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And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud Mark xv. 34.. yoice, saying, Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani*s ?
ON OUR LORD'S EXCLAMATION ON THE CROSS. Dr. Edwards thinks that the words were repeated twice. The commentators have been much divided as to their signification. Rosenmüller considers the words of our Lord as an expression of suffering, and of prayer, which he appropriated to himself. Such also is the opinion of Dr. Pye Smith, who both in his excellent discourse on the Atonement, and in his work on the Person of Christ, considers the words as connected with the sequel and general design of the Psalm, of which it is the commencement, and expressing the extinction of all present and sensible comfort. Such also is the generally received opinion, and the writers in the Critici Sacri, on Matt. xxvii. 46. interpret the passage in a similar
Lightfoot, however, has proposed another interpretation of our Lord's exclamation; he would read it, not, “Why hast thou forsaken me, or left me to the feeling of any spiritual desertion ;" but, “ Why hast thou left me to such hands, and to such cruel usage ?”
Dr. A. Clarke is likewise inclined to favour this interpretation. The exclamation of our Lord (Matt. xxvii. 46.) he would thus render: “ How astonishing is the wickedness of those persons, into whose hands I have fallen.” God is said in Scripture to do, what he permits to be done, and no decisive argument can be drawn therefore from the expression to prove that he was deserted by his father. He confirms this interpretation from Mark xv. 34 ; the words of which passage, he observes, agree pretty nearly with this translation of the Hebrew-Eis ti με εγκατέλιπες ; “to what (sort of persons, understood,) hast thou left me?" A literal translation of the passage in the Syriac Testament gives a sinilar sense : Ad quid dereliquisti me? “ To what hast thou abandoned me?" And an ancient copy of the old Itala version, a Latin translation before the time of St. Jerome, renders the words thus : Quare me in opprobrium dedisti ? “ Why hast thou abandoned me to reproach ?"
“ It may be objected, that this can never agree with the ivari, • why,' of Matthew. To this it is answered, that ivari must have here the same meaning as eis ri, as the translation of nos, lama ; and that if the meaning be at all different, we must follow that Evangelist who expresses most literally the meaning of the original: and let it be observed, that the Septuagint often translate nigah by ivari, instead of eis ri, which evidently proves that it often had the same meaning. Whatever may be thought of the above mode of interpretation, one thing is certain, that the words could not be used by our Lord in the sense in which they are generally understood. This is sufficiently evident; for he well knew why he was come unto that hour, nor could he be forsaken of God, in whom dwelt all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. The Deity, however, might restrain so much of its consolatory support, as to leave the human nature fully sensible of all its sufferings ; so that the consolations might not take off any part of the keen edge of his passion : and this was necessary to make his sufferings meritorious. And it is probable, that this is all that is intended by our Lord's quotation from the twenty-second Psalm. Taken in this view, the words convey an unexceptionable sense, even in the common translation (a).”
(a) Edwards, ap. Doddridge in loc. Smith's Discourse on the Atonement, p. 34, 35; and Scripture Testimony, &c. vol. ii. part i. p. 357. Rosenmuller in loc. Lightfoot, 8vo. edit. vol. viii. p. 167. A. Clarke, in Matt. xxvii. 46.
Mark xv. 35.
Mat. Xxvii.48. Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani ?
Jerusalem. Mark xv. 34. which is, being interpreted, My God, my God,
why hast thou forsaken me?
Ånd some of them that stood by, when they
heard it, said, Behold, he calleth Elias. John xix. 28. After this, Jesus knowing that all things were
now accomplished, that the Scripture might be r Ps. Ixix. 21.
fulfilled, saith, I thirst.
spunge, and filled it with vinegar,
The rest said, Let be; let us see whether Elias
will come to save him, Mark xv. 36. will come to take him down.
When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished ".
Jesus, when he had cried again with a loud
voice, Luke xxiii.46. he said, : Father, into thy hands I commend my 8 Ps. xxxi. 5.
spirit : and having said thus, John xix. 30. he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost *.
And, behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain
John xix, 30.
26 In John xix. 28. we read, “ Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst ;” and now, that he hath taken the vinegar, he said, “ It is finished,” that is, this act was the last circumstance that remained to be fulfilled of all the ancient prophecies and predictions. He took the proffered cup of vinegar, and thereby closed and sealed, by his blood, the Levitical Dispensation, and brought in a more perfect
“ They gave me gall for my meat, in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink," Ps. Ixix. 21. Even the most minute circumstances of our Saviour's life and death were foretold by the spirit of prophecy many centuries before his birth, and they have all been literally and absolutely fulfilled. See the eloquent passages of Taylor, Horsley, and Porteus, on this section.
» It is singular that our translators have not observed the three modes of expression which the Evangelists have here adopted. Mark and Luke say εξεπνεύσε, , " he expired." John xix. 30. trapédWKE TÒ Tveõua, " he yielded
his spirit.” Matthew xxviii. 50. ápñKs TÒ AVEõua, "he dismissed his spirit.” The spirits of mere men are in general violently separated from the body, in a way over which they can have no control : it was for our Lord only to die as the Prince of Life, by an act of supernatural power, and to separate, at his own pleasure, and at his own command, the spirit from the body, VOL. I.
Mark xv. 39.
Jerusalem. in the midst,
Lukexxiii.45. from the top to the bottom; and the earth did Mat. Ixvii.5I. quake, and the rocks rent; And the graves were opened:
Mat. xxvii.52 Now when the centurion
Mat. xxvii.54. which stood over against him, and they that were with him, watching Jesus, saw Mat. xxvii.54. the earthquake, and those things that were done, saw that he so cried out, and gave up the ghost, Mark IV, 30. they feared greatly, saying, Truly this was the Mat. xxvii.St. Son of God; he glorified God, saying, Certainly, this was a Lukexxii. 47. righteous man.
And all the people that came together to that Lukexxiii.48. sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned,
And all his acquaintance, and the women that Lukexxiii.49. followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things. among whom was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the Mark xv. 40. mother of James the less and of Joses, and Salome, the mother of Zebedee's children.
Mat. xxvii.56. h Luke viii. 3. who also, when he was in Galilee, 5 followed Mark xv. 41.
him, and ministered unto him; and many other
The Jews therefore, because it was the prepa- John xix. Si.
Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of John xix. 12. the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.
But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he John xix. 33. was dead already, they brake not his legs :
But one of the soldiers, with a spear, pierced John xix. 34. his side, and forthwith came thereout blood and water.
And he that saw it bare record, and his record John xix. 35. is true : and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.
For these things were done i that the Scripture John xix. 36. Num. Xit should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be
i Exod. xii. 46.
John xix. 37.
And again, another Scripture saith, They Jerusalem. shall look on him whom they pierced.
k Zech. xii. 10.
MATT. xxvii. ver. 45. part of ver. 46. ver. 47. part of ver. 50. ver. 55. and
part of ver. 56, 45 Now from the sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour.
46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying that is to say, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
1 Ps. xxii. 1 47 Some of them that stood there, when they heard that, said, This man calleth for Elias.
50 -yielded up the ghost
55 And many women were there beholding afar off, which followed Jesus from Galilee, ministering unto him ;
56 Among which was Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joses, and
MARK xv. part of ver. 33. 36. ver. 37, 38. and part of ver. 39, 40. 33 - there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.
36 And one ran and filled a spunge full of vinegar, and put it on a reed, and gave him to drink, saying, Let alone ; let us see whether Elias
37 And Jesus cried with a loud voice, and gave up the ghost.
39 And when the centurion-he said, Truly this man was the Son of God. 40 There were also women looking on afar off.
LUKE xxiii. part of ver. 44, 45, 46, 47.
44 And it was about the sixth hour
JOHN xix. part of ver. 29, 30. 29 —and they filled a sponge with vinegar30 -and
From the Death of Christ till his Ascension into Heaven.
50—55. JOHN xix. 38, to the end.
John xix. 38. Now when the even was come?, because it Mark XV. 42.
ON THE BURIAL AND RESURRECTION OF OUR LORD. When our first parents disobeyed the command of God, we are told, that “ their eyes were opened.” The word in the original language (a), which is thus rightly translated, is applied to the breaking forth of a flower from its calyx. The proper meaning, therefore, of the passage seems to be, that as a flower bursts forth at the appointed season from the darkness and imprisonment of the inclosing calyx, so did our first parents enter upon an entirely new mode of existence, when they had taken of the forbidden fruit. We are unable to form any adequate idea of their condition in a state of innocence. Our notions are so uniformly derived from experience, that we cannot, from the intended indefiniteness of the language of Scripture, represent to ourselves the primæval innocence and happiness of a sinless state. Whatever it might have been, the narration of the Fall assures us of this important fact, that their condition in their new existence arose out of the state of their minds, in their former paradise. They desired evil, before they committed an act of sin, and thus began an unfitness for remaining in a spiritual and perfect state: they accomplished the act which was forbidden, and thus completed that unfitness. The account of the Fall shews us that the principle of evil being admitted into the heart, and ruling there, renders man unfit for the immediate presence of God, in a spiritual or heavenly condition, and therefore banishes us from heaven by its own nature: and those, therefore, who die under its influence, carry with them into an invisible state, an eternal incapacity for the enjoyment of that place or state, to which Christians will be exalted. As our first parents carried with them, into the new and fallen condition, into which sin had brought them, the memory of their transgression, the consciousness of the justice of God, and all the same powers of reasoning, will, reflection, and the other intellectual faculties, which they had before exercised and perverted-in like manner shall all their descendants enter upon their future life, with the consciousness of their relative situation with respect to the Almighty, with the memory of the actions done in their state of probation, and with all the powers
(a) mpn from an Arabic root, protuberavit flos, vel pressius, rosa quæ crepantem jam calycem effindit, indeque eminere, et protuberare incipit. Hinc transfertur ad oculus, nominatim catuli, quum eos prima vice aperit qua velut calyce etfiso patent, nam tunc vibrantissima catulorum acies, deinde hominum, quorum oculi protuberante acie perspicaces facti sunt. Nova V. T. clavis, Joan. Henric. Meisner, vol. i. ap. Gen. iii. 5.