.
The same courtesy of a salute on the 4th of July has been paid by the government of t'ruguay and not returned by this vessel.
The unusual compliment paid by the President of the Argentine Republic, and other high officials, attending your reception at the United States legation in order to express his sympathies with our nation appears, however, to justify a departure from ordinary rules, and, in acknowledgment of the distinguished honor thus paid to us, I shall be happy to comply with your request. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. T. MAHAN,
Commanding United States Steamer Jasp. General T. O. OSBORN,
United States Vinister Resident,
[Inclosure 3 in No. 15. )
THE AMERICAN RECEPTION. The " reunion” yesterday at the United States legation was brilliant and numerously attended. Among those present were President Sarmiento, Dr. Frias, prime ininister; Dr. Avellaneda, General Mitre, Dr. Rawson, Hon. Lionel Sackville West, H. B. M. enFoy extraordinary ; M. Ducros Aubert, French plenipotentiary ; M. Peralta, Spanish
minister; Dr. Alvear, Mr. F. St. John, Mr. Posadas, postmaster-geueral of the republic; Colouel Peña, General Meyer, Comendador Fleury, Captain Mahan, and officers of the United States steamer“ Wasp," the Commander of the Spanish gunboat, Sr. Lamarca, sub-secretary of foreign affairs ; Mr. Cristofersen, Swedish consul-general; Mr. Carranza, Bolivian consul-general; Mr. R. Bridgett, H. M. acting consul; Messrs. Daniel Gowland, Coffin, Goschen, Guido, Mulball, Hopkins, Folmar, Meeks, Speare, Benton, Rev. Dr. Jackson, Mitre-Vedia, Negrotto, Cathcart, Vaulty, Passinan, the consuls of Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Italy, and about one hundred other gentlemen.
General Osborn, assisted by his secretary, Mr. Bowers, and the United States consnl, Mr. Baker, received his guests in the handsome suite of saloons forming the American legation, which were tastefully decorated for the occasion. The portrait of Washington was hung between the American and Argentine flags, and the tables were laid out with wine and Imch.
When President Sarmiento arrived, accompanied by the cabinet ministers, in the state carriage, which was followed by the President's body-gnard, the saloons were already crowded and presented a gay appearance. General Osborn wore plain evening-dress. The American and other officers were en grande tenne. Nothing could be more cordial than the congratulations of President Sarmiento and the various European plenipotentiaries to the American minister, as wellas of the leading Argentine and other visitors.
General Osborn, stauding next the President of the republic, saluted the assembly in the following speech :
" Friends and fellow-countrymen: On this anniversary I have much to say to you, but all is contained in the one word, 'welcome!'
It has been the custom for years to celebrate this anniversary at home and abroad, for it was declared that this day should be kept in all time as one of rejoicing and congratulation.
** And posterity will celebrate this day. Upon tbe annual return of this glorious, immortal day, they will celebrate it with thanksgiving, with festivities, and with prayer It may be they will shed tears, but not of suljection and slavery, not of agony and distress, but in exultation of gratiiude and of great joy.'
This is the prophecy that was made at one of the most critical periods in the early history of our people, at a most awful and momentous period to them, when the present was full of doubt and a dark mautle was upon the future ; when no bright and guiding star had yet appeared ; when naught but a faint and glimmering hope gleamed upon their dark and gerous pathway. But it was uttered by one who with a strong heart and a steady nerve dared to lift the veil. And he said, 'I see! And close upon the future, with a prophetic eye, le saw a young republic. Up to this hour, that prophecy has been veritied; thus far it has been fulfilled; ninety and eight times has the earth performed her journey around the sun, and upon the annual return of this day the booming of caupon, the displays of the Stars and Stripes, herald its approach ; and Americans everywhere meet, as we to-day, to do it honor. This is the day we celebrate, for it was made glorious, not by the birth of a king or an emperor, made sacred, not by crowns or scepters, but by the declaration of that truth, that men, rational and intelligent, were capable of self-government. It was made glorious by the pen of patriots, and holy by the hand of death. Eight and ninety years ago today the beautiful sentiments in our Declaration of Independence passed into the nobendivy text of organic law, Tbeu we were comparatively weak ; to-day the republic is strong. Then her tlag was almost friendless upon the sea and land ; to-day she can rally more than forty millions round her standard. Then civilization was creeping slowly up the Alleyhany Mountains ; to-day her brow is bathed in the waters of the Pacific.
"We should not forget that this day, in 1776, was devoted to discussion and reflection. A deliberative body, that give out a largerintiuence, perhaps, to the political world than any other assemblage that ever convened, was in session. A few words of warung, a few words of caution, portraying the rashness of the attempt to sever the ties that bound America to the mother country ; a few appeals to the remembrance that no oppression, save that of taxation without representation, bad been imposed ; a few appeals to the recollection that both countries spoke a common language, had a common literature and a common ancestry; a few expressions concerning the beauty and holiness of peace and the horrors of war, but all in vain; and then carried along on the irresistible surges of the coming revolution, rose up speakers saying sentences sparkling with the love of freedom, breaking out with fierce invectives against the wrong of taxation without representation, painting the happiness and glories of a free country in that glad and happy future we have lived to see; next, a few names to a piece of parchment, and the work of the day was over, and every man who took the pen was a freeman or a traitor.
“But the deed was done, yet the work of seven long years was to be accomplished. But those who dared to proclaim dared to maintain.
“ The Revolution was in no sense the work of a few orators and writers; the military achievements were not altogether due to the foresight and ability of a few generals ;
the great mass of the American people bore its burden upon their own shoulders. The political force of the Declaration arises from the fact that it was the utterance of a people who glorified what they said by doing it, who made vital living truths the basis of national action, who gave to their country not only the proclamation of freedom, but freedom itself.
- My countrymen, I have no time to-day to lead you back into the shadow of a century, and wander with you over the battle-grounds whereon the champions of the Revolution contended. Why should I? You have often, if not in person, in your imagination, lingered near their battle-fields where they shared with each other the terrors of Trelog, the carnage of Brandywine, the frost and cold of Valley Forge, and left their bloody first-prints upon the banks of the Delaware. It is and ever has been the policy of our Government, and history tells it, as that of peace and non-interference with other governments, no entangling alliances with or against any government on earth. Prosperity and happiness to all governments and their peoples, and the right to work to ber own destiny, is her motto. And yet it is true she turns some of the pages in her history that are written in her own blood. Every nation has its critical period. That period came to our country when it seemed that wroog and oppression combined to stop the advaucing spirit of the age; when some of her own children undertook to sostain wrong by age, error by custom, and oppression by the past. The house could not stand thus divided; but, with charity for all and with malice toward none,' the repablic repelled the first assault and thundered from the lips of Union guns, the field treinbled, a world was startled, and republics were put to the test. In maguitnde and force it was a grand rebellion. In numbers and power, in determination and boldness, it challenges the work. Yet our colleges, aud universities, and common schools had done their work too well to be finally defeated, for they not only disciplined men, but they made patriots, for wherever was found the patriot's heart was found the patriot's steel.
** The tine did come, and it is past, thank God, when wrong and oppression rendered it necessary for her in self-defense to invoke the arbitrament of force and arms to proiect and settle questions of political rights, yet the truth of freedom did sbine out resplendently from the smoke of her battle-fields and completely wipe out the sum of all villanies.' To-day the republic is a unit, and her future does not depend upon the arms as ber prowess, for the last great disturbing element has passed from her; but rather in a clear sense of her dependence as a people apon tbe everlasting principles of truth, right, and liberty, and a reverent recognition of God as the arbiter and controller of our national destiny.
* My countrymen, while our people at home have but one common country, one grand empie of freedom, but one altar, arouud which they all gather to-day to stir the fires, ligoi their sacrifices, and are always ready for the time of action, you are some six thunsind niles away assembled at this legation in the capital of this grand sister repunce. I know you feel almost at home. Then in your name, in the name of our repoublic, to these ber friends I say, hail! and welcome! And in honor of this day we celebrate, I give to you, the President of the Argentine Republic, the republic of South America, and to the President of the United States, the republic of North America."
President Sarmiento then replied in the following speech, which he read in Spanish : * Sr. Minister: When your excellency may read the debates of our congress, the messages of ibe executive, or the tendency and spirit of its acts, you will find that there is a family liuk; that there is a political doctrine that makes a single people of the whole wntinent which Columbus added to the general civilization of the world.
- The 4th of July is for us the completion of the conquest which humanity achieved in 1494. The rejoicing shade of Columbus hung on that day over the august heads of those that signed the act of Independence.
- We also were there, as there are in the buds and flowers of the trees, present until the consummation of the centuries, the future and successive generations of plants that have to represent the species in the magniticent drama of the development of the plau of the creation, as well in the physical as in the moral.
** On the 911 of July our fathers reproduced the second edition of the same act as yours of the 4th, and sixty years after wo meet together remited here, under the sale of our respective flags, to congratulate each other upon having passed safely through all boman vicissitudes, through the various difficulties that we have encountered on the road, and now rejoice that while the old political worlu vacillates upon its foundations, the nuw, in these our two countries, under the protectiou of an identical constitution, Teposes tranquil in the well-regulated activity of the hive without a queen, but with a government that directs or limits the beneficent action of the social force; that is, the executive power.
"Macaulay, iu finishing the history of the struggle with the last of the Stuarts, and Bancroft, on prefacing thirteen volumes of the History of the United States, said we did not make a revolution, but preservedl untouched the legacy of the British liberties, oppusing the pretensions of the Crown that tried to go beyond the royal prerogative power,
“But with Independence we made a revolution, by creating the exeentive department strong and limited, sufficient to resist invasion or anarchy, and yet flexible enough to avoid collision with any liberty of action or of thought.
“We had not a foreigner's guide to traverse a new and intricate way.
“Europe could not furnish it to us. It was “the blind leading the blind.” We found it in your constitution, and, strange to say, anarchy and the spirit of order, tyranny and liberty, ambition and thought, all conformed to this standard that seemneid suitable to all. Thus was first formed the confederation of provincial petty tyrants, then the federation, and at last the Union, as you call it, which is the period we are now passing throngh in the same way as the aquatio or am ahibious monsters preceded the development of life until coming to man endowed with intelligence, which discovers the unchangeable laws of nature and puts them as the basis of his institutions. I do not know if there are still surviving beings, animated with the appetites anıl passions of an epoch which has passed away, but you may observe by our struggles of thought and words that the whole question reduces itself to discover the mode of making practical and effective a constitution which we have adopted, and having all of us for our guide your public writers and commentators.
"By that way we shall arrive at port; for it is true that in the uncertainties of ideas, in the couflict of opinions, we know where we are traveling to. Not all the nations of the world can see clearly whither they point their steps, whether to a renewed past, or to an uncertain and obscure future.
“ In 1810 we adhered to British liberties, purified by the republican institutions in America.
“In a century longer, those who talk that language, and those who rule themselves by its institutions in Europe, in America, in India, in Oceanica, we all shall form six hundred millions of free people, and the backward of the whole of mankind will come to join us from all parts, and I have great pleasure in calling all present to join me in the toa-t, “To the 4th of July, to the United States of both Americas, to your country, Mr. Minster, and to your President'shealth !'”
General Osborn having proposed the memory of Washington and San Martin, the founders of American and Argentine independence, Dr. Rawson replied: "Your excellency has signally flattered us by placing our hero side by side with Washington. Yet they were both workmen in the same cause; both labored to establish principles of freedom. Washington proclaimed to the universe that all men were born with the right to make their own laws and follow their own form of religion, and this declaration was borne on the wings of the American eagle to the ends of the earth. Some years later we caught up the doctrine, and bore it triumphantly across this continent to the victorious field of Ayacucho. On a day like this we have a community of glories; but I will not now talk of your 70,000 miles of railway, your canals, your increase of population, your power in war, your wisdom in peace, your distinguished men like Morse, the Columbus of electric science. All your glory is summed up in the name of the founder of your country, the man born for all time. Gentlemen, let us drink with enthusiasm the memory of Washington."
The next toast was "Prosperity to the Argentine Republic,” coupled with the name of General Mitre, who replied: "The sentiment contained in this toast is for present and future ages, based on the grand dogma of liberty and equality. In celebrating the 4th of July, we can never forget the heroism of the signers of Independence, wlio with unshaken nerve affixed their names, and said, “ Now let King George hang ns for rebels.' This day awakens different sentiments in various countries. In those where tyrants yet rule, it is a day of dread, for they know their death-warrant has gone forth. In lands where slaves yet breathe, it is looked forward to as a date of promise and deliv. ery. But in the hearts and homes of free men all the world over, it is hailed with a burst of glorious celebration, such as we now see around us. May this 4th of July be regarded as the bright omen of the new world, a star leading the destinies of mankind to life, liberty, and progress.”.
The memory of Lincoln and Rivadavia was responded to by Rev. Mr. Jackson, who spoke feelingly of the visible interposition of Divine Providence in guiding the affairs of nations. Lincoln was an instrunent of Heaven to wipe out the foul blot of slavery in North America. Rivadavia was a man of transcendent genius, sent to advance civ. ilization in La Plata. The flag of the stars and stripes now floats over a people truly free. The star of the Argentine flag is undimmed in its horizon of blue and white.
The relations between the United States and La Plata was replied to by Mr. Hopkins in a powerful and argumentative speech. In 1818, the United States sent a commission to study the condition of the new republic of La Plata. In 1823, the first consul sent to Spanish America was to Buenog Ayres, because this city had first begun the struggle for independence. When the Holy Alliance at Aix la Chapelle was forging fetters for South America, by restoring to Spain her colonies, England and the United States refused, and Henry Clay was the first to recognize the young republic. But Rosas and General Jackson, each in his way, contributed to cut off relations between North and South. When Rosas fell the United States hastened to renew relations, the
first treaty for opening the rivers being signed between General Urquiza and the United States minister. The first Argentine minister sent to Washington was Mr. Sarmiento, wbu found few people knew anything about Buenos Ayres. De Tocqueville, years ago, recommended Americans to cultivate closer relations with Spanish America. Grant is doing so; and many of our best writers and statesmen labored for this.
Washington Irving, Prescott, Motley, and Ticknor, by their writings; Gillies and Gould, by their astronomical labors; Stevens and Squires, by their explorations ; Wheelwright, Meigs, and Church, by their enterprises; Monroe, Clay, Adams, and Webster, by their fearless enunciations of state policy-all helped toward drawing closer the republics of the new world. Some of them are backward, after fifty years of freedom, but did it not take Europe three hundred years to emerge from feudalism ? We find republicans in every land in Europe, such as John Stuart Mill, Lamennais, Humboldt, and Arago, which shows how true principles make progress. Twenty years ago Kent and Story were unknow: in Buenos Ayres; now every lawyer has them on bis shelves. Let us labor to carry out the proposed line of steamers between United Starts and Buenos Ayres, and then our relations will be much closer.
Mr. Lamarca, of the foreign oftice, followed, and at 4.30 p. m. the President and many of the guests retired.
The popular toast of "The Ladies” was then proposed by Gen. Osborn, ably responded to by Jir. Yeatman; then came the toast of the “Army and Navy," and coupled with 16 - The Press," to which Mr. W. T. Cathcart (of the Daily News) replied in a brief
We may mention that this year no invitations were sent to any person. It was merely made kuown that the saloons of the United States legation on the day in question Wrie open for the reception by General Osborn of all true citizens, rich or poor, as also friends of the Union. À large assembly was the consequence of this opeu and free op. portunity to celebrate an important day in the world's history.
Ur. Osborn to Mr. Fish.
UNITED STATES LEGATION, Buenos Ayres, July 15, 1874. (Received August 20.) Sir: The election of Dr. Don Nicholas Avellaneda as President of the Argentine Republic, and Don Mariano Acosta as vice-president, is the result of the ballots cast by the presidential electors chosen at the late election by the people of the several provinces.
It is claimed that frauds of the most serious character were practiced by the unsuccessful as well as by the successful party in the contest, but I learn from rery good source that the authorities have eliminated the frauds practiced by both parties, and the result is still in favor of the parties above named. For the past ten days rumors of coming trouble and revolution have filled this city. A few nights ago the guards were doubled and the troops were put under arms, by reason of the fact that three thousand muskets were detected in the possession of one Caballos, said to be a Brazilian.
A regiment of troops from one of the upper provinces was at once ordered to the city, and the present administration seems determined to pot down any disturbance which might arise. It is now claimed by the friends of the unsuccessful candidate in the late election, General Mitre, that Dr. Don Nicholas Avellaneda cannot be legally declared President from the fact that the constitution requires that a quorum of two-thirds of the national congress is requisite to perform that duty; and as the deputies of this province, Buenos Ayres, friends of General Mitre, are not permitted to take their seats, there will be no coustitutional quorum of the patioual congress present to declare Avellaneda President.
It is claimed by the other side that the constitution requires only twothirds of the members seated and present to make the proclamation.