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that the cards were packed in favour of the Unionist. for the Liberals. He was the tried and trusted The Liberal late member had disgusted his constitu chief of the staff at the party headquarters, a post ents by leaving them after he had secured for himself for which he had every qualification but one. That legal promotion and before he had secured for his defect, not noticed when he was in the saddle, tells ploughmen electors the statutory half-holiday which heavily against the party to-day. He trained no they covet much more than Home Rule. The

He had assistants, and another man now Liberal candidate was a stockbroker from London. sits in his sanctum ; but there is no Schnadhorst II. The Unionist candidate was the representative

And therein the Liberals suffer a grievous injury of Lord Dalhousie, commanding all the support natu which will cost them many seats at the General -rally given to a landlord as liberal and generous as

Election. the late Earl, and pledged moreover to a programme

The need for insisting upon these things more Radical than that of most Ministerialists. Free

Mr. Asquith's is that nothing but the prospect of

“ faux pas. trout fishing, Mr. Chamberlain's social programme,

imminent disaster will keep in check the 3, wide and liberal measure of local government for fatal centrifugal tendencies of the Ministerialist Ireland, and Home Rule for Scotland so far as to horde. It is perhaps only fit and proper that have all Scotch business transacted at the Scotch Mr. Labouchere and his solitary fidus Achates capital--these things made up an attractive pro should do their level best to render impossible a gramme and secured the defeat of the Liberal inter- union of the Menders and Enders by proclaiming loper by 286 votes, where Sir John Rigby had pre aloud their irreconcilable hostility to mending in viously been elected by a majority of 866. Hence any shape or form ; but the public heard with some deep dismay and grave searchings of heart in the amazement Mr. Asquith speaking at Birmingham Liberal ranks.

in terms which made the cynic shrug his shoulders But the Forfarshire ploughman, douce and the honest Liberal hang his head in despair. Mr.

man though he be, is not the Grand There is no chance of victory if Cabinet Ministers Schnadhorst.

Elector of the British Empire, and if go out of their way to advertise to the country that Forfarshire stood alone there would be no need the Ministry is a house divided against itself. Lord for despondency. Unfortunately it does not stand

Rosebery's position is one of extraordinary difficulty.
The task before the party can only be accomplished
by union and discipline, and it is disheartening
indeed when those who should lead the assault upon
the outworks waste their energies in discussing how
the citadel shall be attacked after the outworks
have been won.
The People

The tactical advantage of going to the

country on the issue whether the nation Peers ?

should be governed by the People or the Peers, is that it forces the electors to face the unpleasant prospect of placing the Empire under the rule of the Peers till the close of the century. The Liberals have to play double or quits in the hope that the danger of enormously increasing the power of the aristocracy may drive a recalcitrant democracy into their camp.

This of course is an advantage, inasmuch as it transfers the controversy from the past to the future, and enables Liberals to avoid

inconvenient admissions as to the constitutional and (From a photograph by Elliott and Mry.)

moral justification which the Peers can plead for

throwing out the Home Rule Bill. alone. Much more serious than the loss of half

Irish Disunion

The danger of a crushing Liberal defeat a-dozen by-elections has been the loss of Mr. the Hope may also lead the Irish factions to drop

of Unionism. Schnadhorst. Mr. Schnadhorst for a dozen years

these internecine feuds. It would be and more has been the Carnot who organised victory well if Mr. Healy and Mr. Redmond and Mr.


or the


Justin McCarthy could be shut up like a jury

The Independent Labour Party shows no without fire, food, or drink until they arrived at an Our One diminution of its zeal in the cause of

Chance. agreement by which they could spike the Unionists'

Liberal disunion. Putting all these chief argument. That is based upon the rooted

things together, it requires no prophetic eye to see conviction that the Irish are a race afflicted, as by

that nothing but the most extraordinary patience some strange curse, with an utter lack of that

and pluck on the part of Lord Rosebery can give political common sense which finds expression in the give and take of sensible compromise, with

the Liberals even a fair show at the polls. Patience, out which self-government is impossible. At present

however, the first quality, as Peel declared, that is there is but small sign of any movement in this

needed by a British Premier, Lord Rosebery possesses, direction. The Parnellites, whose object it seems to and pluck also of the North British kind. His be to borrow, even from the charnel-house of death, speeches at Glasgow and at the Lord Mayor's banquet

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poison with which to envenom the weapons of poli- have deepened the respect with which the young tical controversy, quote the Duke of Devonshire's Premier is regarded even by those who differ from him. speech at Barnstaple as a justification for prolonging They were sinewy, straightforward and eloquent the present anarchy of faction among Irish patriots. appeals to the massive common sense of the great The Duke said :

public. They showed the more serious side of a We can offer to the people of Ireland their full share of all

statesman whose wit has sometimes dazzled those reforms, political or social, which we think a wider knowledge of the wants of the people and a fuller sympathy

observers that they mistook what were flashes from have brought into our view.

the depths of the volcano for the fitful and uncertain This, it is argued, may mean that Ireland will receive gleam of summer lightning. That mistake will local self-government from the hands of the Union not survive this autumn, and that more accurate ists. If the Irish prefer a Local Government Bill to appreciation of the fighting force of Lord Rosebery Home Rule, no doubt this may come true. But do is one of the most palpable advantages of the they? That is for the Parnellites to decide.




The most remarkable event of the last late. Under such safeguards, the sovereign people Republican month has been the phenomenal and feels that the November polls are little more than United States. almost unprecedented collapse of the an opportunity of saying Damn! This


it Democratic party at the November Elections in the certainly said Damp ! very loudly. After the irritaUnited States. There is sufficient semblance between tion at the bad times, the division in the Democratic the position of President Cleveland and Lord Rose ranks, due to personal differences between Cleveland bery to make the catastrophe echo unpleasantly on and Hill, and the scandalous corruption revealed in this side the Atlantic. President Cleveland, like New York under the Democratic sway of Tammans, Lord Rosebery, reigns over a divided party, which had most to do with the result. The Anti-Papal two years ago obtained a majority in the Lower Association claim that in routing out the Catholics House by a programme which resembled the New they incidentally gave the victory to the Republicans, castle Programme in being far in advance of anything and, preposterous as their claim may be, it is to be that the Upper House would pass. For Home Rule read feared that Protestant bigotry played some part in Tariff for revenue only, for the Solid South the South the Republican victory. and West of Ireland, and for Populists the Independent

At home the most notable electoral

London Labour Party--and we can figure out pretty clearly School Board result has been that achieved at the how the land lies. If Lord Rosebery had consented

London School Board Election. The to pass some kind of a Local Government Bill for contest was prosecuted with unusual acrimony on Ireland framed by the majority in the House of Lords both sides. Churchmen maligned Nonconformists instead of insisting on Home Rule, he would have been as Atheists, and Nonconformists discredited a good where President Cleveland found himself when the cause by making party capital out of the private polls closed. The Democratic party was simply

devotions of Mr. Athelstan Riley, whom they regarder snowed under by the ballot papers of the Republicans. as a Romanist in disguise. The cdium theologicuila The House of Representatives, which had a majority however, usually bears these poisonous fruits. The of ninety-one Democrats over the Republicans, will real and tho only important issue from a practica be replaced by a House with a Republican majority point of view was not theological but educational. The of ninety. In the Northern States the Republicans Denominationalists had starved the Board scbools have wiped out their Democratic adversaries. It lest they should compete at an advantage with the is of the greatest landslides of modern schools of the Church. That policy of the Stingy politics.

Stepmother was the accursed thing against which the Many causes can be raked together to indignation of the citizens was directed, not against Explanations

explain the overturn, but before the polls the Mariolatry of Mr. Riley or the Trinitarianism of Elections. opened all of them together were not

the Circular. The result was unexpectedly favourexpected by the closest observers to produce such a able for the opponents of the Church Party. The sweeping result. The first and by far the greatest

Progressives polled a clear plurality of 135,000 votes, contributing cause was the fact that the times representing a majority of some 30,000 voters.

The were bad. Employment was scarce, wages were

East and South of London gave a heavy majority for falling, farmers were starving. The country has

the Progressives. The strength of the Moderates been traversed by armies of out o? works, and all

lay in the wealthy voters of the City, Westminster. these evils could be directly traced in part to the

Chelsea, and Kensington. So decisive a victory at prolonged uncertainty about the tariff. Protection the polls has filled the Liberals with delight, and ists and Free Traders agreed in 'blaming the adminis

the Denominationalists with dismay. tration, the former for meddling with the subject at

The moral effect of this emphatic deall, the latter for their lack of decision and thorough Cumulative liverance by the citizens as to their mind ness, so it came to pass the sovereign people rose in

on the subject has been but partially its might and made a clean sweep of the Democratic obscured by the fact that owing to the fitful candidates. The sovereign people did this all the operation of the cumulative vote a party with a more emphatically because, owing to the safeguards majority of about 130,000 voters in the constiagainst popular passion devised by the Constitution tuencies finds itself in a minority of three on the builders, the voting changes nothing for a year to Board. The result is due to the collapse of the

Not until the beginning of 1896 will Labour and Social Democratic parties. When the the Republican majority have the chance to legis- Progressives nominated their candidates they only


of the




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nominated twenty-eight--sufficient to give them a

The teachers if they please can without

The Teacher majority of one if every candidate was elected,

in Politics.

much difficulty elect the School Boards. relying upon the return of a sufficient nuinber of

They have the confidence of the parents. Labour or Socialist candidates to make up for

They are closer to the electors than any politicians, any casualties among the Progressives. But

and, if they choose to follow Mr. Macnamara and often happens in a

Mr. Anstell, they can oust both Progressives and contest, the forces

Denominationalists, and run our Elementary Schools of gravitation proved irresistible. Citizens who

to suit themselves. Mr. Bryce adverted to another might in ordinary times have voted for indepen- phase of this question when speaking at Clerkenwell: dent candidates, rallied to the regular party ticket on education in citizenship : when they got interested in the main issue. As the In view of the ever-increasing duties of citizens in the result the independent candidates got left every time.

exercise of their several franchises, the function of the teachers

became one of the most important in the State. There had The cumulative vote, which was invented to give

been countries where almost everything depended upon the representation to minorities, left the Labour, Socialist,

teachers. In Bulgaria, after the Turks were driven out, this and Catholic groups without a solitary representative class became the most important in the community. The on the Board. The system of proportional represen

teachers became the Ministers and administrators of the tation, advocated as an ideal plan for apportioning

country and had enjoyed ever since a large share in its govern

ment. Again, in Germany in her dark period between the seats in exact proportion to the number of the voters,

great peace in 1815 and the revolutionary outbreaks of 1848. worked out in practice so as to give a majority of the it was by the German professors that the torch of freedom was seats to the minority of the voters. The advocates kept alive and the dream of a revived Germany cherished. In of proportional representation will find it will take this country the elementary teachers would have much to do

in moulding the future citizens of the country. It would be many elaborate essays to remove the prejudice which

their duty to cultivate these principal qualities in their pupils. the result of the School Board Election has left in

First, intelligence to appreciate the real issues before them; the public mind against the cumulative vote.

secondly, independence of all sinister influences, whether of The School Board Elections in London employer, or of political organisation, or even of spiritual Other

adviser. Above all, the voter should take care that the School Board were immediately preceded by similar Elections.

controller of the organisation should not boss” it, as the elections in Birmingham, Liverpool, Man

Americans said. The third quality was interest and chester, Rochdale, and Salford, and followed by earnestness. others in Bradford, Gateshead, and Sheffield. The Of one thing we may be quite sure. The policy of results call for little remark, the status quo being left the Stingy Stepmother will never command the on the whole unchanged. Here and there two seats enthusiasm of the teachers. would be lost or gained, but substantially the balance

The excitement caused by the School

The Parish of parties remains as before. The attempt to run

Board Elections has to some extent

Councils Act. Labour candidates met with very partial success.


dwarfed the interest in the pending Labour Party won two seats from the Church Party at elections for vestries, guardians and parish councils. Rochdale, and one from the Progressives at Salford. This enormous number of elections all occurring None of their candidates were elected at Liverpool, simultaneously puts the practical sagacity of our Manchester, or Birmingham. The most notable fea democracy to a somewhat ruder test than any to ture in these elections was the return of Mr. Anstell, which it has hitherto been exposed. Our democracy the representative of the Teachers' Association, is raw, and it is inevitable that

many blunders should at the head of the poll at Birmingham. Mr. Anstell be made, say, in the choice of the five thousand polled 146,000 votes out of a total of 390,508, men and women who are to be elected as vestrypolling actually more than the total, 121,488, which men in Greater London, In time we shall be prereturned the whole Liberal eight! The next highest pared for it, no doubt. But this year we have nothing poll was 33,329. If the Birmingham teachers had to show like the organisation which exists in American run a teachers' Eight and distributed Mr. Anstell's cities. In Chicago last month, on the morning of the votes they might have had a majority on the Board. elections, an army of no fewer than 16,000 Democrats In West Lambeth Mr. Macnamara, the teachers' mustered at dawn, and were told off in squads of 20 candidate, polled the heaviest vote cast in London, to each of the 800 polling places in the city. The viz., 48,255. The advent of the teacher as a force Republicans would have about as many. So that the in School Board politics is a new and somewhat rival parties had an army of 30,000 men actually significant feature of these elections.

engaged in polling about 300,000 electors. The pro

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