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GERMANY'S SUCCESS IN ALSACE-LORRAINE. day and every day receiving citizens, told Mr. Capper By MR. SAMUEL JAMES CAPPER.

that his French was growing quite rusty because he had

scarcely any occasion to use it. To complete the good MR. CAPPER in the Contemporary Review gives a most work which Germany has been engaged in since the war, interesting and useful survey of the present condition of Mr. Capper suggests that all exceptional and repressive things in Alsace-Lorraine. Mr. Capper spent many legislation should be done away with and that the Home months in the conquered provinces at the time when Rule of the Reichsland should be developed so as to make they were the cockpit of the great Franco-German war. the Landes Ausschuss a Landtag like that of Prussia, He has now revisited them after a space of a quarter of

Bavaria or Saxony. He would also like to see Alsace a century, and as he has an eye to see and the pen of a

annexed to Baden, and Lorraine to Prussia. Mr. Capper's

article will be received with a howl of indignation in ready writer, he is able to furnish us with just the

France, but he sees things as they are, and we have information which we want as to the state of things

reason to rejoice that the situation is so favourable. in the lost provinces. Mr. Capper, although a member of the Society of Friends, is under no delusion as to

CROMWELL, CREATOR OF OUR CAVALRY. the irrevocable determination of Germany to hold on

“The creation of the first English cavalry soldier” is the to these provinces until she has spent her last mark result of Captain Oliver Cromwell's memorable resolve to and her last soldier. Neutralisation would precipitate “get men of a spirit that is likely to go on, as far as war, and the great rampart which the Germans have gentlemen will go.” Such is the opening statement of erected in the Reichsland will never be willingly sur

the very interesting sketch in Macmillan's of “The rendered to France. These words of Mr. Capper may be

Beginnings of the British Army (the Cavalry).” As an commended to those sentimentalists who are perpetually

illustration of the elementary condition of cavalry drill

when Cromwell began his task, one quaint instruction is trying to promote peace by advocating propositions which

cited : lead directly to war:

If your horse be resty so as he cannot be put forwards, then If, then, it is vain, and even absurd, to look to the elimina let one tnke a cat tieil by the tail to a long pole: and when he tion of the danger of a great war, either by the restoration of [the horse] goes backward, thrust the cat within his tail where the provinces to France, or by their neutralisation, thus form she may claw him: and forget not to threaten your horse with ing a buffer-State between the probable belligerents, what a terrible noise. Or otherwise take a hedgehog, and tie him alternative remains to us? First and foremost, to look the strait by one of his feet to the inside of the horse's tail, that facts fairly and squarely in the face, and to realise that so he (the hedgehog) may squeal and prick him. Alsace and Lorraine are at least as absolute and integral parts “Firearms were the rage of the day;” the sword was of Germany as Savoy and Vice are of France. When France

quite a secondary weapon”; lances were out of and Europe recognise this certain truth, we shall have made a first step towards an era of peace.

fashion. The writer goes on to destroy some pet illu

sions about the famous Rupert charge. He says: We are all the more able to accept this postulate by The ordinary cavalry attack was delivered by ranks; each the evidence which Mr. Capper brings to us as to the rank fired its two pistols and filed or countermarched to the immense success which has attended the German policy rear, leaving the next rank to do likewise. Anything more in Alsace-Lorraine. Alsace, he says, has absolutely remote from “shock-action" can hardly be conceived. ceased to be French. The peasants are not dissatisfied; At Marston Moor ... Rupert attacked [Cromwell] in front the wine-grower profits by being included in the German and flank, with the result that both sides “stood at sword's Zollverein; and the population generally, with the excep

point a pretty while hacking one another," "and evidently tion of a few handfuls in the large towns, recognise that

doing each other little liarm; till Cromwell's men, probably the Germans are just and conscientious to a degree.

from superior discipline, at last broke through.

Nor does it seem to us that we are quite correct in looking They are saving money, and all that they desire is to

upon Rupert as a kind of Murat, as the usual fashion is. be left alone. They dread war, and are settling down Take for instance his attack at Naseby. He advanced up a as fast as possible into contented subjects of the German slight incline, and he came fast” as we are expressly toldl, Empire. The young men, even those who were born under probably at a trot. Ireton, who was opposed to him, also the French Government, have openly asserted that they are advanced down the hill. On seeing him, Rupert halted, thus no longer Frenchmen. Always German by race, descent and giving Ireton the chance of plunging down upon him with language, they now feel German not only politically, but irresistible force. But Ireton also halted in his turn, partly on also in feeling and in sympathy. Mr. Capper devotes

account of “the disadvantage of the ground, partly to allow some of his space in explaining the modified kind of Home

,some of his troops to recover their stations." Had Rupert

continued his advance he would have found Ireton in disorder; Rule which has been established in Alsace-Lorraine. Of Lorraine Mr. Capper is able to give an even better

but as it was he gave him time to get his troops together.

Then he charged Ireton and routed him. . . Altogether it account. What is true of the peasantry of Alsace is true seems to us certain that cavalry charges, in the sense of swift, of the peasantry of Lorraine. But the German language

sudden onslaught, were the exception in the Civil War. is spreading much faster in Lorraine than in Alsace. Of the British cavalry soldier, as Cromwell originally made The reason for this is that the Alsatians stick to their him, we should seek our ideas. . . not in modern pictures which patois, while the Lorrainers have to learn German, and make a cavalry action of the Civil War as headlong a matter the habitual use of pure German is causing the German as the charge of the Greys at Waterloo, but in the old pictures isation of Lorraine to proceed much more rapidly than

of Wouvermans, where the cavaliers caracole about firing that of Alsace. Muhlhausen is the chief centre of French

pistols in each other's faces. feeling in Alsace. So strong is this sentiment that

The writer concludes with “a lively picture of the new Alsatian recruits when in German uniform are cut

model trooper in his new red coat faced with his colonel's by their friends. The sentiment in favour of France

colours, his great boots and huge clinking spurs; a soldier

before all things in spite of the text on his lips. It seems a in Alsace-Lorraine Mr. Capper does not rank above the

far cry from this light cavalryman of the seventeenth century Jacobite sentiment in Scotland a hundred years ago. The to the hussar of the present day, yet they may not be s) Burgomeister of Strasburg, who is at the Town Hall all distant after all."

designs, but improvements will continue in detail so long as it remains in use. We are nearly at the limit of economy with steam locomotives where there are large bɔilers and compound cylinders, and where the engineer and fireman are competent and the loads not excessive, and the maximum capacity is about as great in some cases as it is practicable to make it; hence, for higher efficiency and greatly increased hauling power at high speed, concentration of power is needed. So far as can now be seen there must be a stationary plant where power can be concentrated, and electricity seems the only practical means of transferring such concentrated power to moving trains.

HOW TO NATIONALISE THE RAILWAYS. MR. JAMES HOLE'S “ Argument for State Purchase” of Railways is sympathetically epitomised in the Westminster Review by Mr. Hugh H. L. Bellot. The corrupt administration of the United States deters Mr. Hole from recommending State ownership in that country. He would replace the existing individualistic system by the institution of Trusts analogous to our Dock and Harbour 'Trusts. For the United Kingdom, in place of its present mixed system of individualism and State control, Mr. Hole offers two alternative schemes:

One is that proposed by Mr. A. J. Williams, M.P., of dividing “the Euglish railways into five non-competing systems based on districts, each district having as its general manager one of the central board of management. A commencement might be made by putting the whole of the Irish railways into one gronp, and the Scotch into another. The ordinary railway board would become needless and a thousand railway directors be spared. The real railway board--that which actually governs--consists of the managers who meet in the clearing-house, and who settle rates and conditions of traffic. Each system would become a trust-like the Mersey Trust-conducted with no reference to private gain, but in the general interest alone.

The other alternative is State purchase on the Prussian system. In 1892 the paid-up capital of the railways was stated at £897,472,000. If the shareholders received a Government Railway Stock securing them as much as they now receive, there is no doubt the large majority would prefer it. To prevent speculation, the basis should be that of earnings. ... The management, says Mr. Hole, should be in an independent government department, comprised not of officials, but of railway men, and presided over by a railway man.

To the objection that State control is inefficient and extravagant, Mr. Bellot answers that the Prussian railways taken over by the State “ara managed as efficiently as any other, and pay higher dividends than any other large system in the world.” At present British “railWays are managed by the rich for the rich."

THE LOCOMOTIVE OF THE FUTURE. LIMITATIONs to the increase of power in locomotives are considered by Mr. D. L. Barnes in the Engineering Magazine for June. He holds that “ The limit of locomotive boiler-power is nearly reached at present, and, unless two separate grates are usel, no more fuel can be burned on a locomotive than can now be burned with the largest grates we have in use. . . Two grates would require practically two boilers.

“A speed of one hundred miles an hour is possible now with light trains on straight track, and that is as fast as it will be safe to travel until better protection is given to trains while running." What is wanted is not high maximum speed but high average speed. This is a “real necessity, and can be obtained; for such service locomotives need power at starting and a larger boiler capacity for work on light grades.” “The demand for quick runs over long distances will not be filled by building locomotives for excessive speeds, but by so arranging the time-tables and decreasing the curves, grades, and number of stops, that high uniform speeds can be maintained for considerable periods of time." Mr. Barnes thus sums up the situation :

We are now entering upon an era of change of motive power from steam directly applied, as in our present steam locomotives, to electric transference of power from a central station to moving ains. The change must necessarily go on slowly, commencing first with the suburban, switching, and elevated services, and finally beginning in main-line wurk where the traffic is crowded. The steam locomotive will not be altered much in appearance or power from the best of the present

SOAKING THE SOIL WITH LIGHTNING.

NOVEL DANGER FROM THE ELECTRIC CAR. ANOTHER curious penalty of our growing civilisation is brought to light in Cassier's for June by Mr. J. H. Vail. We all know the touching faith which our fathers displayed in the sanitary receptivity of the ground beneath their cities, and can recall the reluctance with which they at last abandoned the cesspool system. We smile at their simplicity; yet it turns out that we are just as simple as they, though in another way. We have been saturating the soil of our cities, not with sewage, but with waste electricity. Says Mr. Vail:-

Destruction of gas and water pipes and underground metal work, generally due to the actiɔn of electric street railroad currents, is an evil of growing magnitude.

In the early days of electric railroad construction it was assumed by experts that the earth and the buried pipe systems would, when combined, form an ample return for the electric current. At that age of the art experts did not fully appreciate the immense quantities of current that would require to be carried, and therefore did not foresee that these currents when disseminated would produce the serious results that have been caused by electrolytic action on systems of pipes buried in the earth and owned by other companies. Frequent tests prove that the earth itself cannot afford the free path for the current that was anticipated. Earth conductivity has been over-estimated.

Within the past year strong evidence of damaging electrolytic action has been produced. In one case a section of iron water-pipe showed complete perforation, caused in four weeks' time. Lead coverings of telephone cables also show serious damage. In another case a plumber in a city in Pennsylvania was repairing a water-pipe in a house, and on breaking joint, an electric are formed across the separating ends of tho pipe.

In another place the return current formed an arc bet sreen a water-pipe and gas-pipe, burning a hole through the gas-pipe and setting fire to the gas.

Instances are numerous proving that the electric current is present on the gas and water pipes in buildings contiguous to electric railroad lines. Even those of us who are familiar with bandling electric currents hesitate to draw a combination of electricity with our gas or water. We know that the gas and water pipes entering our houses may be charged with such a current, and that it only remains for the circuit to be completed by a possible accident through our bodies, or the occurrence of a fire by automatic action between vibrating pipes.

Mr. Vail explains the remedies he has devised :-

The only proper system is one that affords a well-insulated and complete metallic circuit of low resistance, that will give an ample path for the complete unrestricted circulation of the entire current from pole to pole of the dynamo, thus offering no inducement for the current to follow such conductors as gas or water pipes, but, as it were, actually robbing the earth of any desire to carry the current.

In other words, we must develop a drainage system for the worse than insanitary sewage of our clectric railways.

PNEUMATIC
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COMPRESSED AIR

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THE SUBWAYS OF A GREAT CITY.

towns. They are to spend 66 million francs in adapting MR. J. J. WALLER, in Good Words, gives an account of the sewers to take all the sewage which at the present the Parisian sewers, illustrated by diagrams of the interior time is stored in cesspools. They are also going to spend of the main sewer in the Boulevard Sebastopol. The

50 million francs more in improving the water supply, main sewers are eleven feet high and sixteen feet broad, and the means of distributing it. One of the sewers and are constructed of solid masonry covered, with passes under the river by means of a syphon 170 yards cement. Workmen are continually working on them, long and three feet in diameter. This is kept clean by and the water only rises to the sidewalks after a very inserting a wooden ball on the left bank of the Seine heavy rainfall. The sewers contain two water mains, as

which almost exactly fills the tube. The pressure of the well as telegraph and telephone wires, and tubes for

stream carries the ball down, and then being of lighter compressed air, which is laid on just like water. Mr. specific gravity, it rushes to the surface, carrying before Waller says:

it everything that may have settled in the syphon. This ingenious system sprang from another embodied in a

THE CATACOMBS OF PARIS. contract granted in 1881 by the Municipal Council of Paris to the Pneumatic Clock Company, who were given permission to

In the Gentleman's Magazine Mr. Neil Wynn Williams place their tubes in the sewers on condition that they erected

tells how the subterranean quarries whence Paris was å given number of clocks in the public places of the city, and

built caused subsidence after subsidence, until after the undertook to keep them to the time furnished daily at noon by roof had been properly propped up they were in 1781 the Observatory. The

used as a recepclocks are worked from a central office

tacle for remains by the compressed

removed from air, and constitute a

cemeteries above great public conveni

ground.

This is ence. After twenty

the picture which five years from the

broke from the date of the contract

darkness : they will become the

We move on again, property of the city.

and lo! the rocks on As a set-off the com

either hand contract, RIVER pany received a con

change colour, break cession to establish

out into the grueand keep their pipes

some design of in the sewers for fifty

symmetrically built years, for the purpose

wall of bones and of distributing com

skulls. From the pressed air asa motive

level of our heads power throughout the

down to the level of city. A very wide use

our feet, skull rests is made of so advan

upon skull, and leans tageous a system, for

back against the it obviates the pur

myriad bones bechase of an engine,

hind. The shivering saves space, time, and

SEWACE trouble. All that is.

candlelight falls with

unequal rays upon needed is a meter

the formal tiers; and the proper con

it flashes coldly nections with the

upon the grinning compressed air-tube,

teeth, penetrates the then a turn of the SECTION OF MAIN SEWER, BOULEVARD SEBASTOPOL.

mortarless cranpies tap, and the machin

of the wa!l, and ever ery is in motion.

shows bone of many The sewers are also used to accommodate the pneumatic shapes and curves. Now it lights up a rent in some skull tubes, by means of which the carte telegrams are conveyed -a ghastly, jagged wound which haunts one with the thought from one end of the city to the other. The convenience of foul murder. Anon, it shimmers with erratic play on the of having the telephone wires in the sewers is very great.

trickling water that, pursuing its silent way from year to year, There are thousands of miles of these connecting 214

has crusted with a smooth gloss the skull beneath. post offices, as well as hundreds of private subscribers in The fate of the hundred fugitive Communists who lost every part of the city. Any subscriber in any part of their way in these catacombs and perished is vividly Paris may be heard with ease in the General Post Office imagined in London, and a whisper can be heard over the telephone in Paris, with the result that the hard swearing that “SHIRLEY begins what promises to be a series of goes on over the London telephones is almost unknown.

Table Talk papers in Good Words for July. sluice carriage is run along the ledges of the sewers,

HERR A. von BORRIES concludes a historical review in while a tongue scrapes the side and bottom clean. The sewers are lighted with lamps, and not only is every Cassier's of the evolution of the compound locomotive thoroughfare inscribed on enamel plates, but every house by predicting that which is connected with the sewer is also numbered. As

the two-cylinder compound locomotive will be the railway many as fifty tourists a day go down the sewers in the

motor of the future except in cases where an extra large tourist season to ride in the tourist car or sail in the

amount of tractive force is required, and here Mr. Mallet's gondola. The Paris Council has decided upon adopting articulated four-cylinder compound engine will successfully the system of drainage which is in vogue in English replace the two-cylinder locomotive.

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HOW TO BECOME STRONG.

ANOTHER AND A NOBLER MAHDI.
BY SANDOW.

“A 'MYSTIC being enshrouded in an atmosphere of In the Cosmopolitan for June, Eugen Sandow has an saintliness, dwelling in a convent citadel remote from the article entitled “How to Preserve Health and Maintain world ; a man of piety and prayer, who has, slowly and Strength.” It is illustrated by copyright photographs, for a long time unnoticed, been at work regenerating which are the nakedest which have ever been published whole races by means of emissaries quoting a few simple in a magazine, and the apologetic fig-leaf is much religious dogmas; a man given the name of Mahdi, but worse than nothing. Sandow looks very much better not claiming it; a man, moreover, fulfilling many of in his clothes than without them. In the article which the conditions that the looked-for Messiah is to fulfil,” accompanies these extraordinary pictures he asserts that -such is the description given in Blackwood of Senoussi, the first step towards the preservation of health and the Sheikh of Jerboub. The elder Senoussi, his father, strength is a knowledge of physiology and anatomy-sub was, it seems, an apostle of Mohammedan reform, who, jects which seem to him as essential as the study of mathe after preaching through Morocco, Egypt, and Mecca, matics, and more so than astronomy. Sandow's first retreated into convent life first near the ancient Cyrene, golden rule is, If you want to be strong, do not eat too and then deeper in the desert at the oasis Jerboub. much. Nothing shortens life and minimises power as That place has become a great centre of religious inthe almost universal habit of taking too much food. The fluence, whence preachers are sent and convents are only rule as to how much food should be taken is that sown far and wide through Northern Africa. “In the system should be kept free from hunger until the theory the tenets of the order are stern, unbending, and usual time for the next meal. If you wish to be strong, emblematic of Islam. In practice the disciples of do not drink tea or coffee, and when the stomach is empty Senoussi show, in many respects, a liberal-mindedness take nothing but distilled water. Another point is never and adaptability to circumstances characteristic rather of try to economise in sleep. Sandow says that he sleeps the least bigoted of Christian Churches;"even granting at nine hours, and often more. You should sleep in a warm times a place to woman far in advance of Moslem ideas. bedroom, and bathe almost as frequently as you eat. At The priests and emissaries of the order endeavour to promote any rate, you should always have a cold bath morning agriculture and encourage thrift in the districts where they are and evening. Lawn tennis is an admirable exercise, at work. By opening new wells, by planting crops, and by which brings into play almost all the muscles of the carefully attending to the culture of the date-palms which form body. Bicycling, from the point of view of exercise, is

the main wealth of the oases of North Africa, they have created superior to walking, but the rider should see to it that new centres of population, and have thereby opened up fresh his seat and handles are so adjusted as to enable him to

routes into the far interior absolutely under control of the ride upright. Sandow says he has not much faith in gym

order. Under the influence of these preachers, districts like

the Jebel Akhdar hills near Cyrene are regaining a prosperity nastics as they are usually taught, as they do not bring out

lost since the early days of the Christian era. the muscles which are in everyday use. Dumb-bell exercises At present the Sheikh of Jerboub certainly possesses far as usually practised are useless, and all exercise carried

more political power in the provinces of Tripoli, of Barka, and on in an enclosed building is not nearly so advantageous of Fezzan, which are marked on maps as Ottoman territory, as that in the open air. Parallel bars and other apparatus than does the Sultan. he thinks are of little use. His faith is pinned to dumb This is a power which, the writer believes, opposes a bells, and he does all his training with them, supplemented menacing “barrier to a French annexation of the great with weight lifting. If you wish to be strong, says tracts intervening between Senegal and Algeria.” A false Sandow, do not overstrain yourself; develop your move on the part of the French might rouse Senoussi to muscles by the easiest and lightest exercise. Mus declare himself the long-expected Mahdi, and proclaim & cular action, by accelerating the circulation and in holy war which would set the whole of North Africa creasing the absorption of nutritive materials, assists the ablaze. regenerative process, and wards off disease. By a constant use of dumb-bells any man of average strength can bring

Boys and “Roderick Random.” his muscles to the highest possible development. In

In the course of Mr. James Payn's "Gleams of exercising it is very important to stand correctly and to

Memory” in Cornhill Magazine, he makes reference to breathe properly. The right way to breathe properly is to the subject upon which there has been some little discustake long full breaths and to expel the air slowly. If

sion-namely, the effect of allowing boys to read the coarse you breathe properly, stand as you ought to do, get literature of the “Roderick Random” and “Tom Jones" plenty of pure air, sufficient, but not too much, whole

type. Mr. Payn says:some food, you will be sure to be healthy and strong. He

It was said that the mind shrank from the grossness of vice, thinks that in American schools children are overdriven,

and was more liable to be injured by the delicate suggestions of and the body is sacrificed to the mind. In his

it than by its actual picture. Don Juan,” for example (to take personal habits Sandow says that he does not go to bed a very mild specimen of the latter class), was thought to be till after midnight, and does not rise till eleven, when he less hurtful than “ Lalla Rookh.” This may be so with girls takes a cold bath all the year round, and a little light (though I doubt it), but certainly not with boys. Humour, no exercise with dumb-bells. After breakfast he attends to doubt, of which there is such a plenty in Smollett and Fielding, his correspondence and sees his friends, and then goes

is a disinfectant of coarseness with natures that possess humour; for a walk or a drive whatever the weather may be. At

but unfortunately it is only a very few boys who have this gift, seven he dines, after which he rests until his evening's

and what most pleases them in “ Roderick Random" and performance, and then he closes the day with a bath and

“ Tom Jones” is just what should please them the least. In

saying this I know that I run counter to the opinion of many supper. If he requires more exercise than his constitu

cultured persons even now; but I am too old' for illusions of tional or bicycle run, he takes it by flicking his muscles.

this kind-if, indeed, I was ever so weak as to entertaiu them.

I am told boys have been much improved since I was one of THE Freie Bühne and the lusikalische Rundschau are

them, and it may be so; but certainly in my time they more publishing Dr. Hans von Bülow's letters to his friend resembled those described by Cowper in his “Tirocinium” Richard Pohl.

than by Mr. Hughes in “Tom Brown.”

THE CONTEMPORARY REVIEW.

from paganism and going on to Apostolic Christianity." This month's Contemporary is an excellent number, of This is going a long way towards the higher criticism. widely varied interest and solid value. Sir J. R. Seeley's

The warm praise which Professor A. B. Bruce accords, a “ History of English Policy,” Mr. S. J. Capper's “Alsace

few pages further on, to Miss Wedgewood's “ Message and Lorraine," and my “Incidents of Labour War in of Israel in the light of modern criticism ” reminds us America,” have been separately noticed.

how, from Presbyterian to Papist, the new views on the

Bible have spread. COST OF COMPENSATION FOR ALL ACCIDENTS.

INCOMPARABLE HAMPSTEAD HEATH. Mr. A. D. Provand, M.P., desires to see all accidents

Phil Robinson has seen Hampstead Heath for the first compensated for,” and holds that the only way to secure time, and describes his visit with charming enthusiasm. this end is “by making insurance compulsory on

It reminded him of the Delectable Mountains. It gave employers, by payment to an accident insurance office or

him, he says, “one of the finest views in the whole of this to a Government-managed insurance fund.” He has round world of ours. I have seen more of its surface estimated the probable cost to the industries of the

than most men, but I cannot remember any view to beat country which such a system of insurance would entail.

it.” With Parliament Hill and Highgate rising before He calculates that it would involve a total annual him, and London with St. Paul's in view stretching away outlay of about £2,103,000 altogether, taking the largest

to the right, he exclaims :scale of compensation allowed by the Employers' Lia

What is the Bay of Naples, with its bitter, relentless, bility Act, while the expenses connected with the manage gentian blue overhead, and its sun-scorched, dusty, and grassment of the fund would be fully met by the addition of less ground beneath, compared to this view from Hampstead a further £100,000. This would be no serious tax on

Heath? Where else can you find such satisfying beauty ?

Not in Lisbon as seen from the river, nor in Sydney harbour, industrial resources, since the accidents are now paid for

nor in Southern California, nor anywhere else, not even in by friends or relatives or charity, or other means; and Nature's most favoured island-New Zealand. There is even in such risky works as the Manchester Canal and nothing, I believe, like it anywhere to captivate and comfort the Forth Bridge it would have only added £100,000 to

both the eye and mind at once. the £13,000,000 which the canal cost, and £60,000 to the Yet, he confesses, "the whole place seems to sniff of £3,225,000 which was the cost of the bridge. He would Bank Holiday.” Small birds there are in profusion, and have the Government

the crab-apple trees rouse him to a rare rapture; but in

no part of the open Heath could he find a single flower. undertake the management of the insurance fund for the

Only where wire netting protected some growing ivy whole of the industries of the country, charging to each a rate proportionate to the risks involved, and increasing or lessening

were wild flowers present, and in a plenty which told these rates from time to time in order to keep the fund solvent,

what the Heath as a whole would have been but for the and charging less or more to individual employers or com

picking fingers of children, and the tread of innumerable panies as they fourd their workshops and factories were free

feet. from accident or were otherwise, just as accident insurance

OTHER ARTICLES. offices do at present. The fund would be self-supporting, and Mr. L. M. Brunton tells curious stories of beatification would neither benefit the taxpayer nor be a charge on him. in the East. In India and China it is “of almost weekly PAPAL CONCESSIONS ABOUT THE BIBLE.

occurrence.” Some dozen new objects of worship are Rev. Father Clarke, replying again to the anonymous

recognised by the Chinese State every year.

The emperor

claims sway over the departed spirits, and these he author of “ the Policy of the Pope,” makes several admis

· beatifies, canonises, decorates with titles, mentions with sions which, for an official defender of the papal curia, approval in the Peking Gazette when they do anything to are very significant. He admits that his critic has “hit deserve that honour, and actually degrades and uncanonises some blots,” thát “ Catholics do not sufficiently study the

if he sees just cause." The chief commissioner of a Bible,” that “mistakes may have been made in the

district is said to have received the following pithy telearrangement of MSS., a prophetic fragment by one

gram from a subordinate: “A new god has appeared author may have been tacked on without a separate

on the Swat frontier; the police are after him."

Mr. H. F. B. Lynch continues his instructive account of heading to a prophecy by another, or declarations made

Russian Armenia. He speaks in the highest terms of the by the same prophet at different times and under

new Katholikos, and as the Church is the one power of different circumstances may have been made to follow national cohesion, he strongly urges the education of the on without giving notice of the distinction,” that the clergy. “The Armenian has edged out the Russian, and if texts we have of the original" have suffered from reiterated peace were allowed its conquests unhindered he would transcription,” and it is not barely a question of the ultimately rule in the land." accidental errors of copyists, it is also one of revising

Prof. T. G. Bonney holds against Dr. A. R. Wallace and re-editing,” that “the Bible is “ not a secular revela

that glaciers can only excavate under the most favourable tion either of art, or science, or anything else;" that

conditions, but are proved incapable of hollowing out the

great Alpine lakes. Mr. T. II. S. Escott discusses the “ numbers must be expected to be used Orientally,” not possibilities of Liberal Reunion, and thinks that Liberals “ numerically," and that “the Bible is the record of a are as likely to reunite as the Liberal Unionists are to progressive revelation in faith and morals, starting merge in the Conservative party.

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