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whether she may not, in the good providence of God, have received a suitable, perhaps a preponderating, compensation, in the accordant witness of all Christendom, to the truths that our religion is the religion of the God-Man, and that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh?
All this is plain enough, but the reader feels less sure where he is standing when he comes to Mr. Gladstone's remarks upon undenominational religion.
WHAT IS THE DRIFT OF THIS? Without venturing to fathom the mystery, I will
quote the following passage, and commend it to Mr. Diggle and Dr. Clifford to decide as to what Mr. Gladstone really means :
The Church, disabled and discredited by her divisions, has found it impracticable to assert herself as the universal guide. Among the fragments of the body, a certain number have special affinities, and in particular regions or conjunctures of circumstances it would be very easy to frame an undenominational ruligion much to their liking, divested of many salient points needful in the view of historic Christendom for a complete Christianity. Such a scheme the State might be tempted to authorise by law in public elementary teaching, nay, to arm it with exclusive and prohibitory powers as against other and more developed methods which the human conscience, sole legitimate arbiter in these matters, together with the Spirit of God, may have devised for itself in the more or less successful effort to obtain this guidance. It is in this direction that we have recently been moving, and the motion is towards a point where a danger signal is already lifted. Such an undenominational religion as this could have no promise of permanence. None from authority, for the assumed right to give it is the regation of all authority. None from piety, for it involves at the very outset the surrender of the work of the Divine kingdom into the hands of the civil ruler. None from policy, because any and every change that may take place in the sense of the constituent bodies, or any among them, will supply for each successive change precisely the same warrant as was the groundwork of the original proceeding. Whatever happens, let Christianity keep its own acts to its own agents, and not make them over to hands which would justly be deemed profane and sacrilegious when they came to trespass on the province of the sanctuary.
led to the compilation of this very important manifesto,
LORD SALISBURY'S CHALLENGE.
A circular letter has been addressed by me to three hundred leading Irish Americans in the principal cities of the United States with the consent and approval of the Irish National Federation of America.
THE IRISH-AMERICAN'S REPLY. This circular letter contained a series of questions to which answers were requested. Samples of these answers are printed in Mr. Grant's paper :
These responses, written out. by each of those to whom ther were sent, after calm retlection, aud vouched for by their signatures, are far more authoritative in their nature than even the resolutions of an Irish national convention, which, at most, would represent the combined intelligence of a committee on resolutions, consisting of three or five meo. They furnish an inside view of Irish-American opinion, and throw an interesting side light from the shores of America on the whole Irish question. They also unmistakably prove that those English Tories who have heretofore pictured IrisiAmericans as a band of desperadoes in active antagonism to the British Empire, and infused by an unchristian, an unciviliserl, and an undying hate against England and Englishmen, are very much mistaken in their estimate of Irish-American good sense and character.
Questions covering all the points commonly raised on Tory platforms was enclosed, together with an extract from Lori Salisbury's speech as cabled to America and published in the New York Sun.
Their responses received up to date, together with the circular in question, are given herewith, and speak for themselves. THE TRANSFORMATION WROUGHT BY W. E. GLADSTONE.
It is impossible in our limited space to do more than briefly call attention to the more salient features of this Irish-American declaration. Mr. Grant says:
It is remarkable with what unanimity all the letters receivel have testified the change of feeling that would arise in this country toward England by the granting of Home Rule. In other years there could have been only one answer to some of thes» questions, particularly that relating to hatred of England. That answer would be a loud, unanimous, and emphatic “ Yes," but owing to the Christian and civilising character of Mr. Gladstone's legislation, a great change has come over the spirit of Irish-Americans.
In substance the answers may be regarded as being summed up very accurately in the following paragraph :
“The granting of Home Rule would obliterate whatever hostilities there are, and would completely change any feelings entertained on the part of Irish-Americans into friendship for both the English Government and the English people."
THE GIST OF THE WHOLE MATTER. One very interesting point is the emphatic assertion of all the correspondents that the Irish-American would distinctly prefer that Ireland should remain an integral part of the British Empire rather than that it should become an independent sovereign state. Of course, the Unionists will stoutly deny that any value can be attached to these assertions, but those who know how fiercely IrishAmericans a very short time back would have repndiated any suggestion that there could be a hearty reunion between the English and Irish democracies will regard this article of Mr. Grant as a contribution to the discussion of the very first importance.
DO IRISH AMERICANS HATE ENGLAND ? AN IMPORTANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE Discussion.
In the American Journal of Politics for July Mr. T. Burke Grant has a very interesting article entitled “A New Ireland in America: a reply to Lord Salisbury.” The importance of the article does not depend upon Mr. T. Burke Grant, but upon the fact that the article may be regarded as the first official exposition of the views of the Irish National Federation of America.
A NATIONAL MANIFESTO. This article has been compiled by the authority of the Irish National Federation of America, with branches in every stato of the Union, and which have subscribed a sum of $87,000 to the McCarthy wing of the Irish Home Rule party. The materials have been supplied by three hundred of the leading Irishmen in business or professional circles in twenty-six states of the l'nion, including lIonourable William McAdoo, exmember of Congress, now assistant secretary of United States navy, Ilonourable W. Bourke Cochran, Doctor Thomas Addis Emmet, and others. It is the first notable expression of any authoritative body as to the terms upon which the Irish of America would make peace with England, and is intended as a reply to the objections of that section of anti-home rulers of whom the Marquis of Salisbury and Professor Goldwin Smith are the most notable examples, who state that the Irish people would be at the mercy of American agitators, who are in turn the most permanent and implacable enemies of imperial institutions and of British commerce.
It was Lord Salisbury's speech at Trowbridge which
SIR WILLIAM HARCOURT'S BUDGET.
The second is to apply the principle of graduation to this By LORD FARRER.
duty, by charging rates varying from 1 per cent. on £100 to "The Budget has been discussed at such length in the 8 per cent. on £1,000,000. Thus an estate worth £1000 will House of Commons that the general public has only a
pay £20; an estate worth £10,000 will pay £300; an estate very vague idea as to what its real provisions are. For
worth £100,000 will pay £5,500, and an estate worth more than confusing the public, next to having no discussion at all,
£1,000,000 will pay £80,000. Capitalised wealth will therefore nothing is so successful as too much discussion. It is
bear a much larger share of the national burdens than it has therefore a good thing that Lord Farrer, whose compe
ever yet done.
In addition to this reform of the Probate or Estate Duty, tence to deal with the question cannot be disputed, has
another inequality has been removed by imposiug the Succeswritten in the Contemporary Review an account of the sion Duty on realty, not as hitherto on the life interest of the leading features of the Budget. I omit his criticisms owner, but on the actual value of his whole interest calculated and reproduce here Lord Farrer's own summary of the as in the case of Probate or Estate Duty; and by making it ineasure. It will be handy for purpose of reference, and payable at once, instead of allowing it to be paid by instalwill enable many of our readers to understand for the ments, or, if not paid at once, by charging interest upon it. first time what the Budget really proposes. Lord Farrer
At the same time, real estate, whilst thus charged in the says:
same manner as personal property, has been relieved in respect of Income-tax by allowing a fair deduction in respect of
outgoings. What are the leading features of Sir W. Harcourt's Budget ? In the first place, he has swept away the complications of the Lord Farrer thus sums up the result of the Budget Saval Defence Act and of the Imperial Defence Act, and bas
scheme :brought us back to the original and simple plan of making the income of the year pay for the expenses of the year, and of
A novel, complicated, and dangerous system of finance bas learing the control of Parliament unfettered; without vainly
been swept away, and we have returned to the simple plan of attempting to forecast the exigencies of foreign politics, or the
paying as we go. This bas not been done without making ever-changing fashions of naval warfare. But to do this a posterity pay the debt which, according to the plan of the late debt of from tive to six millions had to be cleared off, and this
Government, would have been charged on their immediate has been done by suspending for three years the New Sinking Fund, which amounts to about £1,800,000 a year. In other The long-standing controversy concerning the Death Duties words, a new temporary debt has been converted into part of
has been settled by a plan, which if not absolutely free from the permanent deb the nation.
faults, has the great merit of taxing all kinds of property equally.
The principle of graduating taxation so that large properties But when the Tory debt had been thus cleared off, there was
shall pay not only more, but more in proportion to their size, still a deficit of between two and three millions to be met by than smaller properties, if not now introduced for the first increased taxation in the present year; and there will in all time, has for the first time been accepted as an acknowledged probability be a similar demand in future years. These and permanent principle of taxation. demands have been met by one of the largest schemes for the
The Income-tax has been raised, and at the same time its revision of taxation which we have known since the great proportionate incidence on the landowner and on the less Budgets of Sir R. Peel and Mr. Gladstone. One inillion has wealthy classes has been lightened. been raised by taxes on articles of consumption-viz., by an
By these various means a formidable deficit has been met, additional Cd. on beer and spirits.
and money has also been found to meet a new demand for An additional penny has been placed on the income
increased naval expenditure. tax, but various exemptions have been made reducing
Finally, the classes who call for increased naval and military
exp'nditure have had an excellent object-lesson. They have the pressure of the tax upon smaller incomes. The chief
been taught that those who call the tune must pay the piper. feature of the Budget, however, is its dealing with the
A VOICE ON THE OTHER SIDE.
From this it will be seen that Lord Farrer heartily have hitherto endeavoured in vain to penetrate the secret
approves of Sir William Harcourt's Budget. On the of the Chancellor :
other side, the Edinburgh Review declares that-
The more the new death duties are examined the more
gross appears to be the inequality of treatment they mete out Roughly speaking, these duties are twofold in character. to both properties and persons. It used once to be considered The one class is represented by Probate Duty. This duty a canon of wise taxation that it should be certain in amount. depends on the aggregate amount of the property passing on Under Sir William Harcourt's scheme a legatee of £1,000 from death, and is collected at once. Hitherto it has been confined a millionaire will have to pay an “estate duty” of £80, and to personalty. The second class is represented by the Legacy legacy duty-possibly another £100-on the consanguinity and Succession Duties. It depends on the actual amount of scale as well; whilst the legatee of £1,000 from a testator interest acquired by each recipient; it varies according to the worth less than £10,000 will have to pay an estate duty relationship of the recipient to the deceased; and it is in many of only £30, including legacy duty. Yet very probably the cases only collected when and as the individual interest of the first legatee may be a richer man than the last. Is this an Tecipient falls in, and then in some cases by instalments, which example of that grand principle of graduation "--of that of course in many cases involves postponement of receipts. It “ equality of sacritice"--of which democratic tinance is so has hitherto been applied both to personalty and realtv, but, proud ? A "just graduation "! Heaven save the mark! The whilst personalty has been taxed upon its full value, realty graduation is visible enough, but where is the justice? What, has hitherto only been taxed upon a valuation of the life again, so uncertain as the date when the property will have to interest of the successor.
provide the tax? One estate will go untaxed for sixty years. The present financial scheme extends the first of these two Another will, in consequence of rapid successions, have to pay classes of duties to realty and to settled personalty, and thus several years' protits several times over in the period of i does away with the principal exemption which has been so single average generation. The man who has sacrificed most much complained of. All property of whatever kind will income to improvements, and to bettering the condition of his henceforth be subject to this tax, henceforth to be called farms and his cottages, has in adding to the market value of “ Estate Duty." This is the first great reform.
the estate but subjected that estate to a larger exaction.
FEDERATION OF THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING RACE. Imperial Parliament, it would have to be determined how it THE PROPOSALS OF SIR GEORGE GREY.
should, with the best advantage to all concerned, be con
stituted. One of the most interesting articles which appear in
THE UNITED STATES LEAD THE WAY. the magazines this month is that by Sir George Grey in
Our American cousins have led the way and shown us the Contemporary Review on the “Future of the English
how to combine centralisation with decentralisation : Speaking Race." The veteran statesman, who has re It would not be necessary to adhere in any slavish way to turned from New Zealand to the Old Country, is as full it, but undoubtedly the United States of America have shown of aspirations and ideals as ever he was in the days of
one way in which the end we must try to gain can be reached.
No doubt faults might be found in the American system, but, his youth. He dreams dreams and sees visions as much
upon the whole, it ought to be regarded as furnishing us with as any young man within the four corners of the British
very useful inspiration. Canada has already federated herEmpire. The article, which takes the form of a conver self, and it would be an easy thing for her, whilst maintain
ing her own federation, to become part and parcel of the sation, is full of many beautiful passages and many
larger federation. I make no doubt that Australasia would pregnant thoughts.
come in colony by colony, or two at a time; anyhow, only she BIDDY AND THE EMPIRE.
would come. As to the Polynesian Islands, they would be
grouped together, and have their place and their representatives. Among the former take this tribute to the Imperial
True, New Caledonia and Tahiti belong to France, although services of the Irish servant girl. Sir George Grey if I and the native chiefs had been allowed to have our way, says :
they might many years ago have been preserved for this Has it ever occurred to you how beautiful a contribution the federation. But as it is, they do not make serious obstacles, Irish girl, driven to another land by starvation at home, has
and the force of attraction which the greater always has for
the less, would by-and-by find them amongst us. Samoa I made to the development of the English-speaking race? What a stretch of Anglo-Saxondom, her wages-hardly earned in
count secure in the end, thanks to the instinctive-possibly service, and sent home for the emigration of her father and the unconsciously instinctive-action of the United States of mother, her sisters and brothers-hias peopled.
She is a
America, which prevented those beautiful islands from winning illustration of how the hard taskmaster, necessity, has becoming a dependency of Germany. South Africa I enbeen our architect for building up new races. Ireland has been deavoured to federate in my own time there, and I could give tortured and beaten, and her daughters and sons through that reasons for saying that I believe I should have been successtorture, those blows, have done all this wondrous work for us.
ful had the Home Government allowed me to proceed. WHAT FEDERATION WOULD MEAN.
THE WORD OF THE NEW EPOCII. The article as a whole is devoted to an advocacy of the
I think that in local decentralisation, coupled with general
centralisation, there is the secret of future human stability and federation, first of the British Empire, and then of the
vitality. No doubt a federation, the like of which I suggest. whole English-speaking race. If this federation were would be something never before known. But then the attained, says Sir George :-
conditions calling for it have never arisen before; there has
not, in the past, been the necessity for such a thing. The It would mean the triumph of what, if it is carried out, is Ancients had not discovered the art of securing political the highest moral system man in all his history has known
representation, or what the Moderns call the principle of Christianity. And it would imply the dominance of probably
federation. With the changed conditions of the world, the the richest language that has ever existed—that belonging to necessity has arisen, and the call has been to the Anglo-Saxon. us Anglo-Saxons. Given a universal code of morals and a
Everything--the materials, the tools-is ready at our disposal. universal tongue, and how far would the step be to that last
In fine, we have reached an epoch of federation, which is, so great federation, the brotherhood of man, which Tennyson and
far as I can see, the new form of human economy. Burns have sung to us. OBSTACLES IN THE WAY.
To all intents and purposes war would by degrees die out Sir George Grey, however, is no ideal dreamer; he is a from the face of the earth-it would become impossible. The practical statesman who has administered many colonies, armed camp, which burdens the Old World, enslaves the and knows what he is talking about. He recognises that
nations, and impedes progress, would disappear. If you had
the Anglo-Saxon race, acting on a common ground, they could there are certain obstacles in the way of federation, and
determine the balance of power for a fully peopled earth. Such of these he says:
a moral force would be irresistible, and argument would take Probably two of the strongest are the appointment of
the place of war, in the settlement of international disputes. governors by the British Ministry, and the nomination of the As the second great result of the cohesion of the race, Upper Houses of the legislatures, through those governors.
should have life quickened and developed, and unemployed In order to remove them, he would pass an Act giving
energies called into action in many places, where they now lie
stagnant. every colony power to re-model its constitution without
THE EMPIRE AND THE REPUBLIC. any reference to its existing institutions, and by this
Sir George does not despair of bringing the American means he thinks he could get rid both of the appointed Republic into line with the British Empire, but he governors and the nominated Upper Chambers.
would at first content himself with working first for A BRITISH IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT.
eace and a good understanding between Washington and
London. He says: When he had done this the ground would be cleared
What we have to do is to come to a standing agreement for their representation at Westminster. He says:
that whenever any subject affecting us both arises, or when My preference would be for a British Imperial Parliament there is any question affecting the well-being of the world of one chamber, because I think that the most effective generally, we shall meet in conference and decide upon commor method of consiitutional government, whether it be in the action. An Anglo-American Council, coming quietly into local affairs of a State or in the affairs of a world-wide empire. operation when there wils cause, disappearing for the time But no one man should presume to a definite opinion in such when it had done its work, would be a mighty instrument for a matter, and given once that there was to be a British good.
PEACE AND LIFE.
THE NONCONFORMIST CONSCIENCE.
Such has been the history of the Evangelical party up to BY DISSENTERS OF Two KINDS.
less than a generation ago--lying, hypocrisy, calumny, and THE Nonconformist conscience seems to be in a fair
social ostracism were the only weapons known to this band of
successful counter-jumpers, cheesemongers, et id genus omne, way of getting itself established as the only practical
turned theologians, who terrorised the whole intellectual and religion left in the country, and those who protest against
social life of the English-speaking race. it may be regarded as Dissenters equally as well as Free Churchmen who object to the Anglican Establishment.
JOHN BULL: HYPOCRITE!
He is kind enough to admit that perhaps sometimes it THE CHARITY THAT THINKETH NO EVIL. The writer of an article in the Quarterly Review, who
was possible for an Evangelical not to be a rogue, but he
is careful to add he was always a hypocrite, wherein, Mr. would of course shudder with horror at being described
Bax tells us, he was a typical Englishman:as a Dissenter, thus expresses his contempt and disgust for the Nonconformists, whose power he dreads, chiefly
Probably he was in this respect like the rain-maker of the because of their hostility to the Church. After arguing
savage tribe, who is alleged to be at once dupe and cheat. in favour of the Establishment, he says :
Hypocrisy had been so part of his education from his cradle,
that he perhaps succeeded in persuading himself that he And what is to be set off against all the loss which Dis
believed in the dogmatic sweepings which formed his stock-inestablishment would certainly cause ? Nothing, except the
trade, and that his moral sense was so blunted by custom accrual to the State of that damnosa hereditas, a Church
as not to revolt against them. The Britisher has a special surplus, and the satisfaction of "an insolent and aggressive faction” animated by sectarian hatred. We use these words
relish for hypocrisy. He regularly enjoys it as a sweet morsel.
Other nations take their hypocrisy more or less sadly, as a conadvisedly; but we desire not to be misunderstood. We are far
ventional lie of civilisation, get it over as quickly as possible, from denying the many excellences of Protestant Noncon
like a black draught, and say little about it. The Angloformists, whether in Wales or elsewhere. They have main
Saxon chews it, and gets the full flavour out of it. Hence the tained faithfully for many generations, according to their
Anglo-Saxon race alone in the nineteenth century has produced lights, the great principlo that the State has no right to
an Evangelical party. intrude into the domain of conscience. They have been, and are still, as a body, frugal, industrious, and, although in a
THE NONCONFORMIST CONSCIENCE TO-DAY. sour and superstitious way, earnestly religious. They may
Having thus delivered his soul, Mr. Bax sums up the truly claim the praise of having dono much in the last
present condition of the question as follows:century to keep alive in this nation the conception of Christianity as a spiritual power, when it was too generally re The Nonconformist conscience to-day occupies itself largely garded as little more than a system of morality and an adjunet in the attempt to maintain intact and keep alive enthusiasm to respectability. But against these merits must be set fir the conventional class-morality of the bourgeois system. off their narrowness, their ignorance, their uncouthness, their This morality is a compound of the old Christian or Puritan meanness, their vulgarity. It is not too much to say that the individualist asceticism, and the exigencies of an economicallyRadical Dissenter, especially in Wales, is animated largely by individualist state of society. But the Nonconformist conhatred of the clergyman. And the reason is that the clergy science pretends to find in it the power of God and the wisdom man is a constant reminder to him of social inferiority. He
of God to all eternity. Sexual abstinence, euphemistically belongs, as a rule, to the lower middle class, for Dissent eschews called “social purity,” is its great pièce de résistance. In the the very poor, and a very little intellectual cultivation is present social and legal restrictions to the formation of free usually sufficient to lead a man to eschew Dissent. The clergy unions between the sexes, which are based on the natural but of the Church of England represent that cultivation. Henco perfectly prosaic desire of the ratepayer not to be saddled the Radical Dissenter's burning desire to disestablish them, with the maintenance of his neighbours' children, it pretends and to level them down, as he fondly hopes, to the range of the to see absolute moral laws, irrespective of social and economic Nonconformist ministry.
circumstances. But even apart from this, any breach of the
conventional ethics of middle-class society is sure of the reproThe Quarterly reviewer writes, no doubt, according to his light, which, as will be seen from that extract, is
bation of their specially constituted guardian, the “Non
conformist conscience "--whose methods are spying, caveshardly that of a farthing rushlight.
dropping, and other edifying practices of the amateur THE CANCER OF EVANGELICALISM.
detective. It would seek to avert the abuse of any parVery different is the other Dissenter, Mr. E. Belfort ticular thing by forcibly suppressing its In fine, Bax, who publishes in the Free Review what he calls
tho Nonconformist conscience remains like its forehears, the “Natural History of the Nonconformist Conscience."
the eternal quintessence of the hypocritical type of bourgeois Mr. Belfort Bax does not love either the Nonconformist
philistinism. Always bitterly opposed to liberty for others, it or his conscience, neither does he love his country; in
has known how to whine loud enough when its own liberties have
been infringed by some equally bigoted High Church vicar, with deed, it is difficult to discover whether he despises more
whom, bien entendu, it has been only too willing to join hands the British Empire or the men whose sturdy integrity,
to oppress the Freethinker. To the latter it was, until recently, resolute conrage, and shrewd common sense have given if possible, more merciless than any Roman or Anglican to the English-speaking race the leadership of the world. Sacerdotalist. He graciously vouchsafes to absolve the rank-and-file of Such is the pedigree of that “Nonconformist conscience” the old Puritans from the charge of hypocrisy. They which now arrogates to itself to dictate the character and really believed in their Bible and the arid and unlovely general walk and conversation of every man holding a public dogmas they founded on it, but the old genuine and mili position, and as far as possible the whole public policy of the tant Puritanism died before the end of the seventeenth
country. These be your gods, O middle-class Englishmen! century. Its traditions had their re-birth in the Wesleyan Considering that the Nonconformist conscience, so called, movement, which was eagerly seized by the middle class has limited itself to a modest request that law-breakers to point to the cancer of evangelicalism in English society. should not be law-makers, and that men convicted of The two salient features of evangelicalism were always infamous crimes in a court of justice should not be bibliolatry and sabbatarianism. There was another side to allowed to sit in the House of Commons to make laws for evangelicalism, namely, the practical carrying out of an the repression of vice and crime, Mr. Belfort Bax has ascetic life. Another aspect was philanthropy, which was evidently emancipated himself from even such a rudia kind of adjunct to soul-saving. Philanthropy was only mentary conscience as recognises the obligation to speak a plausible cloak for proselytism. Now, says Mr. Bax : the truth.
The moment of collision is now at hand. The ships wrecked. smoking and dripping with blood, are close to one another. Funnels and masts have been swept away. The ships have come through the wreath of smoke that shrouded them at the discharge of the heavy ordnance. The first stage of the encounter is over, and the survivors of the terrible slaughter are driving the battered hulls, low in the water, at one another. Some again are halting in this charge or falling behind, their captains dead or steering gear deranged. Such ships are the certain prey of their opponent's rams.
Mr. Wilson concludes by saying that the engagement, other things being equal, will be decided by the superiority of numbers. The loss of life will be very heavy, both from the foundering of ships and the slaughter of shells. He suggests that it might be well to build ships armed entirely with six and eight-inch quick-firing guns, which penetrate at one thousand yards any armour of twelve inches and under.
THE NEXT GREAT NAVAL BATTLE.
Mr. H. W. Wilson, in the United Service Magazine for August, has a very interesting paper describing the Naval battle of to-morrow. He says that in all probability the Trafalgar of the future will last ten minutes and 110 nore. His description of the probable course of events is somewhat awesome reading, as may be seen from the following extracts :
The curtain is raised and the tragedy begins. The period of the end-on attack will occupy fron two-and-it-half to three minutes, according to the speed with which the two fleets advance. They are not likely to exert their extreme power for several reasons-to keep some reserve for an emergency; to avoid break-downs, which are always possible when forced draught is employed; to relieve the stokers of the terrible discomfort of screwed-down stokeholds, and to allow older and slower ships to keep their place. They will in all probability approach one another at a combined speed of something like a wenty-eight knots an hour or even less. The two-and-a-half or three minutes that elapse before the fleets meet will be minutes of the most extreme and agonising tension ; in them the fate of the battle may be decided.
The compartments forward in that terrible blast of fire will be blown away or riddled like sieves. Watertight doors will be useless when there are no watertight walls. It is true that the armoured deck will protect the ship's vitals, but who can say what will be the effect of losing her en:!? She will probably be able no longer to maintain her speed, but drop out of the line, if she does not sink deep in the trough of the sea and slowly founder. Meantime what is the general effect of the tire that is being directed on her? The whole ship will be covered with débris : her appearance will be rapidly transformed by the loss of her funnels and the destruction of the superstructure and upper works.
The rain of melinite shells which will be poured from guns firing smokeless powder will wreck all parts of the ship outxide the heavy armour. In three minutes six 6-in. guns can discharge seventy-two projectiles. If 20 per cent. of these strike the target their effect on it will be most destructive. It is during this period that powerful bow fire will be of the greatest importance, enabling the captain to get the most out of his ship. Woe to vessels which are weak in this respect.
Ships like the Benbow or Baudin, where the barbettes are insufficiently supported, the explosion of shells under them may bring them down with their weight of seven hundred or eight hundred tons. If once they give way, the armoured deck cannot support them, and they may be expected to go clean through the bottom of the ship, involving her destruction in their downfall. The result of the destruction of the funnels seems to have escaped notice. The draught would fail, the ship be filled with smoke, and the decks not improbably set on tire.
The extinction of the electric light may be looked for, and the ship's interior will be plunged into darkness. The work of the captain will be rendered ten times inore difficult than ever, from the wreckage of the chart-house above him and the hail on the conning-tower itself. If the guns in the auxiliary battery are not well protected from a raking fire and isolated by splinter-proof traverses, the carnage amongst the men there will be awful. One mélinite shell might render it untenantable, as the fumes, quite apart from the effects of the explosion, ure suffocating.
But supposing all goes well, the big guns will be discharged at five or six hundred yards. What the effect of the detonation of their huge shells in the ship will be it is hard to picture. They will probably, like the explosion of a powder magazine, reduce the already wrecked ship to a hopeless chaos, destroying all her organisation and the nerve thread that conveys the captain's orders to the engine-room. Even if the armour resists the blow the shock to the ship will be torritic. Striking the turret of an ironclad one of these projectiles would probably, if it did not hurl it overboard, stun or kill every man in it and wreck all its complicated mechanism.
THE BIBLE AND THE MONUMENTS.
WHAT IS PROVED AND WHAT IS NOT. In the Edinburgh Review a writer endeavours to sum up the net result of the addition to our knowledge by the recent discoveries of tablets and monuments which throw light upon the Old Testament history. The reviewer says that the external sources of confirmation for the history of Israel have become numerous and conclusive, but probably we do not possess a tenth of the information which will hereafter be gathered by prosecuting the same line of research. He is careful, however, to warn us that the discoveries up to the present time are far from verifying the whole of the Bible narrative :-
But it is necessary to be entirely honest in stating what the monuments do not recoril, and in estimating the character of the legends which we meet in cuneiform tablets. The Assyrians, like the Hebrews, believed in an underworld of the dead, and in angel messengers from caven. They, too, had prophets and seirs; they sa w visions, and dreamed dreams. They told wonderful tales of miracles which the gods had wrought in the former days, though these never enter into the cont:mporary history of their victories. The Persiaus believed in ancient heroes who crossed great rivers dryshod; in a prophet who received from Gol a Divine Law on the summit of the Holy Mount; and in other heroes at whose command the sun stood still in Heaven. We read of these things in the Avesta; and in later Persian works we read of a future Messiah, of a Resurrection of the Just, of a time of trouble and of future triumph for the pious. The cosmogony of Persia is not the only point of contact between Hebrew and Aryau beliefs. The figure of Satan, which appears in the Bible only in works of the Persian period, formed a most important element in the Mazdean religion.
The monuments have as yet told us nothing of an Eden or of the Fall of Man; but they have transferred the infant liero floating in his bulrush cradle, from the Nile to the Euphrates ; and this story is also found in the Zendavesta at a later date, No monuments as yet speak of the Exodus; no records of Moses, or David, or Solomon have been found. The earliest known notice of the Hebrews (unless they appear in the Tı-11 el Amarna tablets) belongs to the period of their later kings. It is from their own monuments in the future that we must hope to learn more. The cuneiform tablets and the Moabit Stone show that, not only was Jehovah the sacred name among Hebrews in the ninth century B.C., but that it was also widely used in Syria and Assyria from about the same pericul
Nor do the monuments help us to explain difficulties in the Old Testament where these are internal. The chronological errors of the Book of Kings (as they may be justly called on the evidence of self-conflicting statements) may easily have arisen in copying, during the lapse of centuries, but the historical difliculties of some of the later books, especially Esther, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, are not so easily explainel. Fresh light may be thrown on them by future discovery,