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bunkers replenished is obviated. The genie of frost can be summoned at a touch, and at a slightly smaller cost. Condensed anhydrous ammonia is supplied in mains, and its action when turned on is thus explained :

Amnionia under atmospheric pressure boils at - 28 degrees Fahrenheit, and, at ordinary temperatures, is kept liquid by a pressure of ten or twelve atmospheres. In the process of refrigeration, anhydrous ammonia, compressed to liquid form, is allowed to escape very slowly through a minute valve into a comparatively large pipe, called the expansion coil, where, relieved of pressure, it expands to a gaseous form and, in doing so, absorbs heat from its surroundings, leaving them cold.

The cycle of operation is completed by the recovery of this gas, and its recondensation by pressurc, in a vessel surrounded by cooling water to remove the latent heat given out in the process of condensation.

T'he gas is either returned to the central station free and then recompressed, or is absorbed on leaving the absorption coil by weak aqua ammonia, and then at the centro liberated by distillation.

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MR. ALFRED AUSTIN ON IRELAND. THE Poet's FIRST IMPRESSION OF LAND AND PEOPLE.

“ That damnable country phrase once used by an irate statesman-is the title which Mr. Alfred Austin chooses to set off by way of contrast his glowing panegyric on Ireland in Blackwood. He has been to the Emerald Isle for the first time, and returns wistful for the next visit. His cry is, “Go to Ireland and go often. It is a delightful country to travel in.”

I do not willingly allow that Ireland is lovelier still than England, but it is. One has said with Æneas, only too often, when Spring came round, Italiam petimus ? Yet are not Bantry Bay and Clon-Mac-Nois as beautiful, and as hallowed by the past, even as the Gulf of Spezia and the cyclopean walls of Sora? ... Neither the Yorkshire nor the Devonshire cliffs can show anything comparable in stern beauty and magnificence with the west coast of Ireland. . .

Even "Irish rain is warm as an Irish welcome, and soft as an Irish smile.”

THE TAKE-IT-AISY THEORY OF LIFE. The Irish people he does not find as lively as repute would have it.

I cannot put aside the impression that sadness is the deepest note in the Irish character. Poverty seems natural, and even congenial, to them. Life is not to them, as to Englishmen or Scotsmen, a business to conduct, to extend, to render profitable. It is a dream, a little bit of passing consciousness on a rather hard pillow,-the hard part of it being the occasional necessity for work, which spoils the tenderness and continuity of the dream.

This so-mauy-horse-power and perpetual-catching-of-trains theory of life is not one that is accepted by the Irish people; and I do not think it ever will be. ... The saying, “ Take it aisy; and if you can't take it aisy, take it as aisy as you can,” doubtless represents their theory of life; and, for my part, if it were a question either of dialectics or of morals, I would sooner have to defend that view of existence than the so-many-horsepower one.

LITTLE IMAGINATION OR SENSE OF BEAUTY. The beauty of Ireland is little known, Mr. Austin holds, because it has had no great poet to glorify it :

Irishmen do not seem to love Ireland as Englishmen love England, or Scotchmen Scotland. ... But in truth I doubt whether the Irish are a poetical people, in the higher sense. They have plenty of fancy, but little or no imagination. ... The Irish are both too inaccurate and too sad to produce poetry of the impressive and influencing sort. ... But just as its people in many respects so gifted, have little imagination, so have they little feeling for beauty.

HOW TO TURN ON WINTER

AS WE TURN ON WATER AND GAS. TOUCHING a button or turning a tap already does for us wonders almost as reat as were called up by the rubbing of Aladdin's lamp. The possibilities of transformation which a generation hence will see laid on from mains under the street promise to eclipse the marvels of Eastern phantasy. Here, for example, in Cassier's for August, Mr. Wilberforce Smith tells us how for four years Denver and St. Louis have been supplied with a system of refrigeration from central stations, which on the turn of a small switch will change your water into ice, crystallise your warm moist air into hoar frost, and lower the temperature of your room in the hottest weather by some dozen degrees. In one of the St. Louis restaurants, which the enterprising owner has decorated in a manner suggestive of the Polar regions, pipes upon the walls are connected with the street line, so that in sweltering summer he can turn on the cold and defy the dog-days. The slop and waste of taking in ice and keeping the ice

WHAT BOYS LIKE TO READ:

PAST AND PRESENT COMPARED. An interesting study in the reading tastes of young Britain now and a generation ago is supplied to the Strand by Frances H. Low. She compares the recollections of distinguished persons of to-day with the confessions of some 300 boys and 150 girls, in schools belonging to the middle and upper-middle classes, who have furnished through their teachers lists of their favourite authors. Pilgrim's Progress" bulked largely in the childhood of the personages now famous; but only five out of the 300 modern boys, and two out of the 150 girls, mention it.

“ Robinson Crusoe” does not occur in nearly one half their papers! But M. Daudet describes it as the sole food of his infancy, the Prince of Wales calls it “the favourite book of his childhood,” it was the companion of John Burns, Gabriel Rossetti, Professor Huxley, Sir Henry Thompson, and Mr. Santley in their childhood; but neither Mr. Gladstone, Lord Salisbury, nor Mr. Ruskin give it any place of favour. “ The Arabian Nights," the confessed joy of many an early genius, is named by only fourteen out of the 300 boys and by none of the girls. Mr. Gladstone's favourite books at the age of ten, writes Mrs. Drew, were Scott's novels, Froissart's Chronicles, Pilgrim's Progress, and the Arabian Nights. Lord Salisbury says his were Walter Scott's novels, the earlier novels of Dickens, Marryat, l'enimore Cooper, and Shakespeare's plays. Lord Wolseley confesses “ It was love of country more than love of heroes which filled my mind." The writer thus states her concluding impressions :

Perhaps the moral that is most driven home to one, or, at any rate, to the humble writer of this, is that bad books socalled-meaning books dealing openly with the relations of men and women, and with matters of the world- do not much harm a clean-minded little boy.

Of much greater import, so it seems to me, is the vulgarity of style and sentiment of many of the books favoured by modern boys. There are books—I will not advertise them more than I can help--recurring again and again, whose distinguishing characteristics are certain cheap qualities that should recommend them to the servants' hall, but nowhere else. The strain of commonness in humour, the vulgarity of the style, the complete absence of anything imaginative, or high, or heroic, that can inspire and animate and unconsciously educate a boy, are so marked, that it is a marvel that parents should permit such literature in the schoolroom; and their popularity is the severest commentary on the national demoralisation of literary feeling

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permitted some of his men to rob a Southern woman of her jewelry.

Once I saw him at Berne when he was boarding the train for Paris. Every American girl who happened to be in the town came to see him off. Vot one of them had ever seen him before, but every one of them kissed him; so did some of their mothers,

A copy of Burns lay on his desk constantly. “Certain of Dickens's novels he read once every year. He was a constaut reader of good books, and I think he knew Burns almost by heart. He was also fond of music, and went much to the opera. Army songs always pleased him.

He would say. I almost think it impossible for an editor tu tell the trnth. If this country is ever given over to socialism, communism, and the devil, the newspapers will be to blame for it. The chief trouble of my life has been in dealing with newspapers. They want sensations-something that will sell. If they make sad a hundred or a thousand hearts, it is of no concern to them.

66

COMMAND OF THE INTER-OCEAN CANAL.

How to SECURE IT FOR GREAT BRITAIN. “What the Mediterranean was yesterday, the Atlantic is to-day, and the Pacific will be to-morrow. The

course of empire' moves ever westward.” Therefore, urges Mr. Arthur Silva White in the United Service Vagazine, let us secure our “ needed foothold in the Pacific.” But just as the cutting of the Suez Canal altered the international situation, so by the cutting of the inter-ocean canal, whether via Panama or Nicaragua, “the world's commerce will be revolutionized, leading to the re-distribution of trade-centres." The Galápagos Islands, situate under the Equator, in the Pacific Ocean, about 500 or 600 miles both from the Isthmus and the South American mainland, will then become “s a possession of the highest political, commercial, and naval importance.'

So far as we know, the Galápagos Islands offer all the essential advantages for the establishment of a coaling-station. Drinking-water is probably scarce or bad. But there are good anchorages and roadsteads, and sufficient creeks, bays, and harbours. Their chief value, as such, lies in their unique geographical position, for there are no other islands in that part of the Pacific that could serve as a naval base and coalinystation. Over 3000 miles of sea separate them from the tropical islands of Oceania.

And “Great Britain has absolutely no stations in the south-east Pacific.” The canal would further enormously develop the commerce of the western States of South America, whose choice between absorption in the United States and commercial friendship with Great Britain would be affected by the holders of the islands in question.

Mr. White, therefore, proposes that Great Britain should buy them from the moribund State of Ecuador to which they now belong. There is the political bogey called the Monroe doctrine, but have the United States a navy strong enough to uphold it? Mr. White is “in a position to know that the Foreign Office does not contemplate taking any steps towards the acquisition of the Islands”; and, as the United States are sure not to ignore the question, he invokes “the pressure of public opinion” to jog the elbow of the Foreign Office.

STORIES ABOUT GENERAL SHERMAN. Some personal recollections of General Sherman are well told in McClure's for August. The writer is S. M. Byers, who, while a captive in Libby's prison, wrote the famous song of “Sherman's March to the Sea.” This song introduced him immediately on his escape to a place on the General's staff, and to his lifelong friendship. We cite a few of his stories about the General:

He shared all the privations and hardships of the common soldier. He slept in his uniform every night of the whole campaign. Sometimes we did not get into a camp till midnight. I think every man in the army knew the General's face, and thousands spoke with him personally. . . . He paid small attention to appearances; to dress almost none.

“There is going to be a battle to-day, sure," said Colonel Audenreid, of the staff, one morning before daylight.

How do you know?" asked a comrade. “Why, don't you see? The General's up there by the fire putting on a clean collar. The sign's dead sure."

A battle did take place that day.

Despite reports to the contrary, he was as chivalrous towards women and children in the South as he was towards his own people, and protected them as fully. I recall vividly how once on the march in the Carolinas he caused a young staff officer to bo led out before the treops, his sword broken in two, and his shoulder-straps cut from his shoulders, because he had

The Royal Stag Hunt. MR. CASPAR W. WRITNEY gives in Harper's a comprehensive American survey of “Riding to Hounds in England,” setting out very clearly the attraction and distinction of the principal hunting centres. He laughs at the idea of the Queen's buckhounds furnishing either sport or a “ terrible example of cruelty.” He says :

Let me assuage the fears of compassionate Americans as to the cruelty of this diversion; I cannot call it sport. Most of ns, and I know I was of the number, bave pictured the deer in the paddocks trembling at the approach of man, shivering with fear in the dark van as it is driven to the meet, bewildered at 'the uncarting, and, after a half-hopeful, fully terrorised flight, finally brought to a last desperate stand by fierce hounds that seek its life-blood. This is the hysterical pen-picture' familiar to most readers of the press, but the facts do not support it. The deer, despite its antlers being sawed off, neither trembles at man's approach nor permits the hounds to worry him: indeed, they are frequently on very comfortable terms of intimacy. As for the terrors of uncarting and sight of the crowd, none of the deer I saw gave evidence of being so stricken, and one at least walked about looking at the crowd until some one “ shooed” it off. A mert of the Queen's buck: hounds is quite, from a sporting point of view, the most ridiculous performance I have ever attended, and though the fields do have a sprinkling of sportsmen who follow for social reasons of varying degrees of pressure, the great majority turn out because it is one of the events of the locality, and very likely because the master and the hunt servants are the only ones in England that embellish their livery with gold lace.

Aladdin's Cave in Western Australia. THE contribution of Western Australia, says the ·lustralian Keview of Reviews, to the history of July is of a very shining quality. In the Londonderry Reef, from a mere trench some 4,000 oz. of gold have been “dollied " in less than four weeks; a single block of golden quartz, a foot square, was broken out so heavy with the precious metal that it took the strength of a powerful man to lift it. The story of the discovery of this reef is a romance. A party of six miners-four from New South Wales, two from Victoria-reached Coolgardie about the middle of March. After six weeks' barren prospecting they were returning, wearied and disgusted, to Coolgardie when, within nine miles of that place, they stumbled on an outcrop of amber-coloured quartz, heit and shining with gold. Two of the finders sold out to their mates for modest sums, and these, in turn, have already refused to sell five-sixths of the mine for £50,001) cash. Here, then, are four miners who, in less than two months, and by what may be described as the lucky blow of a pick, have been lifted from poverty to wealth!

WHO ARE CHRISTIANS ?

THE OLD GOSPEL RESTATED. OR, WHAT IT IS TO BELIEVE IN JESUS.

A PAPER significant of the movement of theological In a recent number of the REVIEW I quoted some thought is contributed by a writer under the initials criticisms of Professor Herron's book," The New Redemp. J. D. T. to the Primitive Methodist Quarterly Review for tion,” from an ultra-orthodox point of view. Professor July. It is entitled “The Parable of the Garden of Herron, who occupies the chair of Applied Christianity Eden.” The writer scouts the idea that the serpent was at Grinnell College, is the author of a very remark the devil, and maintains that the Fall was the birth of able book on the “New Redemption,” which is a series of conscience. The Fall, in fact, becomes a rise-a rise to very fervent and eloquent discourses intended to rouse an agonising self-consciousness, a torturing sense of guilt, the American public to the grave social dangers which and a ceaseless conflict with weakness and limitation. confront their country. In the June number of the Through sin, and the sense of sin, we ultimately struggle Arena, Professor Herron writes a letter in which he upwards to a place of large life not attainable by any less gives us his definition of a Christian :

bitter or woful path. He says: I use the term not to define one's creed, but to define a

Not one essential verity need be sacrificed, only reconceived. quality of life. For instance, I call John Stuart Mill and

“Sin” is not made one whit less, but more real, for its ancestry Frederic Harrison Christians. They are not such in creed, but is known, and it is seen to be the dominance of the lower they are such in practice. I do not demand that men shall

nature over the higher in spite of the protests of that higher. believe all that I believe about Jesus, but I do plead for our “ Original sin ” and federal headship” are the scientific trying to get practised His teachings concerning right and

truths of heredity and solidarity. “Salvation” is emancipawrong. The belief for which I plead is a moral, rather than a

tion from the dominion of the lower self; it is that inward theological, belief. I will join hands with any and all men

condition of energetic moral health in which the man is who will work with me toward establishing a Christ quality entirely in harmony with the Divine will, and entirely given of human relations on the earth, without ever stopping for one

up to the Divine purpose. “Atonement " is that identification moment to demand of any man that he shall believe as I

by sorrow and sympathy in which the Christ becomes one with believe. It is not a man's opinions that I care for, but his us, realises and bears our sins and carries our griess, as in our purpose and character. If unselfishness is the law of his life,

small measure we too may bear the sins and the sufferings of Í believe that he is a Christian in the sight of Christ, though

others. “ Justification” is the reckoning of the promise and he be absolute materialist in his philosophy.

potency of the new life of the present for that fulness of the I do indeed believe in Jesus Christ. I believe in Jesus as

future to which it will grow, as the farmer sees the harvest in the one man who has been wholly filled with the Spirit of God,

the sprouting blade. * Forgiveness” is the recognition of the so that He was of one mind with God. I believe in Jesus as

changed attitude of a man towards the law of righteousness the one perfect revelation of what our human life really is. I

and truth-it is, in another view, the sense of peace and rest believe that all the epochs and crises of history are but the which that changed attitude towards God's great order ever process by which the world is being Christ-made. My belief

brings. The “ witness of the Spirit” is but another way of in Jesus is the stay of my reason, my hope for the world, my

putting the same experience. " Regeneration” holds its old meat and drink. I do not think there is an hour of my life

place, and becomes even more intelligible as that change in it when I am not conscious of this Jesus as a living, human,

man's nature, that forward step in his development by which saving Christ. I can make no sense out of life, I can read no

the spiritual or higher element obtains the ascendency over sense into the universe, except through faith in Him as the

the fleshly or lower principle, so that the seat of rule is man we are all becoming. My belief in Jesus is the passion

shifted, the balance of power is on the side of the nobler natur: and vision of my life. I can find no other personal standard --this transference of sovereignty requiring all the same for of righteousness than His that is worth having. I find that its accomplishment the bending down of a great Divine energy. men who deny His standard as the one altogether unselfish Faith in the future, if touched at all by our version of the and right, do exactly as you have done in your article

“fall,” is made more potent and energetic than ever. This measure every other standard by Him after all. The very

view shows us what, through God's grace, are the ultimate utmost that has ever been claimed for those who have gone tendencies of our life in harmony with Paul's magniticent before, or come after, Him, is that there are some things in

dream of spiritual evolution. them and their teachings like the person and teachings of Jesus. I am driven to Jesus by my passion for humanity. The

It would be interesting if we could hear what the

Primitive Methodist fathers of twenty, or even ten years wrong, injustice, and oppression of the world humiliate, hurt, and crush me. I feel as if the sin of the world were all,

ago, would have said to J. D. T. somehow, my own sin, and that I myself am responsible for vetting it out of the world. The woe and shame of the world

Professor Blackie's Four Heroes. break my heart, wrench my brain, and make life a sort of An interview with the venerable Scot, now eighty-fire eontinuous, divine agony. To whom shall I go—and to whom years old, is reported in the Woman at Home, by Mr. shall any of us go-for a way out of all this, except to Jesus ? Arthur Warren. The conversation, which was of a I see more clearly every day that if men would only do as Jesus tells them, if they would only practise His teachings,

strictly unconventional order, included lunch :that there would be perfect justice and peace and right among

While we ate, the Professor talked, burst into snatches of men, and we should have heaven upon the earth-as I believe

melody, rippled in Greek, alternating with thunderous

Professor we one day surely will have—and perhaps sooner than we

German, laughed --- and wore his hat! think. It is because of my love for men, because I would save

Blackie is not what the anecdote-mongers call “ Converthe world from the evil and misery, slavery and selfishness I

sationalist.” He does not converse ; he explodes. His find it in, that I point to Jesus. I can find no other man, no

talk is volcanic. There comes an eruption of short sentences other teachings to have absolute faith in, except Jesus. I do

blazing with the philosophy of life. There is a kindly glow in believe that His is the one name under heaven whereby we

it all, and the eruption subsides quickly with a gentle troll of Joay be saved.

song. I well remember the explosion that followed some referI think I am one of the last men on earth who would under

ence to education. The table shook under a smiting hand, and take to compel other men to believe exactly as I believe, or

these words were shot at me: We are teaching our young refuse to work with men of other creeds. In fact, I have no

men everything except this: to teach themselves, and to look creed except that I believe in the Lord Jesus Christ as incar

the Lord Jesus Christ in the face !” nating, revealing and teaching the kind of righteousness we Later in the day, he ejaculated to his guest, " Irismust all practise, in order to set this world right and make it totle, Shakespeare, Goethe, and the Apostle Paul,--these a kingdom of heaven.

are my heroes."

A PRINCE OF SHIPPING.

Referring to the famous voyage together of Mr. Gladstone An illustrated interview of more than usual interest is and the late Lord Tennyson, Sir Donald observes, “that furnished to the Strand by Mr. Harry How, the subject when Tennyson talked it was just like one of his own being Sir Donald Currie. He is described as a “perfect poems. When he was viewing scenery—a moonlight Scotchman, careful, cool and calm in everything he does.” night, or a sunset, or a little bit of impressive landscape “Earnestness, perfect and complete earnestness, is the he would sit and look at it silently for a moment, as great characteristic which has governed and directed his though drinking it in and filling his soul, only the next life.” He was, it appears, born in 1825. His first school moment to tell it all to those whose privilege it was to sit was in Belfast. He recalls the political feuds then active

near him.”

The shipowner cherishes as one of his chief as being of much greater virulence than any known now. treasures a clay-pipe of the poet's, given him for a keepJames Bryce's father was his teacher. He confesses to sake. It appears that Sir Donald is a great lover of the

arts, and has a collection of Turners probably unequalled by any private gallery in London.

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THE SINGLE-TAX PANACEA.

PROGRESS AT THE ANTIPODES. “The Riddle of the Sphinx,"—the problem presented by the social and international difficulties of modern humanity-is read, to his own satisfaction at all events, by Mr. Arthur Withy in the Westminster Review. Having resided himself in New Zealand for seven years, he begins with Australasia. Free trade between the colonies would produce ' federation-Australasian, Imperial, Englishspeaking, omninational. But by free trade he means not merely freedom to exchange, but freedom to produce, free access to land, therefore the suppression of all rates and taxes by a single-tax on land values. Let the State absorb the full rental value. His statement of the actual progress made in this direction is interesting :

The principle of the taxation of land values has lately made great strides in the Australasian Colonies. In South Australia a tax of fd. in the £ has for some eight or nine years been imposed on the capital value of the land, and during the past year a Bill has passed both Houses of the Legislature empowering local bodies to levy upon the unimproved value of the land. In New Zealand a tax of 1d. in the £ is levied on land values, and a Bill to enable local bodies to rate land values passed the Lower House last session, but was thrown

out by the Lords.” As the Ministry has been returned to Prom a photograp: by]

[le Jeune, Paris.

power by an overwhelming majority, the Bill, which was made a test-question at the election, may be considered safe. The Tasmanian House of Representatives also passed a Bill last session taxing land values up to £500 at d. in the £, and

that amount at ld. in the £. The Bill was rejected by the Upper House, but has been adopted as a plank of the Ministerial platform for the forthcoming election. In Queensland again, a Bill was passed by both Houses last year adopting the land value system of taxation for municipalities, and fixing the amount of the tax at 2d. in the £. . . In New South Wales, too, progress is reported. The Local Government Bill drafted by the

present Government will empower local bodies to tax land having been always fond of ships, and is inclined to think

values, and a party of 25 out of a Parliament of 141 members

has recently been formed with the taxation of ground rents as he had one of the biggest collections of small boats of any

its principal plank. of the boys in the school. At fourteen he left school and entered the steam-shipping office of a relative in Greenock. He argues that the liberation of labour and capital by When eighteen he went to Liverpool and joined the the abolition of all other taxation, and the opening up of Cunard Company's service. On the abolition of the Navi land to human effort which would result, would give the gation Laws he organised that company's lines of traffic State first adopting these measures such an enormous between the Continent of Europe and America. From advantage in the international market, over other States, 1856 to 1862 he was attached to the headquarters of the as practically to compel them to follow suit. After New company in Liverpool. In 1862 he withdrew and started Zealand, the Australias, then the United Kingdom, then for himself the Castle Line between this country and the Canada, then the United States, then the world. He East Indies. In the development of South Africa, espe points out that " while the total rates and taxes of the cially since 1875, Sir Donald has had a leading share. United Kingdom amount to some £128,000,000 per He has much to tell his interviewer of the celebrities, annum, the rental value of the land, as distinguished royal, republican, and literary, whom he has entertained from buildings and other improvements, amounts to on board his palatial steamers, and a page of most illus upwards of £160,000,000 - an estimate based on the trious signatures is reproduced from his autograph-book. income tax returns.”

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THE HIGHEST HOUSE IN GREAT BRITAIN

AND ITS VARTYR INMATES. The Observatory on the top of Ben Nevis is the subject of a bright and instructive sketch by Mr. Edward Whymper in the Leisure Hour. It was erected in 1883 by public subscription. It is a massive structure, having double wooden walls covered with felt and enclosed by stone walls from four to ten feet thick. The thickness of its walls leaves little room for habitation. “The bedrooms are about the size of ordinary berths in a ship."

The little garrison of this stout fortress lead something like a martyr's life. Every hour, summer and winter, day and night, personal observations are made and recorded. Since May, 1884, the hourly duty has been done with scarcely an intermission. The vigils of modern

instruments that calculate weather forecasts?” Occasionally they have almost too much society-at other times none. Taking one year with another, about 4,000 persons arrive on top. Sometimes a considerable number of persons congregate there even at Christmas; in other years no one can go--the ascent is impossible. ... Hence it is found advisable to keep several months' provisions in hand, and plum-puddings are sent up in September

It is pleasant to know that these Simeon Stylites of meteorology are occasionally relieved by volunteer substitutes.

How the Church Beat the Floating Grogshop.

MR. F. M. HOLMES contributes to the Gentleman's a picturesque sketch of what he saw among the Deep Sea Fishermen. He tells of a victory gained by religious common sense, which is worth empbasising:

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science are as exacting as those of mediæval saintliness. The mean summer temperature is Arctic, being abont the same as that of Spitzbergen. The atmosphere is extrensely humid. In the warmer weather the house and its occupants are as a rule in a dripping state. The mist soaks everything. The effect of this moisture in the air is very enervating and depressing. In winter the snow lies from ten to twelve feet deep. The wind sweeps over the summit for days together at the rate of eighty to one hundred, sometimes reaching one hundred and twenty, miles an hour.

If fine weather reigns on the top of the Ben, life there, as on other mountain summits, is extremely enjoyable. ... These happy occasions are few and far between, and it is scarcely too much to say that the normal life of observers is a perpetual round of discomfort and self-denial. Their diversions are principally confined to assisting exhausted tourists, or to answering such questions as, “Will you please show us the

Once upon a time floating grog-shops, called copers, used to cruise among the fleets, and cause incalculable mischief. They hailed from foreign ports, Dutch, German, or Belgian, and sold an utterly vile and abominable liquor called aniseed brandy, which used to inflame even the strong North Sea fishermen to madness. . . . But in 1882 the practical Mission to the DeepSea Fishermen was started, having as one of its chief objects opposition to the coper. It sold tobacco as the copers did, but much cheaper; it has supplied good and readable literature instead of the vile stuff offered by the floating grogshops; it has attended to the injuries and sores of the fishermen. The Mission vessels, nearly a dozen in number, are floating churches, libraries, and dispensaries, and three of them are well-equipped hospitals for the treatment of serious injuries, such as the breakages of limbs. In a few years the copers were nearly all driven off the sea by the spirited and cheerful opposition.

Were the Church ashore to fight the tavern on its own ground as resolutely as the Church afloat has here done, there might be fewer grogshops ashore.

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