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And as Peter was beneath in the palace, there Mark xiv. 66. cometh one of the maids of the High Priest : (the damsel that kept the door) unto Peter, John xviii. 17. [and] beheld him as he sat by the fire,
Luke xxii. 56. And when she saw Peter warming himself, she Mark xiv. 67. looked upon him, earnestly looked upon him, and said, This man Luke xxii. 56. was also with him. Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? He John xviii. 17. saith, I am not. And she said, And thou also wast with Jesus of Mark xiv. 67. Nazareth, of Galilee. And he denied him,
Luke xxii. 57. before them all, saying, I know not what thou Matt, xxvi. sayest. Woman, I know him not.
Luke xxii. 57. I know not, neither understand I what thou Mark xiv. 68. sayest.
And the servants and officers stood there, who John xviii: 18. had made a fire of coals; for it was cold : and they warmed themselves : and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also John xviii. 25. one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.
One of the servants of the High Priest, being John xviii. 26. his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did I not see thee in the garden with him?
after the apprehension of our Lord. Pilkington, after he had been beaten and insulted by the servants and soldiers. Not only do the arguments of the latter writer appear to me to be most satisfactory, but there seems to be internal evidence that Pilkington is most correct. The courage that made Peter recover first from the general consternation that had seized upon all the disciples, would not forsake him without a cause, merely because he had entered into the palace. He probably expected a different result to the examination, and imagined that our Lord would have miraculously delivered himself from the power of his enemies : and he therefore willingly waited among the servants “to see the end.” But when he saw, equally to his surprise and horror, for the first time, that our Lord was thus grievously treated, his confidence began to waver, and his faith to fail. At this moment the servant who kept the door, and had left her charge to approach to the fire, knew him by the blaze of the fire, (as Dr. Townson ingeniously translated the word pws, Luke xxii. 56.) and challenged him as the disciple of the despised Nazarene.
I cannot account for Archbishop Newcome's silence, in his notes to the Harmony, respecting Pilkington's order of the denial of Peter. He frequently refers to Pilkington.
John xviii. 27. Peter then denied again.
Jerusalem. Mark xiv. 68. And he went out into the porch ; and the cock
crew; John xviii. 27. and immediately the cock crew.
8 The Jewish doctors distinguished the cock crowing into the first, second, and third. The first was called, gaan niyp—the second nuva—when he repeats it. The third whvvs-when he does it the third time, as in Mark xiii. 35. Luke xii. 38. This custom was observed also by Heathen nations. According to St. John xiii. 38. St. Luke xxii. 34. and St. Matthew xxvi. 34. Our Saviour predicts “ the cock shall not crow,” that is, shall not have finished his crowing, “before tbou deny me thrice.” Lightfoot (a) reconciles the words of these three evangelists with those of St. Mark, by suggesting, that as the hour approached when the event was to take place, our Saviour specifies more particularly the time, and says, Mark xiv. 72. “Verily I say unto thee, that this day, even in this night, before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice." Pilkington supposes, that the words, “ the cock shall not crow before thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me," should be taken literally, signifying that the cock should not crow at all before thou shalt thrice deny me; and he concludes, there is a double signification attached to these separate predictions, and a double accomplishment of them. He argues, according to St. John's Gospel, that these words were primarily fulfilled by St. Peter, when he was admitted into the palace. The first denial was made to the damsel who kept the door, and had permitted him to enter. It is very natural to imagine that a clamour would be raised against Peter, upon her accusation ; as the people would conclude that the damsel who kept the door, and let him in, must have good reason for her suspicion : and accordingly St. John tells us, that the servants who were warming themselves at the fire with Peter, again questioned him about this matter, and that he denied being a disciple of Christ the second time. Immediately upon, or soon after this, Malchus's kinsman recollected seeing Peter in the garden with Jesus, and charged him therewith; but Peter denied it a third time. And St. John observes, that upon this immediately the cock crew. And thus it appears how those words of our Saviour were verified, “ Before the cock crow (at all) thou shalt deny me thrice.”
St. Jobn, having thus shewn the accomplishment of these words of our Lord, takes no notice of any other of Peter's denials, but of these three only, which were made at the fire, whereas the other Evangelists take notice of denials made after these; and so shew us the propriety of that other expression, “ Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.” They consider the several particular denials at the fire made at the same time, and in the same place, only as one general denial: and so St. Mark tells us, that, after Peter had denied at the fire, and was gone out into the porch, the cock crew the first time ; and this appears to be the same crowing which St. John speaks of, as immediately succeeding Peter's three several denials of his Master there.
The second general denial was made in the porch. This evidently appears from the accounts both of St. Matthew and St. Mark. And, from what is related, we must conclude, that the denial there was not single, but that many then
(@) Vide Lightfoot, on John xiii. 38. Works, vol. ii. folio edit. Dr. Bright's.
MATT. xxvi. part of ver. 69, 70. 69 -and a damsel came unto him, saying, Thou also wast with Jesus70 But he denied
MARK xiv. part of ver. 68. 68 But he denied, saying
LUKE xxii. part of ver. 56.
JOHN xviii. part of ver. 17, 25.
After Midnight-Peter's second Denial of Christ, at the Porch of
the Palace of the High Priest.
LUKE xxii. 58.
charged him together (as they had done before, and as we may easily imagine they would do, in such a riotous assembly), and that he again there denied to them all. For St. Luke tells us, that a man charged him, and said, “Thou art one of them ;” and he replied, and said, “ Man, I am not." St. Mark, that he denied what a maid was insinuating, “ that he was one of them :" and St. Matthew, that “he denied with an oath, I do not know the man," upon a maid's affirming that he was with Jesus of Nazareth.
The place of the third general denial is not specified, any farther than that it was in the same room or court where Jesus was, who “ turned and looked upon Peter.” The time of it is said by St. Mark, to have been a little after the second, (uerà purpóv). St. Matthew makes use of the same expression; and St. Luke particularly mentions, that it was " about the space of one hour after." This also appears to have been a general accusation, and so must have been a general denial; for though St. Luke only mentions one man's charging Peter at this time, yet St. Matthew and St. Mark tell us, that they that stood by charged him with being a Galilean, and a disciple of Christ, and that in such a pressing manner, that “ he began to curse and to swear he did not know the man." And upon this St. Mark tells us, that “ the cock crew a second time:" before which Peter had denied “ Christ at three several times, and in three several places ;” and so had remarkably fulfilled the second signification of the prediction, “ Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me thrice.” - If it shall appear that there is nothing forced or misrepresented in the relation of this matter, then it must be allowed that the evangelical accounts are so far from being contradictory or inconsistent, that they greatly illustrate each other, and shew the true meaning, and the full accomplishment, of what our Saviour foretold with respect to this event (6).
(6) Pilkington, Notes to the Evangelical History, p. 55.
art also one of them. And Peter said, Man, I Jerusalem.
am not. * Matt. xxvi.71. And another maid saw him, Mark xiv. 6. and began to say to them that stood by, Matt. xxvi.71. This fellow was also with Jesus of Nazareth. Mark xiv. 69. This is one of them. Matt. xxvi.72. And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man.
MATT. xxvi. part of ver. 71. 71 -and said unto then that were there
MARK xiv. part of ver. 69, 70. 69 And a maid saw him again70 And he denied it again
Luke xxii, 59.
ing. Peter's third Denial of Christ, in the Room where Christ
LUKE xxii. 59-62.
And Peter said, Man, I know not what thou
Luke xxii. 60.
9 Pfeiffer, in the last treatise of his Dubia Vexata, endeavours to prove that the common dialect, both of Galilee and Judæa, was not Hebrew, but SyroChaldaic, or Aramaic, mixed with Greek, and that they differed only in accent and pronunciation. The learned men, of both countries, understood and conversed in pure Hebrew. The Galilæan dialect consisted in a corrupt and confused pronunciation of the common Syro-Chaldaic, and this dialect was the vernacular language of the apostle.
Schoetgen(a), among others, mentions, Brescith Rabba, sect. xxvi. fol. 26. 3. **7*Xe xogorb grupy xbobaa in Galilæa serpentem, qui alias x*tn dicitur, vocant yogex ut pro 17 usurpat *.
Horne and Pfeiffer, as well as the two last mentioned authorities, have collected similar instances.
(a) Schoetgen, vol. i. p. 235.
Jerusalem. Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I Matt.xxvi.74.
know not the man;
Mark xiv. 71.
Mark xiv. 72. And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. Luke xxii. 61. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how that he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
Before the cock crow twice, thou shalt deny me Mark xiv. 72. *Or, he wept thrice. And * when he thought thereon, he abundantly, or, he began to wept; weep. he went out, and wept bitterly.
Matt. xxvi.75. MATT. xxvi. part of ver. 73, 74, 75. 73 And after a while came unto him they that stood by, and said to Peter
74 —And immediately the cock crew –
75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice.
MARK xiv. part of ver. 70, 71, 72.
Mark xv. 1.
Christ is taken before the Sanhedrim, and condemned.
LUKE Xxii. 66. to the end. And straightway in the morning, as soon as it was day,
Luke xxi. 66. the Chief Priests held a consultation with the Mark xv. I. elders of the people,
Matt. xxvii.l. and the Scribes, and the whole council, [and] took counsel against Jesus to put him to Matt. xxvii. ). death. And they led him into their council, saying,
Luke xxii.66. Art thou the Christ? tell us. And he said unto Lnke xxii. 67. them, If I tell you, ye will not believe.
And if I also ask you, ye will not answer me, Luke xxii. 68. nor let me go.
Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right Luke xxii, 6.0. hand of the power of God.
Mark xv. I.