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stranded ship with a torpedo, but that hardly counts. Thirdly, the big guns seem to have counted for comparatively little; the battle was decided by shells at long range and the hail of the quick-firing guns. Fourthly, the ram seems to have counted for as little as the torpedo. Fifthly, seamanship, skill, courage, and all the old fighting qualities which were decisive when the Empire of the Sea was won by Nelson's hearts of oak, are as valuable as ever. Sixthly and lastly, success in naval warfare in future will depend as much upon the rapidity with which injured ships can be refitted as upon the weight of their armament the horse. power of their, engines. On the whole, this tends to reassure John Bull. If men still count in this era of machines, he thinks he will have the best of it, and when it comes to refitting he has got three docks and coaling-stations for the enemy's one.

The practical moral for us is that the Sea Power

Power that commands the sea commands History. everything The

the Japanese afford new and striking illustrations of what Captain Mahan calls the decisive influence of sea power in history. The Power that rules the sea rules the world. Hence, most Englishmen, however much they may have groaned under the Larghetto (NN d: 70

= 70.) a

increased income tax, must feel somewhat more comfortable in reflecting that the increased expenditure means increased security, and that Lord Rosebery's naval programme, though costly, will nevertheless ensure our country that command of

the seas which is the fundamental condition of our Imperial exist

For the rest, while we may be willing to tender our friendly offices whenever there is a chance of a peaceful mediation, we shall preserve a strict neutrality, refusing to be involved in the fray, but strengthening our forces the spot for the defence of

interests and the protection of our subjects.

foresee what may happen in the immediate future now that the second seal has been broken and

War has ridden forth on his red horse, and "power has been given

“to him to take peace from the earth and that they should kill one another, and there was given unto him a great sword.” — which Heaven grant may

be sheathed before it is fleshed in the West.

It is, however, devoutly to be hoped that France and there will be no occasion to put these England.

complacent reflections to the actual test At present there certainly seems no reason

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to expect that any outstanding dispute with any of

Contrast, for instance, the language of

The Conour neighbours will lead to such an issue. An

quest of M. Casimir Perier, whose admirable

Madagascar. anonymous writer in the Deutsche Revue who asks

speech at Chateaudun is full of " the question, “ Is a great war in prospect ?” says sciousness of his duties and of his moral responsibility,” that he fears it is owing to the chance that France with the irresponsible intemperate diatribes even of will court a collision with England. He says, No so weighty and usually serious a newspaper as the war would be so popular in France as one with Temps, which, by way of contributing to international England, especially as there are good reasons for amenity and the peace of the world, has been entertaining a hope of victory.” Now while no one denouncing the English as wolves, the common can deny that the French are “ugly” just now, enemies of the human race. This outburst was being apparently bent upon "trying it on " all round prompted by the fear that we might embarrass them the world as if to see how much we can stand, it is a in their latest campaign of conquest. France has mistake to think that war with England would be just despatched a mission to the capital of Madagascar, popular in France. Wars which have to be made with an ultimatum which practically demands the by the whole armed manhood of a nation are never conversion of the island into a French dependency. popular, and such wars are not made on a The Hovas, although wretchedly poor, are not withchance of victory. France may drift into war from out pride, and it is probable the French will have to giving too loose a rein to her adventurous Chau back

up

their mission of the autumn by an expedition vinists, but she will never deliberately plunge into it in the spring. This will cost money and the lives of on the chance, while Germany is on her left flank, and many men, and by way of reconciling the French to when the issue of the struggle would depend upon

the the sacrifice the Temps gets up steam against the result of naval war. France may desire to be English wolves, who at present certainly seem to be revenged for Waterloo, but she never forgets Tra- behaving in a most lamblike fashion, not merely falgar.

in Madagascar, but in Siam, in China and in The publication of such articles as this Africa. The Journalist in the Deutsche Revue can hardly be

Lord Kimberley has declined to receive Firebrand.

The Reductoo severely condemned.

It is un

a deputation from the Arbitration Allifortunate that while statesmen and sovereigns have Armaments.

ance in support of their memorial for tardily learned the urgent necessity of refraining the reduction of armaments, the moment not being from hurling live coals into the powder magazine, propitious.

propitious. But the memorialists may console themnewspaper editors have so little sense of their

selves by the statement of the Russian Minister of responsibility for keeping the peace. There is still

Finance, M. de Witte, who, in the course of an intertoo much reason in the bitter jest of General von

view at Vienna, expressed himself strongly in favour Schweinitz when he replied to my question as to the of the reduction of armaments, thereby undoubtedly best means of maintaining peace, by prescribing the giving public utterance to the well-known desire of immediate gagging of half-a-dozen prominent journal the Tzar. M. de Witte's words, which Lord Kimists. M. Kalnoky last month spoke seriously in the berley might have echoed with advantage, were thus He said :

reported :There is not a single Government in Europe which does

It is to be regretted that the increase of armaments is not endeavour to dispose of disturbing symptoms as soon as

still going on, despite the agreement on the part of the they make their appearance. Notwithstanding all due regard

three most powerful sovereigns to maintain peace. Every for the Press, I cannot conceal the fact that the worst of

new effort a State may make in this respect compels these symptoms which are conjured up in connection with

other States to go and do likewise, and the result is that altogether unimportant incidents are to be attributed to the

the relations between the forces of the respective powers sensational and often mischievous manner in which the nerves

remain as they were, while the general strength is fruitof the newspaper-reading public have been played upon. It

lessly exhausted. The impulse to the increase of the armawere desirable that the peace congresses should turn their

ments did not emanate from Russia; but she cannot aroid attention to this circumstance.

following the imperative example of other Statrs. What a M. Kalnoky's suggestion may be commended blessing it would be for all States if they could save half to the Peace Society. A mission for the con

that expenditure.” version of the journalist might not be

One half! Why, to save even ten per cent. would ful, but there is no doubt that it is very much be a boon that could be felt in every cottage in needed.

Europe.

tion of

same sense.

success

ness of

The storm centre of the continent of however, splendidly confident in his right Divine, Bulgarian Unrest.

Europe, like that of the continent of which seems to carry with it an infallible discern

Asia, lies in the East. There are signs ment of what is good for the whole community, conthat the long dead calm that has prevailed in cluded his speech as follows :Bulgaria is ending. The Bulgarian elections have

Now, gentlemen, my summons goes forth to you :-“Up and resulted in the election of a majority of advocates fight for religion, for morality, and for order against the parties of the so-called Russian policy. Prince Ferdinand, of revolution.” As the ivy twines itself round the gnarled stem whose Ministers are prosecuting M. Stambuloff

of the oak, adorning it with its foliage and protecting it when for speaking disrespectfully of his sovereign,

storms roar through its branches, so must the ranks of the

Prussian nobility close up round my house. May it, and with is anxious for a reconciliation with the Tzar.

it the whole nobility of German stock, be a shining example His position is illegal. He was not elected either for those sections of the people which still hang back. Let it in accordance with the Bulgarian Constitution be so; let us march together to this struggle. Forward, with or the Treaty of Berlin. To secure Russia's recogni

the help of God, and lost to honour be he who deserts his

King tion he must first vacate the throne, and then be elected to it again by the vote of a freely elected

The Uneasi- No one exactly knows against whom Bulgarian Assembly. As Prince Ferdinand is not

they are to fight. Only one thing is

Authority. prepared to play double or quits, the question remains

clear, they are not to fight against Impewhere it has been. Russia's policy, as M. de Giers

rial and Royal Me. A similar message of veiled defined it to me when I was in St. Petersburg in

menace was addressed to the Poles a few days later, 1887, was a policy of peace and patience. “How long

and that also has produced sputterings of disclaimer. will your patience last ?" I asked. “ It will last

People are asking whether the Emperor means to longer than the Coburger," was M. de Giers' reply ;

begin a new period of repression. It is not likely. and, judging from present symptoms, M. de Giers

Rulers everywhere feel their position and their was right.

authority threatened, and they naturally attempt

to rally all the rallyable forces of society to their M. de Witte, in the interview referred The Kaiser

support. Of this tendency a very curious illustraand his to above, remarked that for eleven years Nobles.

tion was afforded last month by Signor Crispi. the Tzar had never made a speech about

Of all the statesmen in Europe, Signor Crispi war, nor had he even alluded to the possibility of

was about the last to be suspected of an alliance During the last six years war would have

with Heaven. But misfortune makes strange broken out on more than one occasion but for his

bedfellows, and Crispi has startled his atheistic supintervention. This is certainly a case where speech is silvern but silence golden.

porters by declaring with a loud voice his faith in God. His young relative,

Speaking at a recent banquet, Signor Crispi said :the shouting Kaiser, who for some months past appeared to have been converted to a belief in that Society is now passing through a painfully critical moment. Carlylean maxim, has relapsed. He has made two

To-day we feel more than ever the necessity for strengthening

the civil authority. An infamous sect has come out of the serious and somewhat sensational speeches, both of blackest caves of the earth and has written on its flags, which, however, related more to domestic than to “ Neither God nor leader." Let us who are united to-day by foreign enemies. At Königsburg, on September 6, a common sentiment close our ranks and tight this monster. he launched a kind of torpedo-speech at the East

Let us inscribe on our banner, “ With God, with King, for the

Fatherland." Prussian nobility, who have of late been agitating more vigorously than the Kaiser liked against his Such utterances from such men give new point to policy. The agrarian opponents of Count Caprivi the saying of the irreverent Frenchman that “if the were eloquently reminded that behind the Chan Supreme Being did not exist it really would be cellor was their King, and that noblesse blige necessary to invent Him." It is said that Signor should imply an obligation to oppose their sovereign Crispi being a Freemasou must believe in the who represents the Monarchy by right Divine.

Architect of the universe ; but Freemasonry in Italy “ How often,” soliloquised the Kaiser, “have my at all events has been popularly believed to be ancestors been compelled to withstand the misguided anything but identical with Theism. . members of a single class for the good of the whole

The End of

As it is written in the Apocalypse that community!” No doubt ; that is the true function of the Lull in “there was silence in Heaven about the

Politics. kings, although too often they support the misguided

space of half-an-hour," so it may be said class against the whole community. The Emperor, that there has been silence in England for the space

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of nearly a whole month. Fagged and jaded states pick his way carefully, and refuse to go a single step men have been recruiting their exhausted energies further than he can carry his followers? To drive a on mountain and on moor, obstinately turning a fire-engine at full gallop down the Strand is magnifi deaf ear to the syrens who would lure them to the cent, and if you have a bell that can clear the way, platform or the banqueting hall. Lord osebery, it is easy enough ; but if you are driving a heavy who accepted the freedom of the City of Inverness omnibus, and the street is full of costers' barrows and opened an exhibition of Highland industries, was and donkey-carts, what can you do but crawl along almost the only voice to break the silence. What he as best you can ? And that surely is just what Lord said was not calculated to disturb the Olympian calm Rosebery is doing of our momentary mood. He eulogised the spirit in

The

The impatient clamourers for politics which recognises that all opponents are Liberal definite leadership remind one of nothing

Tandem. not necessarily the spawn of the Evil One, and,

so much as of passengers who will insist speaking within rifleshot of Culloden, drew a hopeful upon the driver flogging the horse in the shafts with augury for Ireland from the fact that the victors and out inquiring how his leader will behave. Nothing is vanquished of 1745-notwithstanding all Cumber more certain that, if Lord Rosebery were to take land's butcheries-now live together in indissoluble some of the advice pressed upon him, the leading bonds of mutual respect and mutual love. He horse in the team would turn round and look at him, refrained from touching upon questions of con absolutely refusing to stir. The objurgations of the troversy, but it is only too obvious wherein the passengers may be ignored. They may upset the historical parallel fails. The Irish have no Bannock coach ; they can certainly not expedite its progress, burn with which to console themselves for the bitter Lord Rosebery has exhibited the qualities indispensmemory of innumerable Cullodens, and the Scotch able to any one in his position. He has been full of have lived up to their national motto, “ Nemo me he has impressed every one by his suave, impune lacessit,in a fashion which has made us sagacious management, and he has rigorously supgrant them that virtual Home Rule from which pressed himself. No Prime Minister ever kept a their prosperity and contentment spring.

Cabinet together more skilfully under greater ditfiIn default of other subjects to discuss, culties, and that surely is no mean achievement. The Liberal Lord Rosebery himself has formed the That he did not at the same time display the heroic Leader. chief topic of such political controversy as

dash of Henry of Navarre at the battle of Ivry is has managed to keep itself agoing in September. The

not to be wondered at. To have attempted the Speaker, surely in the absence of Sir T. Wemyss white plume description of leadership might have Reid, emitted a melancholy bleat for leadership, and been magnificent, but it would simply have been editors, at a loss for topics for leaders, found the suicide. But let not those who deride Lord Rosebery subject handy. “ Lead us, in the name of Heaven mere opportunist reckon without their host. lead us; somewhere---somehow ---some time-only lead Lord Rosebery does not wear his heart upon his us!” the underlying assumption being of course sleeve, nor does his inner enthusiasm reveal itself to that Lord Rosebery is not leading, and great is

the man in the street. But the volcano is not the the chuckling among the enemy. But a moment's less of a volcano because it is not always in eruption, reflection might have taught the clamourers for more

and when the time comes for leadership of another dashing leadership that the political situation is not order, Lord Rosebery will not be wanting. exactly fitted for the display of the qualities they

An instructive but disagreeable incident

The Latest sigh for. When battles are won by counting noses, Shindy has occurred in Ireland which has given and you have only twenty more to count than

in Ireland.

occasion to much merriment among the your enemy, the first duty of a leader is to keep his profane, and many searchings of heart among the noses together. It would, for instance, have been faithful. The represextatives of the Irish Parliaeasy enough for Lord Rosebery to lead heroically in mentary party finding that their treasury was runany given direction ; but if a dozen of his party had ning dry sought to replenish it by the simple gone over to the enemy, he would simply have led expedient of issuing a circular to all sympathisers his followers into ditch. Lord Rosebery is the and friends. In response to this circular, which elected chief of a co ies of allied groups, the seems to have been sent round to all prominent defection of any one of which is sutficient to ensure Home Rulers, Mr. Gladstone and Lord Tweedmouth defeat. What, then, can he do but walk warily, each sent a cheque for £100. Instantly Mr. Healy,

as a

who is never so happy as when he can play the part and contemptible predicament.

and contemptible predicament. Such a conference, of Marplot, raised the cry that the Irish Parliamen which need not be a public one in the first instance, tary party was betraying its independence for should endeavour to establish a modus virendi between Saxon gold. Not a patriot raised a protest when Mr. Chamberlain and Sir Wilfrid Lawson. If such Mr. Parnell accepted £10,000 from Mr. Rhodes, an agreement could be established, something might who is an Imperialist to his finger-tips; but even the be done ; if not, the publican will remain in the £200 accepted from Mr. Gladstone and Lord Tweed future as he has been in the past—the master of the mouth is scouted as a betrayal of the citadel of Irish situation. independence. It is a pretty storm in a tea-cup, but

Another section of the Liberal party has

Counsels of one which brings into clear relief the two funda

Perfection

been considerably exercising the mind of mental factors of the situation ; first, that the Irish

and

its allies in the past month. The Trades

Otherwise. Parliamentary party is at its wits' end for money ;

Union Congress, which met at Norwich and, secondly, that until Mr. Healy is saddled with at the beginning of September, passed a resolution the responsibility of leadership, he can be relied upon in favour of the nationalisation of the land, and the to employ all his mischievous ingenuity in rendering whole means of production and exchange. This any other leadership impossible. The only result of resolution was carried, on a division, by 219 to 61, the incident will be to make the Irish Parliamentary figures which show a remarkable growth in socialistic party more willing to demonstrate their independence feeling among the aristocrats of labour. Some of in the division lobby than they would have been had the wisest and most experienced of the Trades the money been given sub rosa, or accepted without Unionists voted in the minority, and there has been protest.

considerable shaking of heads over the triumph of Hope at last Perhaps the most important domestic Mr. Keir Hardie. The edge, however, was taken for Temper- event of last month was the publication off the significance of the vote by the acceptance of ance Reform. of Mr. Gladstone's letter on the subject another resolution, which declared that it should be of a legislative remedy for intemperance. Writing made a penal offence for any employer to bring to the Bishop of Chester, Mr. Gladstone threw a labour into the district where the existing supply shell into the camp of the United Kingdom Alliance was sufficient for that district.

That is to say, by declaring that “ Local Option could be no more if ten farm labourers struck for £5 a week wage than a partial and occasional remedy, that a limita in harvest time, and there

hundred tion of licenses regarded as a remedy for intemper- labourers in the next parish who are starving for ance was an imposture, and that he had long been want of work, a farmer should be sent to gaol if convinced that the selling of liquors for public profit he engaged ten of these suffering men to save his alone afforded the sole chance of escape from the pre

crops from ruin.

A Congress which could gravely sent miserable and almost contemptible predicament." accept such a resolution could accept anything, and To make matters worse, Mr. Gladstone wound up this the vote on the preposterous proposal to give labour declaration in favour of Gothenburgism by expressing in any district absolute right to monopolise all the his satisfaction with which he regarded the activity employment in that district to the exclusion of all of Mr. Chamberlain in promoting this particular other workmen outside its limits, discounted every reform. For a moment Sir Wilfrid Lawson and his subsequent resolution which the Congress passed. friends were inclined to blaspheme, but

People would not have much faith in arithmetic if thoughts they decided to put the best face possible they found that its author began his exercise by upon Mr. Gladstone's declaration, and so to minimise stating that two and two make five, and that is pretty his contemptuous reference to their favourite much what the Trades Union Congress did at Norwich nostrum. The moment, therefore, seems eminently when it accepted the resolution penalising the import propitious for the summoning of a conference of labour into a district regardless of any question as between the Gothenburgers on the one side and the to the merits of the dispute which has rendered local Lawsonites on the other. Mr. Gladstone's letter labour unavailable for the work which needs to be expresses the opinion of the great mass of moderate done. practical reformers, and it will encourage them to The Trend A curious correspondence was published insist upon having a voice in the question which has

towards

last month between the Baroness Burdett

Industrial been handled in such a

as to land the

Castes. Coutts and the Operative Painters. This country in what Mr. Gladstone truly calls a miserable also serves to illustrate the trend of the aspirations

are

one

upon second

manner

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