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a cotton-mill bet regularly, not merely on their own

horses named' by our prophets. If none of my local races, but upon the innumerable races which take horses have won I hand over the six shillings to my place in all parts of the country. Many of them have neighbour, and if he has been equally unfortunate he never been to a race-course in their life, and probably does the same to me, and the balance is even. No would be utterly unable to tell the difference between one has lost, there is only the shilling which we staked Ladas and a smart horse in a London hansom. Betting which is sicrificed. But supposing that one of my horses is no longer an affair of two or

has carried oft a prize. Instantly three important races, nor is

reference is made to the quotathere much betting on futures.

tion of the starting-price that The infinite rascality which has

always follows the announcebeen practised at races has at

ment of the result of a race. last led the betting community

The winner started,

let us say, to fight shy of future events.

at ten to one. As I have won, Hence the betting now is almost

my comrade must pay me ten entirely done from day to day,

shillings, which at ten to one is not according to the deliberate

the extent of my gains, accordjudgment of the individual who

ing to the starting-price. So fancies a horse, but according

it goes on from day to day all to what is known as the starting

through the racing season, prices. This, although much

which is almost equivalent to fairer than the old system,

all the year round. It is obvious leaving less margin for scratch

that this is the roulette table ing and dodging and swindling

over again. It is gaming pure in every direction, is absolutely

and simple. The man who bets indistinguishable from the gam

stakes his 'shilling exactly as bling which goes on at Monte

the people at Monte Carlo stake Carlo.

their five-franc piece, and he THE CREATION OF THE PRESS.

receives his winnings according Betting to-day is the creation

to a fixed system with which he not so much of the race-course

has nothing to do. The startingas of the newspapers. The

price represents the amount of system is worked as follows.

gains which the croupier shuffles In a morning racing paper the

over to you at the green table. prophet predicts that certain

AND THE POST OFFICE, horses will win certain races. To the puddler, the ship builder,

From this brief statement as the grocer and clerk these horses

to betting as it goes on to-day, are exactly what the red and

the one factor in the situation black in the roulette table are

which has changed everything to the habitués of a gaming

and practically universalised house. They may receive a hint

gambling is the newspaper, to back red thrice running, or

aided, no doubt, by the teleto back black and red alter

graph department of the Post nately, and they do it exactly

Office. If we could imagine on the same principle and in

that the newspapers did not the same way as the man who

appear, and that all betting backs a horse. Half a dozen

telegrams were intercepted en races are to be run to-day.

route, pinety-nine out of the The prophet of my newspaper

hundred bets now made would names for these races half a

not be made. Ninety-nine out dozen winners. A workman at

of the hundred bets made tothe next bench takes in another

day are directly due to the paper whose prophet names

newspaper press and the half-a-dozen different horses

telegraph department of the for the same races. I swear by

Post Office. They have not my paper and its prophet, and

created the gambling instinct, my friend by his and his prophet.

but they have pandered to it, We each agree to put something

and done everything that the -whether it is a shilling or

wit of man could devise in half-a-crown or a pound depends A PILLAR OF THE RACING CHURCH.

order to facilitate its exercise. upon the state of our exchequers

The newspapers have become and the recklessness of our plunging-upon tie horses the effective machinery by which the whole system selected by our favourite tipsters. We do not care any is carried on. Every newspaper proprietor, with one thing for the odds, not caring in many cases to look at or two honourable exceptions, is in the position of the the quotations in the betting list. We put the money on man who touts for Monte Carlo; and the telegraph the horses named in our various newspapers and await operators and the whole brigade of sporting reporters the result. As soon as we leave work we rush to a new's are, morally speaking, on exactly the same level as boy and learn the result of our gamble. Supposing that the croupiers and other employés in M. Blanc's we have each put a shilling on each of the half-dozen establishment.

[graphic]

A DEVOTEE ON THE TURF.

STARTING PRICES.

JOURNALIST-TIPSTER.

the Leeds Mercury and the Daily Chronicle—who have If this be so, does it not seem obvious that the never counted sporting men among their subscribers, first stage in the crusade against gambling, is to see and which circulate for the most part among respectable whether or not the newspapers cannot be induced to people who take life seriously and who are really anxious desist from the publication of predictions as to the to promote the elevation of the mass. The Leeds Mercury probable winner, and of

long ago set an honourthe betting before the race,

able example in this reas well as the starting

spect, and I am waiting prices after the event?

to sce an equally honourIf this were done, betting

able initiative taken in would not be extirpated,

the London Press by the but it would be diminished,

Daily Chronicle. Such an and the constant and daily

example will do more to incentive to pernicious

reinforce the public sentivice would be removed.

ment in favour of making There are several news

the rule universal than papers in the country

anything else that could which refuse to publish

be suggested. prophecies, but there are still honourable journalists who do not consider that they are rascals because they keep a If this fails there remains the next step, which is the tipster, but they are rascals all the same, although they prohibition of the publication of starting prices. Here may not know it. In fåct, the Spectator roundly declares

we are on more difficult ground. The publication of the that journalist is synonymous with tipster.

result of a race is a record of what is past, and it is THE SUPPRESSION OF THE PROPHETS.

argued by some that the starting prices are merely As they seem to fail to see their rascality it might be the final judgment of the best informed people as to the well to see if it would be possible by means of the law

merits of the horses which compete in the race. That to make them aware of that fact. The law at the may be so, but if it can be proved that the publication of present moment is strangely inconsistent,

If an

such scientific information tends to establish a public astronomer should cast a horoscope for a customer gaming-house in every place where the paper reaches, there he is liable to be arrested by a policeman and clapped are many'who would not hesitate to prohibit the publicainto jail as a rogue and a vagabond. But a respectable tion of starting prices. It is possible, however, that newspaper editor and a wealthy newspaper proprietor it may be got at in another way. Wherever betting who engage a man to prophesy the winners of future is carried on by professional bookmakers that “place events, which are only useful in so far as they promote

is an “illegal place” under the Betting House Act. The gambling, to these men the law bas nothing to say,

law as it stands at present, according to the recent In what precise manner the law should be altered decision obtained by the Anti-Gambling League, leaves in order to deal with the tipster, I do not at

no doubt upon that score, and when any starting price present venture to say. If we went on the line is recorded, that starting price is almost always an evidence of prosecutions for indecent literature, it might equally

that the law against betting has been violated. be left to the jury to decide whether or not in any

THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE POST OFFICE. particular case the prophecy was part and parcel of the The question to be decided is therefore whether the machinery of gambling. If it were, the person responsible Post Office Telegraph department is justified in despatchfor its production should be held liable, and due pains ing the starting prices, betting news, or anything which and penalties inflicted.

implies that betting has taken place publicly. When a THE PUBLICATION OF THE ODDS.

telegram is handed in at the post office which on the face The publication of odds before the event could be

of it justifies the clerk in believing that it affords evidence prohibited without difficulty. A bill has already been

of the commission of a misdemeanour, and is directly drafted which if passed would attain that result. It has

intended to facilitate the commission of similar offences secured the support of many members by no means

elsewhere, the welfare of the community, which at present remarkable for the fanaticism of their puritanism. Mr. forbids the sending of obscene or profane words across the Labouchere, for instance, is by no means a typical

wires, would justify the refusal to transmit such telepuritan, but he is as much in favour of suppressing

grams to any other destination than the nearest police the odds as Mr. John Hawke himself. Unfortunately this,

station. The American Government killed the Louisiana which is the easiest of all methods to cope with the evil,

lottery by refusing to carry its circulars by post, and the has the disadvantage of being the least effectual. The great

British Post Office might go one better. We shall be mass of betting to-day is done without reference to the

told that the only result of such an interdict would be quotation of odds for future events, it is done by starting

that telegrams would be despatched in cipher, and hence prices and starting prices alone. Still the prohibition

it is possible that the best method of proceeding against of the publication of such odds tends in the right direction,

this curse of starting prices would be to vigorously follow inasmuch as it woull give a national expression that

up the line of attack which has already been begun by betting was a vice which the legislature and all who

the Anti-Gambling League. desired the welfare of the community should endeavour to

A SHORT WAY WITH BETTING. repress. It is of course difficult for any newspaper to take The case of Bond v. Plumb), which was decided last the lead in tbis matter. Allmust do itifanydo it, otherwise December in the Queen's Bench Division, laid down the only result of independent action of any single news the law in this matter which shows that we do not need paper is to transfer a certain number of that newspaper's new legislation so much as the vigorous enforcement of icaders to its less scrupulous rivals. Here and there are te present laws to cut up betting root and branch. nic wspapers of sufficiently high character – such as This decision was to the effeci that the Act of 1853–

[graphic]

the Betting House Act-recognised two offences, and that both credit betting and ready money betting in illegal places are illegal, and that both the owner of such an illegal place and the doer are liable to be proceeded against under the Betting House Act. This is not new law, for the decision follows Sir James Fitzjames Stephen's digest, which gives an analysis of the first section of the Act in terms which leave no doubt on the subject.

What, then, is the natural and inevitable consequence ? Simply this, that the Anti-Gambling League has ready to hand a sharp legal axe by which it may cut off the head of this evil by one quick Vlow. If every enclosure where professional bookmakers ply their trade is a betting house or place under the Act of 1853, and if, as the law declares, every such betting house is a common gaming house as defined by the 2nd section of 8 and 9 Victoria, then every opener, owner, occupier, manager, and user thereof concerned in any such enclosure can be convictel of a misdemeanour under the Act. Racing in England is absolutely at our mercy, and if the Jockey Club will not help us to clear out this Augean stable, and to suppress the gaming hell of modern England, we shall have to bring matters to a head by prosecuting the Stewards of the Jockey Club for their complicity in the betting that goes on publicly at Newmarket.

Now if this be the case, and it is a fact that notwithstanding the urgent entreaties of the sporting papers the appeal in the case of the Northampton bookmaker was not prosecuted, althougli notice of appeal was given, it would appear that the authorities have in their hands a weapon which indeed any private citizen can use against any racecourse on which betting takes place. blow well delivered at the Stewards of the Jockey Club might bring the whole system to the ground. Now it is well to have a giant's strength, but it may be tyrannous to use it as a giant. The Northampton decision, following in the decision of Bond v. Plumb in the Queen's Bench Division, shows that the anti-gamblers have this weapon well in hand, and are thoroughly determined to use it.

A PRECEDENT FOR THE PRESS. Now let us see how this applies to the newspapers. By the Betting House Act of 1853, any person exhibiting a placard, or publishing or advertising any card, writing or sign, or inviting persons to resort to a betting house, may be fined £30 and costs or two months' imprisonment. Now as it has been judicially declared that a betting ring on a racecourse is a house or office which, under the

Betting House Act, is a common nuisance and a common gaming house, it follows that the advertisement of such a place renders the newspaper inserting such an advertisement liable to fine or imprisonment. Even if this were not sufficient to deal with the mischief, it affords us an indication of the readiness of the British legislature to punish publications which tend to advertise or facilitate gaming. That clause judiciously extended so as to meet the circumstances would make short work of starting prices, betting tipsters, and the publication of odds.

THE PREMIER'S OPPORTUNITY. I would appeal to Lord Rosebery under these circumstances, not merely as the Prime Minister of England, but as the winner of the Derby, and as a man who has close personal knowledge and a predominant influence both on the turf and in Parliament, to devote his serious attention to this subject. If he does nothing the law may take its course, and we may see the whole racing fraternity threatened with outlawry. To this I should have very small objection, provide i that I believed in the long run public opinion would support so drastic a measure of dealing with the subject. But that is not my opinion. Safely and slow, they stumble who run fast, is the safest maxim in such circumstances as the present. It would be much better to get half a loaf and keep it than to snatch the whole, with the probability of having it knocked out of our clutches before we had had a chance to eat a crust. Lord George Bentinck prided himself more upon what he was able to do in reforming the turf than upon all his achievements in the House of Commons. I do not suppose that Lord Rosebery would take a similar view of the importance of racing and legislation, but assuredly at the present moment he lies under a peculiar obligation to see to it that some practical modus vivendi is arrived at whereby racing can be carried on decently and legally, while closing the great national gambling hell which is practically conducted by the British press with the active assistance of the Government telegraphs.

If the victory of Ladas should be the means of compelling its noble owner to realise the responsibility of his position and to deal with this question with a firm hand and a determination to cope with the British gaming hell with the same spirit with which his predecessors dealt with the lotteries and the gaming houses, then indeed will Ladas deserve to be regarded as St. Ladas in another than a turfite sense, and all Christian men and good citizens will have good reason to rejoice that Ladas carried off the Derby Stakes this year at Epsom.

But one

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LORD ROSEBERY AND THE TURF.

away at a moment's notice-for example, on a death in his WITH REFLECTIONS ON BETTING.

family. He holds so lightly to property that he is next door

to having none. Yet of all gamblers he is the most desperate. MR. DALE, son of Dr. R. W. Dale, of Birmingham, who

In truth, men do not so much want to amass gain, by gambling, writes the monthly summary for the Sunday Magazine,

as to enjoy the exciting fluctuations of luck.

If property thus comments upon the connection of Lord Rosebery were abolished to-morrow, I believe that men would invent a with the turf :-

shell currency, like the Papuans, and gamble for that. The Prime Minister's victory in the Derby, though welcomed

Geoffrey Mortimer, writing in the Free Review upon with enthusiasm by the crowd, seems to us a matter for serious

the betting craze, says: regret. Every one who knows the actual condition of the people is aware that at the present moment betting is doing An anti-betting organisation proposes to bring about a almost as much harm as drink. It produces a vast mass of radical reform by legally arraigning the promoters and crime. It drags down thousands of victims into utter misery stewards of one of our great race meetings. This is a method and ruin. The turf, like those who live by it, is notoriously of whole-measures-or-none, which permits no temporising with corrupt. Lord Rosebery is not supposed to bet himself. He the British veneration for the race-horse. For horse-racing is would disdain any association with the sordid wretches who one of our orthodoxies, and the oligarchy of the turf is an prey upon the folly and the credulity of their fellow-creatures. ancient and powerful institution. It is probable that a total But he has to

suppression of take the system

betting would as it exists.

mean the ruin of He is under

horse - racing. I no illusion and

am not prepared knows that he is

to

say offhand powerless to mend

that this would it. How can he

be a grievous fail to see that

national calamity. his name and his

But there are tens influence aggra

of thousands of vate the evil?

Englishmen who They invest what

would feel the is disreputable

solid earth hearwith the

ing beneath them blance of honour.

if it were seriously They to

suggested tbat all cloak and to mask

betting on horses the evil. He is

should be prothe first Prime

scribed by law. Minister to win

We associate low the Derby: we

trickery, brazen trust that he may

dishonesty, and be the last.

ruffianism with

the sport of racIn Longman's

ing; but it is well Magazine Mr. From Moonshine.]

“OH, MY!”

[June 23, 1894. to remember that Andrew Lang

the Crown, the refers to thesubBut note the Betting List in his pocket.

Church, the ject of gambling

Army, the Navy, in alluding to George Moore's “Esther Waters.” Mr. all the potent respectabilities of the community, support the Lang says :

turf. The enthusiasm for racing, and staking chances on The extreme prevalence of that sordid folly proves two

"events," descend through every grade from Marlborough things. First, the poor very naturally want to escape from

House to the slums. In fact, racing is an integrant of our strikes, labour, and weariness into a paradise of hope. Gamb

constitution ; and the man who attacks it will not escape a ling offers them “ the key of the happy golden land," and sends

charge of sedition. the gleam of romance flitting before them, the rainbow with

The National Review says:the buried treasure at its feet. Therefore the poor bet, and Whatever his shortcomings may be in other respects, Lord with infinitely more excuse than the rich. The habit is Rosebery has achieved the unprecedented and imperishable morally and financially ruinous, but if the world is to be cured distinction of combining the Premiership with the Blue of betting it will not be by the most powerful tracts, sermons, Ribbon of the Turf, both of which have fallen to him in the or moral novels appealing to the sentiments. People can only same year. Much political capital was anticipated from be mended by reason when instructed that the odds against á Ladas's triumph, and the Ministerialists were highly elated success worth winning are mathematically incalculable. This on learning the news, while the Opposition were proportionately plain fact will convince the reasonable, but, unluckily, the depressed. It has certainly familiarised a large number of reasonable are a very small minority, and perhaps are con non-politicians with Lord Rosebery's name, and has greatly vinced already. The opium-eater knows the end of opium added to his reputation for good luck, which already stood eating, and the sporting footman, if he reflects, knows the end high; he is more loudly cheered in the music-halls than he of backing horses; but the magical gleam is too much for was a month ago, and the “ man in the street" looks upon them, is too much for all of us, for every mortal thinks that he him with a friendly eye, as he does on every one associated himself is the exception to the general rules. The Socialist with sport. On the other hand, the impression created by the may say that property, among other evils, causes gambling. Prime Minister's jocular speeches that he is a frivolous man Men hope to increase their possessions, so they bet. But the has been deepened by his widely advertised association with Red Indian is a practical Communist: he gives all he has the turf, and there has been a growl of deep resentment

[graphic]

THE NONCONFORMIST CONSCIENCE.

from a section of the Nonconformists. This correspondence reveals in many letters the deep-rooted English Puritan feeling to which the Radical Party owes much of its prosperity, with its uncompromising and not altogether unwholesome detestation of the racing atmosphere. It is difficult, therefore, to say whether Lord Rosebery will gain or lose in political strength by the possession of Ladas; he will probably be more shouted for, but not more voted for. There is an outside chance of his losing some of the most zealous and fanatical supporters of his Party, but having made their protest, they will probably convince themselves that the * Carnival of Rascality” on Epsom Downs is less wicked than the Established Church. Enthusiastic Gladstonians claim that Ladas is worth 100,000 votes to the Party, while equally sanguine Unionists expect to destroy the Premier's influence in Scotland.

THE UPPER CHAMBERS OF THE WORLD. A WRITER in the Westminster Review on the position of the House of Lords gives the following valuable summary of the constitutions of the Upper Chambers of other States :

Sweden.--First House : 147 members elected by the provinces and municipalities for nine years.

Switzerland.--Ständerath : 4+ members nominated by the Cantons, 2 for each Canton, for three years. The terms of nomination rest with each Canton.

BRITISII SELF-GOVERNING COLONIES. Canada. Sonate: the senators are appointed by the Governor-General, in the name of the Crown, for life, but they may resign, and seek election to the Lower House. At present there are about 80 senators.

New South Wales.--Legislative Council: not less than 21 members appointed for life by the Governor, as representative of the Crown. There are now over 70 members of the Council.

Victoria.-Legislative Council : 48 members elected by the 14 provinces for six years, one-third of them retiring every two years. There is a small property qualification for electors.

New Zealand.- Legislative Council: 47 members nominated by the Crown for life. (There are two Maories in the Upper House.)

Queensland.-Legislative Council: 39 members nominated by the Crown for life.

South Australia.-Legislative Council : 24 members. Every three years the 8 members whose names are first on the roll retire, and their places are taken by 2 new members elected from each of the four districts into which the colony is divided. There is a small property qualification for electors.

Tasmania.---Legislative Council; 18 members elected for six years.

A small property qualification is necessary to become an elector,

Western Australia. --Legislative Council : this colony was granted a responsible government by an Act of the Imperial Parliament passed in 1890 (53 & 54 Vict. c. 26). Although the Council is at present named by the Governor, for the Crown, provision is made in the constitution for the members of it to be eventually elected.

Cape Colony.---Legislative Council: 22 members elected for seven years. The election is by such voters as receive £25 a year wages with board and lodging, or possess a real property qualification, or a salary of £50 per annum.

From the above abstract it is seen (1) That two Chambers are the rule. (2) That no nation, except Great Britain, any longer possesses a purely hereditary House.

INDEPENDENT NATIONS.

The United States.-Senate: 2 senators for each State, elected by the State Legislatures for six years.

France.-Senate: 300 members, elected for nine years, from citizens of at least forty years of age, one-third of them retiring every three years. The electoral body is composed of (1) delegates chosen by the Municipal Council of each commune; and (2) the Deputies, etc., of each Department. Life senatorsjwere gradually abolished by an Act passed in 1884.

Germany. --Bundesrath : 58 members appointed by the governments of the individual States for each session.

Belgium.-Senate : the constitution is being revised at the present time. The Senate, in the past, has been elected by the same voters as the House of Representatives, the number of senators (69) being one-half of that of the members of the Lower House. The members of the Senate have been elected for eight years, one-half of them retiring every four years.

Italy. --Senate, consisting of princes of royal blood, and an unlimited number of members appointed by the king for life, a ('ondition of nomination being the bolding of high State offices, eminence in science, etc., or the payment of 3000 lire $600) in taxes. In 1890 there were 335 senators.

Spain.-Senate: three classes of senators : (1) king's sons over twenty-one years of age; “ grandees” having an income of 60,000 pesetas ($12,000); captains, generals, admirals, etc. ; (2) about 100 senators nominated by the Crown, not to exceed 180, when included with the first class ; (3) 180. senators, elected by the States, the Church, the Universities, and learned bodies for five years.

Portugal. - House of Peers : an Act of 1885 abolished the hereditary House by a gradual process, and substituted 100 life peers, appointed by the king, not including princes of royal blood, and 12 bishops. There are also 50 elective peers, 45 of whom are chosen indirectly by the administrativo districts and five by various scientific bodies.

Netherlands. First Chamber: 50 members elected by the Provincial States from among the most highly assessed inhabitants, or from high functionaries. They are elected for nine years, one-third of them retiring every three years.

Greece.- No Upper Chamber. The only Chamber is the Boulé of 150 members, elected for four years.

Austro-Hungary.- The connecting link between the two portions of this empire is constituted by a body known as “the Delegations." This consists of a Parliament of 120 members, one-half chosen by the legislature of Germanic-Austria, twothirds of the members being elected by the Lower House, and one-third by the Upper House, the other half, similarly elected, representing Hungary. The Acts of “the Delegations require confirmation by the representative assemblies of their respective countries. The delegates are chosen for one year.

Denmark.-Landsthing : 66 members, 12 nominated by the Crown for life, and Jt elected by indirect universal suffrage for eight years.

Mr. Kidd's Criticism of “The Ascent of Man."

THE author of “Social Evolution " reviews Professor Hienry Drummond's latest work in the Expositor. He recognises about it “a ring of greatness," but finds that,

although the book deals with scientific questions, its subject is not so much science as the poetry of science. It represents the soaring flights of a young and vigorous school of thought, which often rises into regions where the captive wing of science can almost certainly never hope to follow. “Much of what is characteristic” in the opening chapters, “and also to some extent in the book as a whole, will be familiar to those who have read Fiske's ' Destiny of Man.'” In his “glorification of the intellect at the expense of the body, Professor Drummond appears to be on rather doubtful ground.” The chapter

“the Dawn of Mind” is “probably one of the least satisfactory in the book.” “He has confused throughout

.. the facts connected with two totally distinct developments in life-namely, the parental development and the co-operative or social development.”. He is not satisfactory in his treatment of sex.” “ The struggle for the life of others is not, as he seems at times to think, something apart and to which the struggle for life finally leads up ... The struggle for the life of others is only a phase of the eternal rivalry of life." Mr. Kidd will not allow Dr. Drummond's contention that his basing social evolution on “ultra-rational” grounds puts the law of continuity to confusion.

on

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