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means making righteous, has been employed in Scripture to signify the state of acceptance into which we are introduced by the pardon of our sins. And it is strongly held by St. Paul that we are justified by faith (Rom. iii. 28, v. 1), not by works. Were we justified, admitted to pardon, by our works, we should be our own redeemers, not the redeemed of Christ. But there are further and unwarranted developments of these ideas, which bring us into the neighbourhood of danger.

11. I have said that, when the vicarious sufferings of Christ are so regarded that we can appropriate their virtue, while disjoining them even for a moment from moral consequences in ourselves, we open the door to imputations on the righteousness of God. But the epoch of pardon for our sins marks the point at which that appropriation is effected; and if pardon be, even for a moment, severed from a moral process of renovation, if these two are not made to stand in organic and vital connection with one another, that door is opened through which mischief will rush in. But in Holy Scripture there is no opening of such a door; no possibility of entrance for such an

error.

12. Pardon, on the other hand, has both a legitimate and a most important place in the Christian scheme. What is that place ? and what is pardon itself? Is it arbitrary and disconnected from the renewing process, or is it, on the other hand, based upon a thorough accord with the ethical and the practical ideas which form the heart of the scheme? Is it like an amnesty proclaimed by some human, probably some revolutionary Government without any guarantee or condition as to the motives it will set in action, or is it the positive entry of the strong man into the house which he is to cleanse and to set in order, while he accompanies his entry with a proclamation of peace and joy founded upon the work which he is to achieve therein ?

positions which may be considered as embodying his latest views as to the relations between God and Man :

1. We are born into the world in a condition in which our nature has been depressed or distorted or impaired by sin; and we partake by inheritance this ingrained fault of our race. This fault is in Scripture referred to a person and a period, which gives definiteness to the conception; but we are not here specially concerned with the form in which the doctrine has been declared.

2. This fault of nature has not abolished freedom of the will, but it has caused a bias towards the wrong.

3. The laws of our nature make its excellence recoverable by Divine discipline and self-denial, if the will be duly directed to the proper use of these instruments of recovery.

4. A Redeemer, whose coming was prophesied simultaneously with the fall, being a person no less than the Eternal Son of God, comes into the world, and at the cost of great suffering establishes in His own person a type, a matrix so to speak, for humanity raised to its absolute perfection.

5. He also promulgates a creed or scheme of highly influential truths, and founds therewith a system of institutions and means of grace, whereby men may be recast, as it were, in that matrix or mould which He has provided, and united one by one with His own perfect humanity. Under the exercising forces of life, their destiny is to grow more and more into His likeness. He works in us and by us; not figuratively but literally. Christ, if we answer to His grace, is, as St. Paul said, formed in us. By a discipline of life based on the constitutive principles of our being, He brings us nearer to Himself: that which we have first learned as lesson distils itself into habit and character; it becomes part of our composition, and gradually, through Christ, ever neutralising and reversing our evil bias, renews our nature in His own image.

6. We have here laid down for us, as it would seem, the essentials of a moral redemption; of relief from evil as well as pain. Man is brought back from sin to righteousness by a holy training; that training is supplied by incorporation into the Christ who is God and man; and that Christ has been constituted, trained, and appointed to His office in this incorporation, through suffering. His suffering, without any merit of ours, an! in spite of our guilt, is thus the means of our recovery and sanctitication. And His suffering is truly vicarious ; for if He had not thus suffered on our behalf, we must have suffered in our own helpless guilt.

7. This appears to be a system purely and absolutely ethical in its basis; such vicarious suffering, thus viewed, implies no disparagement, even in the smallest particulars, to the justice and righteousness of God.

8. It is not by any innovation, so to speak, in His scheme of government that the Almighty brings about this great and glorious result. What is here enacted on a gigantic scale in the kingdom of grace, only repeats a phenomenon with which we are perfectly familiar in the natural and social order of the world, where the good, at the expense of pain endured by them, procure benefits for the unworthy. The Christian atonement is, indeed, transcendent in character, and cannot receive from ordinary sources any entirely adequate illustration, but yet the essence and root of this matter lies in the idea of good vicariously conveyed. And this is an operation appertaining to the whole order of human things, so that, besides being agreeable to justice and to love, it is also sustained by analogies lying outside the Christian system, and indeed the whole order of revelation.

9. The pretexts for impugning the Divine character in connection with the redemption of man are artificially constructed by detaching the vicarious efficacy of the sufferings of our Lord from moral consequences, wrought out in those who obtain the application of His redeeming power by incorporation into llis Church or Body. Take away this unnatural severance, and the objections fall to the ground.

10. And now we come to the place of what is termed pardon in the Christian system. The word justification, which in itself

NOT PERFECT, BUT PERFECTIBLE. Incidentally in discussing this question, Mr. Gladstone expresses, by-the-way, his belief that the human nature of Christ was not perfect, but perfectible, alleging in defence of this, what some will regard as heresy, the statement of Luke, that Christ “Grew in wisdom and stature and in favour with God and man.” Referring again to the incarnation, he says:

The Incarnation brought righteousness out of the region of cold abstractions, clothed it in flesh and blood, opened for it the shortest and the broadest way to all our sympathies, gave it the firmest command over the springs of human action, by incorporating it in a person, and making it, as has been beautifully said, liable to love.

Included in this great scheme, the doctrine of free pardon is not a passport for sin, nor a derogation from the moral order which carefully adapts reward and retribution to desert, but stands in the closest harmony with the component laws of our moral nature.

THE TEACHING OF THE ANGLICAN CHURCH. It may be interesting, in view of Mr. Gladstone's attempt to re-state the doctrine of the Atonement, to compare his propositions with the formula with which the various Churches have endeavoured to express what they considered to be the truth of the matter. First let us take Mr. Gladstone's own Church, and this is what the Prayer Book says on the subject. The definitions are given in the Thirty-nine Articles :

The second Article says that Christ “truly suffered, was crucified, dead, and buried, to reconcile His Father to us, and to be a sacrifice, not only for original guilt, but also for all actual sins of men.” The eleventh Article says: “We are accounted righteous before God only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, by Faith.” The thirty-first Article, which is headed “ Of the one Oblation of Christ finished upon the Cross," tells us “ The Offering of Christ once made is that perfect redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction, for all the

been discharged from his shoulders, then again the moral laws are in danger. For those laws will not for a moment tolerate that grace and favour be disjoined from reformation, justification from repentance and conversion of the heart.

Such are the openings from error, which are due to the shortcomings of individuals, or of factions in the Church.

sins of the whole world, and there is none other satisfaction for sin, but that alone.”

IS IT FOUR-SQUARE WITH MR. GLADSTONE'S ? An old theological student writing in the Daily News declares that Mr. Gladstone's opinions are not those of the Church of England. He says:

For as I read the twelve carefully-reasoned and elaborate propositions in which he justifies the ways of God to man, I find no mention, no hint, of the Saviour's merits being attributed to us, which in the older days at least was the very core and essence of the doctrine Mr. Gladstone defends. The eleventh article puts this aspect of the atonement in the clearest language. “We are accounted righteous before God only for the merit of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, by faith.” Yet of this mode of justification-justification by the merits and imputed righteousness of our Saviour--there is not one single trace in Mr. Gladstone's argument. His doctrine of the Atonement is in fact a new one. It is not that of the Church of England.

QUOD ERAT DEMONSTRANDUM. The last sentence of Mr. Gladstone's sermon is as follows:

But I desist from this strain of observation, and bring these remarks to a close with the suggestion that, according to the established doctrine of Holy Scripture and of the Christian Church, the great Sacrifice of Calvary does not undermine or enfeeble, but illuminates and sustains, the moral law; and that the third proposition of Mrs. Besant, with which alone we are here concerned, is naught.

THE PRESBYTERIAN DOGMA. Neither would it seem to more conservative interpreters to be that of the Presbyterian Church of England.

The belief of the Presbyterian Churches on the subject is expressed in the Assembly's Shorter Catechism, in the answers to the three following questions :

How doth Christ execute the office of a priest?

Christ executeth the office of a priest, in His once offering up of Himself a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice, and to reconcile us to God, and in making continual intercession for us.

Wherein did Christ's humiliation consist?

Christ's humiliation consisted in His being born, and that in a low condition, made under the law, undergoing the miseries of this life, the wrath of God, and the cursed death of the cross; in being buried, and continuing under the power of death for a time.

What is justification ?

Justification is an act of God's free grace, wherein He pardoneth all our sins, and accepteth us as righteous in His sight, only for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us, and received by faith alone.

Most people reading his carefully balanced sentences would come to the conclusion that he would be in accord with Mrs. Besant if the popular way of presenting the doctrine of the Atonement were to be the only medium in which it can be presented to the believer. So far from this being the case, he maintains that he makes good the following thesis:-

This dispensation of Atonement is part and parcel of the Incarnation; and the Incarnation, undertaken in order to suffer, by the Man of Sorrows acquainted with grief, is mystery but is not injustice; does not involve the idea of injustice, and is not liable to the charge.

A LESSON FOR THEOLOGIANS. He admits that Mrs. Besant's book will do good, but not in the way she intended it. As for instance, this statement of her objection to the crude popular notion of the Atonement may lead theologians to express their teaching more carefully.

And we welcome aid, from Mrs. Besant or any one else, which recalls us from rashness to vigilance and care. Again, and in closer proximity to the present subject, we have seen that even now representations are sometimes made which seem to treat the Atonement of Christ not as a guarantee, but rather as a substitute for holiness. For if sin, which is undoubtedly a debt, be nothing but a debt, if it be so detached from the person of the debtor that when it is paid it matters not by whom, that then the debtor can no more be challenged, and remains as he was before in all things except that a burden has

LIBRARY MANAGEMENT.

“ THE DAWN OF A NEW EPOCH.” For some weeks the Public Library of Clerkenwell has been the subject of considerable discussion owing to the interesting experiment in library management now on trial there. Since May 1st free access to the shelves of the lending library has been accorded to all registered borrowers who wish to take out books for home reading. The Library of July thus refers to the beginning of this new epoch :

A hundred years hence the authorities of the greater municipal London, which will then be carrying on the work now only attempted by the present congeries of village communities, will pass a resolution ordering a tablet to be fixed to the wall of a quaint three-cornered building in Clerkenwell, to commemorate the fact that here, in 1894, the revolution hal begun which in a few years had changed the entire system of public libraries throughout the land. For here in Clerkenwell had been found, for the first time, the liberality combined with courage which enabled the administrators of a public library to throw off the traditions of the past, and to submit to the test of actual practice the theory that the British democracy was honest enough and enlightened enough to use its own books without abusing them or stealing them.

Up to May 1st, 1894, in spite of all the fine things that have been said to the British working-man by the promoters and administrators of libraries as to the elevating influence of literature, they have in practice shown that they considered it necessary to keep the British working-man at a distance, and to treat him, indeed, with that suspicion and care which is only excusable on the part of bankers in dealing with strangers at the change counter, or on the part of railway companies in giving out tickets to the public.

At Clerkenwell, the system in vogue in other libraries is simply reversed, for the public are now inside the counter, and the attendants outside. Each borrower, who is provided with the usual ticket entitling him to borrow books, instead of being invited to wade through a catalogue, and then to pore over an indicator in search of the many books that are “out,” is asked to walk inside, and select a book from those that are “in."

The system of registration is equally simple, and there can be little doubt that the new departure will be appreciated by the ratepayers and frequenters of the Clerkenwell library, and that the new plan will before long be adopted elsewhere with success.

Science and Art, edited by Mr. John Mills, is a useful magazine for those interested in technical education and the work of the Royal College of Science at South Kensington. ?

SOME ANARCHIST PORTRAITS.

BY AN ANARCHIST ARTIST. MR. CHARLES MALATO contributes a very remarkable paper to the Fortnightly Review on the Anarchist assassins who have recently been guillotined in France. He knew most of them; he belongs to their party; he admires and praises them even while compelled to admit their mistakes. His paper is one of singularly tragic interest. He makes heroes of them all, and his article will not tend to increase the love with which our English method of dealing with the Anarchists is regarded by foreign powers. Mr. Malato says:

THREE TYPICAL ASSASSINS. Ravachol and Vaillant, born deep down in the stratum of the disinherited, represented the one force of character, the other sentimentality. A third was about to appear, of a very different order. Theirs were simple-hearted natures, his was purely intellectual. Unlike his predecessors, although he fought against the bourgeoisie, to which by birth he belonged, he felt much more disdain than love for the people. This was Emile Henry.

Ravachol represented the vgiorously-cast, primitively simpleminded man, who, plunged in darkness and suddenly catching a glimpse of a light, marched towards it, his eyes yet troubled, without stopping at the obstacles that barred his way. Vaillant represented the man of heart who had been driven to extremities and yet remained humane even in his attempt. Emile Henry appeared before his judges---some persons whose

are already forgotten-as Saint Just would have appeared before Monsieur Prudhomme.

Mr. Malato is convinced that social problems need at certain times to be solved by force. He loves and admires those who attempt such solutions, and he feels indignant when ignorant journalists bestow on all his co-religionists the title of miscreants.

A RELIGION DIVORCED FROM ETHICS. The religion of these strange mortals is entirely divorced from ordinary ethics.

Here is a specimen of Ravachol's written thought: a man, when he is in work, is without the necessaries of life, what can he do when he is out of work? His only course is to die of hunger. In that case, a few words of pity will be uttered over his corpse. Let others be content with such a fate. I could not be. I might have begged. It is cowardly and degrading. It is even punished by law, which regards misery as a crime. I preferred to turn contrabandist, coiner of counterfeit money, and murderer."

But although the Anarchist stole, and cheated, and murdered, his admiring friend notes that he did not keep the stolen money for his personal use, and did not even smoke!

SENSIBILITY AND CONSCIENCE. Vaillant, the tender and energetic hero who flung the bomb that burst in the Chamber of Deputies, he regards with intense affection. This man was a grocer's assistant, who took up the cause of Socialism with all his soul, as, eighteen hundred years earlier, he would have taken up Christianity. He bad a singularly beautiful voice, which was heard at its best when he chanted revolutionary hymns or sentimental ballads. Some popular pamphlets fertilised his eager brain with ideas as yet unknown to him, and made his loving heart beat fast. He was also, it seems, profoundly humane, so much so, that instead of bullets he only put nails into his bomb! He was a man of extreme sensibility, with a scrupulous and tender conscience. After he had been condemned to (leath for the crime in the Chamber, his delicacy of feeling was so conspicuous that he wrote to excuse himself for having in a private letter, which had become

public property, called by her Christian name the wife of an Anarchist who had done him service.

A TERRIBLE AND SPLENDID FIGURE. Emile Henry, the man who exploded the bomb in the Café Terminus, and manufactured the bomb which killed six persons, the secretary and police agents, at the mining company of Carmaux, was guillotined when he was only twenty-one. He was an insatiable enthusiast of science, he fell into the abyss of spiritualism, believing in astrology, and exulted in the belief that the phenomena of occultism would help, not to contradict, but to anticipate science. He entered a linen-draper's shop, shared his salary with his less fortunate fellows, and lent his little room for several weeks to a poor houseless family, His nervous system was refined and delicate, and he had à very lively perception of all physical and moral impressions. At his trial he was a terrible and splendid. figure.

THE IMPECCABLE SANTO. Of Caserio Santo, who killed President Carnot, Mr. Malato says:

He lived the inward life alone. I have seen some of his letters; they are full of mistakes in spelling, but they reveal an astonishing power of logic and stability of idea.

Santo, who was the very type of the regicide, a sober and continent young man, with a shapely round head and a charming smile, was the Harmodius of his generation, and impeccable from a revolutionary point of view. Such, says Mr. Malato, were the men of summary action who took lives, but also sacrificed their own.

Even in Ravachol, the most debated of these terrorists, we find fine moral traits. There is blood involved, certainly, in their deeds, but sincere conviction too, and new societies are founded on conviction as well as with blood when the old. societies are decaying.

He concludes his paper by reminding those who call an Anarchist assassin malefactor, that that same word was used about Jesus of Nazareth. But unfortunately for the parallel, the Nazarene showed His humanity in more practical methods than by substituting nails for bullets in the dynamite bomb which was exploded in the midst of unsuspecting and defenceless legislators.

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Why Beggars abound in Liverpool. “THE Prevailing Jealousy of Wealth " is the title of an article in the Engineering Magazine, wherein Mr. W. N. Black glorifies the race for wealth with characteristic American fervour, and declares that men like Pullman and Jay Gould have "created” far more wealth for the community than they have ever won for themselves or their children. To check the millionaire in his accumulations would be to stunt social progress. Mr. Black then adduces this astounding illustration of his thesis :

Liverpool, in England, we are told, is swarming with beggars. Apologists for Liverpool will say that this is true only because Liverpool is a seaport town. But other seaport towns are not troubled with a plethora of beggars. The cause of the difference is right here : Liverpool is the one city in the world where disguised but practical socialism is rampant, and where the battle of life seems to have been abandoned; or, if not abandoned, where the retreat from the field is most demoralised and disastrous. From Liverpool we hear of municipal docks, municipal warehouses, municipal railways, municipal tenement-houses, and heaven knows what not of municipal humbuggery. The Liverpool capitalist seems to have gone to Manchester or retired, and there is nothing left for a beggar to do but to beg. By the time New York comes to her municipal railway she may have as many beggars as Liverpool.

IN PRAISE OF ANARCHY.

Plus THE (PRIVATE) POLICEMAN! MR. WORDSWORTH DONISTHORPE writes in the New Review " In Defence of Anarchy,” but the anarchy le defends is a very meek and mild affair. It upholds private property and police protection. "No anarchist believes in the Ishmaelitish anarchy of the tiger."

Indeed, anarchists are of all men the least aggressive. Their whole political philosophy may be summed up in the words, “Let be.” They hold that every man has a right to do whatever he chooses, so long as he does not thereby violate the equal right of his fellows. This is the creed of liberty.

In an anarchist community, the extinction of fires would be undertaken by private enterprise; the fire in

phase of social development." On the question of resistance to authority he exclaims :

Your very House of Commons was born in sedition. Do Montfort was a rebel, a traitor. Your glorious Magna Charta was illegally forced from the supreme authority. What of John Hampden who dared to refuse the ship-money demanded by God's Anointed ? What of the Mayflower ? Even New England cannot boast of a more law-abiding parentage than the old country. , The Pilgrim Fathers were law-breakers and sedition-mongers.

“ ELECTRICITY DIRECT FROM COAL.” This, Dr. William Ostwald informs us in the Engineering Magazine, is as yet only a problem, but the greatest problem in electro-chemistry; and the solution is within our horizon. At present the steam-engine utilises only

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Anarchist

Stutz From Kladderadatsch.] THE CROCODILES TAKE REFUGE UNDER ENGLAND'S WINGS.

[August 26, 1894. surance companies supporting engines and brigade and one-tenth of the heat stored in the coal. The production quenching all fires indiscriminately. Police protection of a cheaper energy is what is wanted. would also be supplied by private enterprise :

That path must be discovered by the electro-chemist. If we

produce a galvanic element which furnishes electrical energy The cost of a good establishment of watchmen and police from coal and the oxygen of the air, and furnishes it in would be ascertained. Persons wishing to insure themselves

amounts somewhat in proportion to the theoretical values, then - or their families against assault, battery and murder, would we shall face a technical revolution in comparison with which pay the required premium, and would receive the compensation the one following the invention of the steam-engine will be agreed upon in case of injury. Moreover, it would be the

dwarfed into insignificance. Think of the incomparably simple interest of the voluntary associations to do in addition precisely and elastic distribution of clectric energy and imagine the what the State does now by way of prevention.

change in the appearance of our iudustrial centres. No smoke, Anarchy would certainly “breed a class of social no soot, no boilers, no steam-engines, nay, even no fire, for fire spongers who would shirk their own fair share of public

will be needed only in the few processes which cannot be

accomplished by electricity, and of those there will be fewer burdens and take full advantage of their generous neigh

every day. How the galvanic element in question will be conbours. This is admitted. But it is the only set-off structed, of course, cannot even be surmised at present. ... against the many crying evils and abominations of In its chemical process such an element would be like an ordicompulsory taxation.” The writer also concedes that “a

nary stove. Coal is shovelled in at one side and oxygen

admitted from the other; carbonic acid escapes as product of man may be a good anarchist and yet admit the need for

the reciprocal action. A suitable electrolyte has still to be a certain amount of State interference in the present added to bring about the electrical process.

WHAT MR. GOLDWIN SMITH SAYS.

to find in the grudging admissions of Mr. Smith confirmaA REVIEW OF “IF CHRIST CAME TO CHICAGO.” tion of almost everything I say. He only cavils at his

own misconceptions of my contentions, and the more he MR. GOLDWIN Smith's article on my book (“If Christ

does of that the better. Came to Chicago ”) appears in the Contemporary Review.

ALL ALIKE.” (No, No!)
A GENTLE CORRECTION.
It begins badly, starting off with a statement which

I am glad to see that it is Mr. Smith's personal belief

that the worship of money is not more intense in America is, unfortunately, quite false. Mr. Smith, referring to the

than it is elsewhere. It is always pleasant to find any publication of the “ Maiden Tribute,” says that when proof of the facts which I stated in that report was

one who takes a more cheering view of the situation than

you do yourself. But it may be remarked that Mr. Smith's demanded, no proof was forthcoming. This is abso

observation may not imply more faith in America, but lutely false. When proof of the statements which I

less faith in other places. Faith, indeed, is not a characmade was demanded, the question was referred to the Mansion House Committee, when I produced before

teristic of this lugubrious Jeremiah; for he declares that

the universal corruption which prevails in the municipal one of the most distinguished tribunals that ever was empanelled, evidence which led them to publish to the

life in Chicago is only the common story of municipal

government by popular election. It is evident that world a statement that “we are satisfied that, taken as a whole, the statements in the Pall Mall Gazette are

Mr. Smith does not look into Spring Gardens when he substantially true.” That declaration-the unanimous

pays his occasional visit to London. His distrust and

dislike of popular government comes out in every page. finding of the Committee after four days' careful examination of witnesses-bears the names of R. T. Reid, Q.C.,

For instance, he says : who acted as the representative of the law; the Arch

The assessment dodging on the part of the rich which bishop of Canterbury; the Bishop of London; Cardinal

Mr. Stead most justly denounces, is susceptible of a sinister Manning, and Mr. Samuel Morley, the Nonconformist.

palliation as the evil resource of property defending itself

against mob taxation. If the full amount of taxes legally due When, therefore, Mr, Goldwin Smith declares that no

were paid it might only be squandered by incompetence or proof of my statements was forthcoming, he himself

devoured by corruption. makes a statement which he cannot prove, because it is

PREACHING TO THE CONVERTED. directly contrary to fact.

I am glad to find that Mr. Smith is willing to go any WHY OVERLOOK THE PORK BUTCHERS ?

length with me in denunciation of gambling. Despite this unlucky beginning, Mr. Smith's review,

Mr. Stead is perfectly right in holding that racing is as like everything that proceeds from his brilliant pen, is much gambling as poker or roulette, though under pretence of readable. Some of his criticisms are rather amusing, breeding horses which, preternaturally fast for a mile, in a but hardly pertinent to the occasion. For instance, week, or perhaps in a day's run, would be beaten by an Indian there is a suggestion that I would have done well to have pony. England has been converted by the Turf into a vast looked into a pork factory, in order to see pigs turned

gambling-table, as any one who takes up a local newspaper into sausages, not only by a process singularly rapid,

may see. Many bet who know nothing of a horse, and perhaps

do not see the race. but also scrupulously humane. It did not occur to me

A greater moral curse has seldom fallen that Chicago butchers stood in need of a tribute from

upon a nation. The infection spreads to the United States, to

the British Colonies, and every country over which British me, either in regard to their rapidity or their humanity or

society has influence. Mr. Stead would be a real benefactor if other processes. This, however, is one of the things which,

he could get up a crusade against the Turf. it seems, is wanting to the completeness of my picture of

Considering that Mr. Stead has been trying to get up Chicago. It is hard, he says, upon a city to be repre

this crusade against the Turf for the last three years, this sented by its sewers, and this, he says, is the effect of my

critic can hardly be said to be up to date, picture of Chicago. Yet if a community is being poisoned hy sewer gas, it is more important to survey the sewers

A REVIEWER REVIEWED. than to praise the temples. And that I did not

Of course, Mr. Smith does not approve of my views as exaggerate the municipal corruption of Chicago, Mr. to the functions of the Church. He says: Goldwin Smith does not attempt to suggest. On the

Is revealed Christianity true or is it not? If it is, the contrary, he says: “All that Mr. Stead says about the

functions of a Church are Christian communion, teaching, and municipal corruption of Chicago we are thoroughly worship. If it is false, let not the churches be kept in existprepared to believe." And, further, he does not think ence as relief associations of an equivocal kind, as donkeyit possible to form an exaggerated conception of the engines to the trade-union, or as targets for the moral satirist. political corruption of Chicago and of the State of Let them be abolished, and let the city council be recognised, Illinois. But, as I strictly confine myself to Chicago, I in accordance with Mr. Stead's theory, as the true Church. do not see that Mr. Smith's complaints have much All this is fairly smart, but hardly up to Mr. Goldwin foundation,

Smith's usual standard. When all is said that he endeaCHICAGO IS NOT AMERICA.

vours to say what does his criticism amount to? At the Chicago, he tells us, cannot be taken as a type of worst, that our ideas of churches and millionaires differ, American character or commonwealth; and he declares which I do not for a moment deny, and that my book is that it is unfair to take Chicago as a complete specimen not an exhaustive encyclopedic description of the whole of American life and character, or a trustworthy index of Chicago in the first place, and of the American Republic of the probable progress of the American commonwealth. in the next. But in this also I agree with him. But whoever said it was ? Certainly not the author of As Mr. Goldwin Smith only takes exception to a metathe book “If Christ Came to Chicago," who neither phor without pointing out a single error in fact or even directly nor indirectly has ever asserted that Chicago or attempting to expose any misrepresentation as to the New York was an adequate measure of the habits of the actual condition of things in Chicago, I think we may American people or of the sinews or safeguards of the regard him as a Balaam who has blessed what he was American commonwealth. Indeed, it will not be difficult expected to curse.

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