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and he began again to teach by the sea-side: Galilee. Matt. xiii. 2. and great multitudes were gathered together unto

him. Luke viii. 4. And when much people were gathered together, Sea of Galilee.

and were come to him out of every city, Mark iv. I. he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the

whole multitude was by the sea, on the land, (and) Matt. xiii. 2. stood on the shore.

And he taught them many things by parables 66, and said unto them in his doctrine,

Mark iv, 2.

through the intermediate chapters to Luke xvii. 1-11. Michaelis goes from Luke x. 37, to Luke xvii. without the incorporation of other passages. Doddridge begins with Luke x. 17—24, and proceeds without interruption to Luke xviii. 1-14, excepting that he transposes Luke ix. 51-56, to the last mentioned passage. Newcome has bestowed very great labour on these chapters : he begins Luke x. 17—24; and, omitting from chap. xi. 14, to chap. xiii. 22, proceeds without interruption to chap. xvii. 1–10. From this brief statement it will appear, that the larger proportion of these chapters ought to be continuously put together. The several alterations and transpositions proposed by these harmonizers will be considered in the various notes in which the arrangements which have appeared most advisable will be defended. Archbishop Newcome seems to have departed, in some instances, from the order proposed by Lightfoot, without sufficient cause.

66 It will be observed, that our Lord did not speak to the people in parables till the Scribes and Pharisees had accused him of working his miracles by the power of an evil spirit. The Messiah then, in mercy and compassion to these hearers, and to all who were captious, began to address them in parables. This is well expressed in the translation of Matt. xiii. 13, 14. in the version published in 1729, 2 vols. 8vo. anonymously dedicated to Lord King, the then lord chancellor: the name of the author has escaped my memory. Therefore speak I to them in parables ; because they overlook what they see, and are inattentive ta what they hear, neither will they comprehend. And in them is fulfilled that prophecy of Esaias, “ by hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand : and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive. For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed ; lest at any time they should see,” &c. &c. &c.; and in ver. 16, happy are you that your eyes have sight, and that your ears have their hearing. The common idea, that our Lord spoke in parables, that the people might not understand him, and their condemnation be still increased, is as unfounded as it is blasphemous. The parallel passage, in Mark iv. 19, must be interpreted likewise according to the tenor of the context. It is a prophecy, fulfilled at the very time that our Lord was speaking; that though the people saw with their eyes the outward proofs of bis divine power, yet they should not perceive the evidence arising therefrom, that he was their Messiah.

Dr. Adam Clarke has inserted, from Glassius, a very good dissertation on the nature and use of parabolical writing, at the end of his notes on Matt. xiii. He finds the following ten significations in Scripture.

Luke viii, 5.

Luke viii. 5.

Mark iv. 4.

Mark iv. 6.

Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower, to Mark iv. 3. SOW his seed: and it came to pass as he sowed, some fell by the Mark iv. 4. wayside; and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air came, and devoured it up.

And some fell on stony ground, where it had Mark iv. 5.
not much earth ; and immediately it sprang up,
because it had no depth of earth :

as soon as it was sprung up,
when the sun was up, it was scorched ;
it withered away, because it lacked moisture :
and, because it had no root, it withered away.

And some fell among thorns; and the thorns Mark iv. 7.
grew up
with it
and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.
But other fell into good ground,
and sprang up,

and increased, . Gen. xxvi. and brought forth fruit, some oan hundred-fold, Matt. xiii. 8.

some sixty-fold, some thirty-fold.
And when he had said these things, he cried,

Luke viii. 6. Mark iv. 6. Luke viii. 6.

Mark iv. 6.

Luke viii. 7.

Mark iv, 7.

Matt. xiii, 8. Luke viii. 8.

Mark iv, 8.


Luke viii. 8.

1. The word parable means a simple comparison, Matt. xxiv. 32–38.

2. An obscure similitude, Matt. xv. 13—15: where Pharisaism is represented as a plant, &c.

3. A simple allegory, as in Matt. xii.

4. A maxim, or wise sentence, as the corresponding Hebrew word sun is used in 1 Kings iv. 22.'

5. A by-word, or proverb of reproach, 2 Chron. vii. 20. Psalm xliv. 14. and lxix. 11. Jerem. xxiv. 9.

6. A frivolous, uninteresting discourse, or a disregarded and despised address, Ezek. xx. 49.

7. A simple proverb, or adage, Luke iv. 23.

8. A type, illustration, or representation, Heb. ix. 9; where the first tabernacle is said to have been a figure, a parable, to last only for a time.

9. A daring exploit, an unusual and severé trial, a case of imminent danger and jeopardy. It may be doubted whether this part of Dr. Clarke's criticism is managed with equal judgment. There appears to be no proper authority for the use of the word in this sense. The instance he adduces, Heb. xi. 19, where Abraham is said to have received his son from the dead, ły napabóln," he being in the most imminent danger of losing his life," does not seem satisfactory; the common translation being undoubtedly preferable.

10. The word parable signifies also a very ancient and obscure prophecy, Ps. xlix. 4. Prov. i. 6. Matt. xiii. 35.

Mark iv. 9.

and he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear,
let him hear.

MATT. xiii. part of ver. 2. ver. 3—7. part of ver. 8. and ver. 9. 2 —so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude

3 And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, “p Behold, a p Luke viii, 5. sower went forth to sow;

4 And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way-side, and the fowls came and devoured them up :

5 Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth ; and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth :

6 And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away.

7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them.

8 —and brought forth fruit, some an hundred-fold, some sixty-fold, some thirty-fold. 9 Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.

MARK iv. part of ver. 1. ver. 6, 7. and part of ver. 8. 1 —and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that

5 But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away.

7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.

8 And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up-and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.

LUKE viii. part of ver. 5, 6, 7, 8.
5 A sower went out to sow—and as he sowed, some fell by the way-side-
and the fowls of the air devoured it.

6 And some fell upon a rock; and —
7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up-and choked it.

8 And other fell on good ground—and bare fruit an hundred-fold-He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.


Reasons for teaching by Parables 67.
MATT. xiii. 10–18.

MARK iv. 10, 11, 12.
And when he was alone,

Mark iv. 10.

order upon

87 These sections, to the end of the chapter, are arranged in their present

the concurrent testimony of Lightfoot, Newcome, and Doddridge, and the regularity of the Scripture narrative. Pilkington has observed the same method, excepting that he has placed elsewhere the dining at the house of Matthew; an event which he inserts after the call of that apostle, and which has been already discussed. Michaelis varies too but little from this disposition. He

the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speak- Matt. xiit. 10. est thou unto them in parables ?

He answered, and said unto them, Because it Matt. xiii. 11. is given unto you to know the mysteries of the

kingdom of heaven, but unto them it is not given. q ch. xxv. 29. 9 For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, Matt. xiii. 12.

and he shall have more abundance: but whoso-
ever hath not, from him shall be taken away even
that he hath.
but unto them that are without, all these things are Mark iv. 11.
done in parables :

That seeing they may see, and not perceive ; Mark iv.:12.
and hearing they may hear, and not understand;
lest at any time they should be converted, and
their sins should be forgiven them.

And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, Matt, xiii. 14. Isa. vi. 9.

which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall

. . John xii. 40. not understand ; and seeing ye shall see, and not B. Rom. xi.8. perceive :

For this people's heart is waxed gross, and Matt. xiii. 15. their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed ; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.

But #blessed are your eyes, for they see ; and Matt. xiii. 16. your ears, for they hear.

For verily I say unto you, That many prophets Matt. xiii. 17. and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them ; 'and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.

MATT. xiii. part of ver. 10. and ver. 13. 10 -and

13 Therefore speak I to them in parables : because they seeing, see not; and hearing, they hear not: neither do they understand.

MARK iv, first part of ver. 11. 11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God

LUKE vüi. part of ver. 9, and ver. 10. 9 And his disciples asked him

10.And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand. seems doubtful where to place the treatment received by our Lord at Nazareth, (section 41,) and supposes that this event took place but once: he reasons from the similarity of the two circumstances. See note on section 4, of this chapter,

a Luke x. 24.


Mark iv. 10.

Mark iv. 13.

Luke viii. 11.

Mark iv. 14.

Matt. xiii. 19.

Mark iv. 15.

Explanation of the Parable of the Soner. MATT. xiii. 18_24. MARK iv. 13-24. LUKE viii. part

of ver. 9. and 11-18. They that were about him with the twelve ask

ed of him the parable. Luke viii. 9. saying, What might this parable be?

And he said unto them, Know ye not this pa

rable ? and how then will ye know all parables? Matt. xiii. 18. Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower,

Now the parable is this : The seed is the word of God.

The sower soweth the word.

When any one heareth the word of the king

dom, and understandeth it not, then
Mark iv. 15. immediately,
Luke viii. 12. lest they should believe, and be saved,
Matt. xiii. 19. cometh the wicked one, and catcheth


that the word Matt. xiii. 19. that was sown in his heart.

This is he which received seed by the way-side. Matt. xiii. 20. But he that receiveth the word into stony

places, the same is be that heareth the word, and

anon with joy receiveth it; Mark iv. 16. immediately received it with gladness :

Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for

a while ; Luike viii. 13. for a while believeth, and in time of temptation Matt. xiii. 21. for Mark iv. 17. afterward, when affliction, Matt. xii. 21. when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of

the word, by and by he is offended, Luke viii. 13. and falleth away.

He also that received seed among the thorns, is he that heareth the word:

Luke viii 14 and when he hath heard goeth forth,
Mark iv. 19. and the cares
Matt. xiii. 22 and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness

of riches,
Luke vill. 14. and pleasures of this life,
Mark iv. 19. and the lusts of other things entering in,
Matt. xiii. 22. choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful.
Matt. xiii. 23.

But he that receiveth seed into the good ground,

is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; Mark iv. 20. and receiveth it

Matt. xiii. 21.

Matt. xiii. 22.

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