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is within the cup and platter, that the outside of Jerusalem.

them may be clean also.
Matt.xxii.27. Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypo-

crites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres,
which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are
within full of dead men's bones, and of all unclean-

Matt.xxiii.28. Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous

unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and

iniquity. Matt. xxiii.29. Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypo

crites! because ye build the tombs of the pro

phets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, Matt.xxiii.30. And say, If we had been in the days of our fa

thers, we would not have been partakers with them

in the blood of the prophets. Matt.xxiji.31. Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that

ye are the children of them which killed the pro

phets. Matt.xxiii.32. Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers. Matt.xxiii.33. Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can

ye escape the damnation of hell ?

Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye

Matt. xxiii.31.

In consequence of this practice, they would sometimes strike against a wall, and cover themselves with blood. The Talmudist who describes it, O'nw sw xbo, : 0'7X 432 nagbxbx eos hoc non fecisse ad gloriam Dei, sed ut homines deciperent. Vides (Schoetgen adds) ergo Judæos avtokarakpites. et veritatem servatoris etiam inimicorum ipsius testimonio comprobatam (a). It must, however, be remembered, that the Pharisees did but disguise the traditional truth received from their ancestors. Bishop Blomfield has admirably discussed this subject, with great skill and learning. His conclusions may be expressed in that of Schoetgen.

Quamvis vero Christus Pharisæos tantopere refutat, non tamen existimandum est, ipsum omnes Judæorum doctrinas absolute rejecisse. Credibile quippe est, in antiquiore Judæorum Ecclesia circa et post Esræ tempora multa viguisse Veri-, tatis antiquæ ac nondum depravatæ vestigia. Veritatis, inquam, illiusque tum quod ad dogmata, tum quod ad mores spectat consideratæ. Quæcunque ergo cum æconomiâ novâ et perfectione, quam a nobis Christus requirit, conveniebant, illa omnia retinuit. Unde non mirum, multa a Lightfoot et nobis ex Pandectis Judæorum adferri potuisse, quæ cum doctrinâ Salvatoris omnino conveniunt. Fermentum Pharasaicum omnia polluerat. Schoetgen, vol. i. p. 27.

(a) Anich, fol. 127. 4. ap Schoetgen, Horæ Hebraicæ, &c. vol. i. p. 205. Bishop Blomfield's tract, Knowledge of Jewish Traditions essential to an accurate Interpretation of the New Testament.

scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them
from city to city :

That upon you may come all the righteous blood Matt.xxiii.36. Gen. iv. 8. shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous

Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias,
whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.

Verily I say unto you, All these things shall Matt.xxiii.36.

come upon this generation. z Luke xiii.

* Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the Matt.xxiii.37. a 2 Chron. prophets, a and stonest them which are sent unto b 2 Esd, i. 30. thee, how often would I have gathered thy chil

dren together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens
under her wings's, and ye would not !

Behold, your house 18 is left unto you desolate. Matt.xxiii.38.


15 When a Gentile was converted to Judaism, he was said to have come ngown • nnn, under the wings of the Shechinah. In using this expression, therefore, our Lord again asserted his divinity, and reminded the Jews of the doctrine he had before taught Nicodemus, that the people of Israel themselves were required to enter into his kingdom as new creatures, as proselytes to a new dispensation.—See many instances in Schoetgen, Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 208.

The remark of Dr. Hales on this passage, appears to me to be too refined and hypercritical, and censures unjustly the translation in the authorized version. He observes, "the word in the original is õpvis, which is generic; and surely more applicable to that noblest of birds, the eagle and his brood, than to the 'hen and chickens' of the English Bible.” And he supposes that our Lord, " as the tutelar God of Israel, alludes to his former comparison, in the divine ode of the parent eagle, training his young brood, after he had brought them on eagles wings to himself, to Mount Sinai (a)." This learned writer, however, has not taken into consideration, that the comparison of the hen and chickens was known from the earliest times to the Jews, and was frequent and familiar among them; and that this humble metaphor was much more suited to the genius and nature of the Christian religion. When the tribes of Israel, under the guidance of the God of their fathers, departed from the wilderness, with the fierceness and fearlessness of youthful and impetuous warriors; when they seized upon their divinely-conquered provinces, and triumphed in the spoil of their enemies, they were as justly, as they were sublimely, compared to the young eagles soaring from their inaccessible heights at the call of their parent, and darting like lightning upon their ignoble prey. The comparison of our Lord is consistent with the nature and design of his more perfect dispensation of reconciliation and love. His disciples, like their Master, were to be meek and lowly in spirit, and they were to be sheltered and nourished under the saving wings of their kind and merciful Protector.

16 The ancient Jews were accustomed to call the temple n°277, " the House,” to shew its great superiority to any other building. They called it likewise

(a) Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. part 2.


unto you,

Matt.xxiii.39. For I

Ye shall not see me hence- Jerusalem. forth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

MARK xü..part of ver. 38. and ver. 39, 40. 38 -which-and love salutations in the market-places, 39 And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts ;

40 – Which devour widows' houses, and—make long prayers: these shall ç Matt. xxiii. receive greater damnation.

LUKE XX. part of ver. 45. and ver. 46. 45 -he said unto his disciples,

46 4 Beware of the Scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love d Matt. xxiii. greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief”. rooms at feasts.


brass money : see Matt, x. 9.

Mark xii. 42,

Christ applauds the Liberality of the poor Widow.

. MARK xii. 41, to the end. LUKE xxi. 1-5. Mark xii. 41. And Jesus sat over against the treasury, Luke xxi. 1.

And he looked up, Mark xii. 41. and beheld how the people cast * money into the #1 piece of

treasury: and many that were rich cast in much.

And there came Luke xxi. 2 also a certain poor widow, Mark xii. 42. and she threw in two + mites ", which make a far- + It is the se

venth part of thing.

one piece of Mark xii. 43.

And he called unto him his disciples, and saith that brass mo. unto them, Verily I say unto you, That this poor, widow hath cast more in, than all they which have cast into the treasury:

For all these have of their abundance cast in


Luke xxi. 4.

“ domus" " sanctuarii,” wapan ney, and Dubay n'a, domus æterna (a). And this house, or temple, which has now, for near eighteen centuries, continued desolate, in fulfilment of the prophecy in the next verse, shall be again rebuilt, and on the mountains of Israel the tribes shall again plant the olive and the vine, and offer up their praises and thanksgiving in a more glorious temple than that of Solomon. Glorious things shall be spoken of thee, thou city of God.

17 A curious law, which prevailed among the Jews at that time, prohibited one mite, as we translate the word NETTÓv, to be put into the treasury. The poor widow, therefore, in casting two mites, her little all, into the treasury, gave the

. : ponat homo Leftov in cistam eleemosynarum.—Bava Bathra, fol. X. 2. ap Schoetgen, Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 250.

non ,לא יתן אום פרוטה לארנקי של צרקה:

.smallest sum permitted by the law

(a) Schoetgen, Hor. Heb. vol. i. p. 211.

Mark xii. 44.

Jerusalem. unto the offerings of God: but she of her penury

hast cast in
all that she had, even all her living.

MARK xii. part of ver. 44.
44 For all they did cast in of their abundance; but she of her want did cast

LUKE xxi. part of ver. 1, 2. ver. 3. and part of ver. 4.
1 -and saw the rich men casting their gifts into the treasury.
2 And he saw also-casting in thither two mites.

3 And he said, Of a truth I say unto you, That this poor widow hath cast in more than they all :

4 —all the living that she had.

Christ foretells the Destruction of Jerusalem, the End of the Jewish

Dispensation, and of the World".
MATT. xxiv. 1-36. MARK xiii. 1–32. LUKE xxi. 5–34.

And Jesus went out, and departed from the Matt. xxiv. I. temple.

18 ON THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM. In the ancient times of the world, when all mankind began to apostatize from the faith of their fathers, it pleased the true God to select the illustrious ancestor of the now scattered sons of Israel, to maintain and perpetuate the true religion. Thus, for a long series of ages, the God of Nature demonstrated to the whole world that He was the God of the Church also, by the most stupendous miracles in favour of the chosen family of Abraham. For them the sea was divided, the tides of rivers were stopped, and the waters rose up in heaps. Fountains broke forth in the desert; decay approached not their garments, nor fatigue their limbs. The god of the idolaters stood still in the temple of Heaven, and the moon paused in her course at the voice of a mortal. For them the fire descended from heaven. God himself reigned over them, enthroned in a pillar of fire at night, and a cloud by day. He was their king, He was their deliverer. Whatever were their wanderings or deviations from his institutions: continued miracles, and the spirit of prophecy, demonstrated the perpetual superintendence of a presiding Providence. The records, handed down from their fathers, have been faithfully preserved ; and we are there assured that the same power which ordained these wonders for the family of Abraham in the olden times, will never leave them, nor forsake them: "Can a woman forget her sucking child ? yea, they may forget, yet will I not forget thee."

Is God unchangeable? Is he a man, that he should lie; or the son of man, that he should repent ? To what condition are his people reduced ? Nearly two thousand years have elapsed since their holy city was burnt with fire, and their nation scattered among their insulting Gentile brethren. To the intolerable sufferings of the sons of Israel during this long period, it is not necessary to make further allusion. They are stamped on every page of history. The Jews are

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Mark xiii. I.

And as he went out of the temple, one of his Jerusalem, disciples

still dispersed over every part of the known world. “Among us, but not of us," they wander over the earth, banished from their holy city, from that city which was the joy of the whole earth, the residence of their prophets, the seat of the greatness of their kings, the home, and the capital, as they fondly believed, of their expected Messiah. From the contemplation of the former splendour, and present depression of the house of Israel, I would request the modern Jew, who believes in the truth of those sacred books which have been transmitted to him from his illustrious ancestors, to propose to himself this question, Whether it is probable that the God of their fathers should thus consign the peculiarly favoured family of Abraham to exile and misery the most intolerable, for so long a space of time, without some adequate cause? Is it probable that Jerusalem, the holy city, the city of the great king, should be burnt with fire, and be trodden under foot of the Gentiles, and no warning voice be given, either by miracle, or by prophecy? When the Chaldeans polluted the sacred territory, and destroyed the carved work of the first temple, Ezekiel denounced the coming vengeance; and Jeremiah wept night and day for the transgression of the daughter of his people. When a greater and more lasting punishment was about to be inflicted, was it not to be expected that a prophet should arise among the people of God, to appeal to them, with the stern dignity of Ezekiel, or the tender, yet majestic, eloquence of Jeremiah ? The books of the Christian Scriptures alone solve this difficulty, and assure them that this expectation was not unreasonable. They tell them that the greatest of all prophets appealed to them; the Son of David addressed them, but they would none of his reproof; He foretold, in his very last prediction, with sympathizing energy, the fearful destruction that awaited their beloved city, and its unbelieving inhabitants; offering at the same time the means of salvation to the faithful few.

At this time the Jews, through all ranks and classes, were zealous for the law of their fathers; so that they were willing to persecute every one, even of their own nation, who spoke but with indifference of its sanctions. Must not, then, some unacknowledged and proportionate crime have been committed, which could thus call down the just judgment of the God of their fathers ? The Christian Scriptures alone can solve the mystery, and vindicate the unchangeableness of the God of Israel. Here is related the hitherto unrepented and proportionate crime. They rejected their long promised Messiah ; they crucified the Lord of life; they nailed him to the cross; they clamoured for his blood. For this their holy city is left unto them desolate ; for this they have been for so many centuries the scorn, and outcasts of mankind. The fall of Jerusalem, the miseries of its inhabitants, and the evils that have so long pursued the sons of Israel, have been uniformly regarded as monuments of the truth of Christianity, and the most undeniable and solemn appeal to the Jewish nation. And as this prediction of our Lord is the most remarkable in the New Testament; so also are the destruction it predicts, and the present condition of the Jews, without any exception whatever, the most calamitous, and the most striking, and, on all known principles of action, the most unlooked for, unaccountable events in history.

Let us now consider the occasion on which the predictions were spoken. When our Saviour pronounced his pathetic lamentation over Jerusalem, he was

VOL. 1.


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