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FRENCH VANITY.

ENGLISH SOLIDITY.

CHURCH ESTABLISHMENT.

SOME NAPOLEONIC IDEAS.

a dose of opium than to leave them to the Turks. The AN INTERVIEW AT ELBA.

doctor refused, and the men were left to their fate. Macmillan has got hold of a plum in the shape of a

"Perhaps he was right,” said Napoleon, “but I asked for forgotten pamphlet published in 1823 by Lord Ebrington,

them what I should under similar circumstances wish who interviewed Napoleon at Elba. The interviews are

my best friends to do for me.” He admitted and defende reported half in English, half in French. There were two

his massacre of two thousand Turks at the same place. conversations, which took place in December, 1814.

ENGLISH POLICY AND ENGLISH STATESMEN.
He discussed Englislı affairs and English statesmer

with keen interest and considerable knowledge. He The following are some of the more remarkable passages embodying the opinions expressed by the great captive :

praised English consistency, and contrasted it with the

readiness with which Frenchmen embrace, first one party Napoleon condemned the terms of peace. _Belgium he

and then another, as it suited their convenience.

He thought should never have been taken from France unless

expressed amazement at the impolicy of the Englis" the allies were prepared to dismember the country

Government in relation to the Catholics. Lord Sidmouti: altogether. “ The loss of Belgium mortified the French

he believed was a bigot; but in spite of him he believe character, and,” said Napoleon, “I know the French

that Parliament weuld not be long in passing Catholic character well. It is not proud like the English. Vanity for France is the principle of everything, and her vanity

emancipation. Nearly fifteen years passed before Nurenders her capable of attempting everything." Speaking

leon's anticipations were fulfilled. He compared Fosta of his own reign, he said what France wanted was an

Demosthenes, and Pitt to Cicero, and praised Lori aristocracy, but aristocracies are the growth of time. He

Cornwallis very highly. He wished, he said, that he haul

some of that beautiful race, the English nobility, in had made princes and dukes, and given them great

France. Discussing the economic conditions of the two possessions, but he could not make them true nobles.

countries, he said he should think ill of the prosperity of

England when the interests of the land came to be He made a rather curious remark about the English sacrificed to those of commerce, legislature. He said he thought the House of Peers was the great bulwark of the English constitution; and when Conservatives will be delighted to hear that Napoleon Lord Ebrington said he thought this was laying rather declared a Church establislıment to be essential to every too much stress upon the usefulness of the Peerage, state to prevent disorders that might arise from the Napoleon replied that in mentioning the Peerage he general indulgence in wild speculative opinions. Most of meant to include the whole of Parliament, for the aris

the people needed some fixed point of faith where they tocracy of the country were the heads of the commercial, could rest their thoughts. The French, he said, lored to as well as of the landed interest, whether their repre have their cure and their mass, provided always they had sentation was by descent or by election. It is also curious

not to pay for him. In all the innumerable petitions de to note that Napoleon gave it as his opinion that the

had received for parish priests from French villages, he scandal of the Prince Regent and Mrs. Clarke would have had never found them ready to accept a priest if they shaken, if it had not overturned, the throne in France,

had to pay for him. He therefore, whenever he thought whereas in England the affair had produced no dis it reasonable, gave them their priest free, for he liked to turbance," for John Bull is steady and solid, and attached

encourage devotion among his people, but not, he said. to ancient institutions."

in the army. He would not suffer priests there, for he

did not love a devout soldier. He expressed surprise Napoleon discussed freely his imperial and royal that Henry VIII. had not confiscated the tithes when he contemporaries. He admitted frankly his amazement reformed the Church. at the ending of the Russian campaign. He said that

A PLEA FOR BIGAMY. when he reached Moscow he considered that the business

The conversation often took a wide field, as for instance was ended. He had been received with open arms by when discussing the settlement of San Domingo, he the people on his march, and the town was fully supplied declared that the best way of civilising the colonies was with everything, and he could have maintained his army to allow every man to have two wives, provided they there comfortably through the winter. Suddenly, in were of different colour. He strongly recommended twenty-four hours, the city was fired in fifteen places, England to make peace with America. He said. “ You and the country laid waste for twelve miles round about. had better make peace; you will gain more by trading “ It was an event,” he said, “ for which I could not have

with them than by burning their towns.” He spoke with calculated, for it is without a precedent, I believe, in the more enthusiasm concerning the cavalry charges of the history of the world.” He criticised his generals freely, King of Naples than on any other subject. The article is and spoke of Talleyrand as the greatest of rascals, who

full of interesting inforrnation. had often urged him to have the Bourbons assassinated.

NAPOLEON AS A YOUTH,
NAPOLEON'S MOHAMMEDANISM.

In connection with this account of the views of He defended the execution of the Duc d'Enghien, and Napoleon immediately before the close of his career, recalled with apparent pleasure his own admission and there may be read the first part of what promises to be a that of his army to Islam when he was in Egypt. He very interesting series of papers in the Century, entitled received froin the men of law, after many meetings and “ The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte," by William M. Sloane. grave discourse at Cairo, a dispensation from being The paper is carefully written, copiously illustrated, and circumcised, and permission to drink wine on condition deals with the life of Napoleon when he was a youth in of doing a good action after every draught. Questioned Corsica. The editor of the Century says of this sketch :as to the alleged poisoning of his sick at Joppa, he said

At no time did his amiable and commendable traits-his the story was not true. Three or four of the men had

devotion to his family, his ind and studiousness-show in taken the plague, and it was necessary to leave them a clearer light. It is a new Napoleon,--this devourer of boun behind. He suggested that it was better to give them this unsuccessful literary aspirant, this ineffcctual Corsican

THE BURNING OF MOSCOW.

the city. As soon as the President should leave the train, a gang of roughs were to start a fight a few hundred yards away, and this would serve as a pretext for the police force to absent themselves for a few minutes. During this time the crowd would close around the huted Northeners, pushing and jostling them, and in the confusion some one of the conspirators would strike the deadly blow or fire the fatal shot. Each man was left free to accomplish the murder either with dagger, or pistol, as he saw fit.

The story of the way in which the designs of the assassin were circumvented by the vigilance and foresight of Allan Pinkerton is interesting. The story gives a vivid glimpse of the peril in the midst of which Lincoln commenced his famous presidency.

political agitator,--but the new Napoleon certainly makes the old Napoleon much more easily comprehended.

ÆTAT 20. The article is too long to summarise, but the following description of Napoleon before he attained his majority will be read with interest:

The appearance of Buona parte in his twentieth year was not in general noteworthy. His head was shapely, but not uncommon in size, although disproportionate to the frame which bore it. His forehead was wide and of medium height; on each side long chestnut lair--lanky as we may suppose from his own account of his personal habits-fell in stiff, flat locks over his lean cheeks. His eyes were large, and in their stcel-blue pupils, lurking under deep-arched and projecting brows, was a penetrating quality which veiled the mind within. The nose was straight and shapely, the mouth large, the lips full and sensuous, although the powerful projecting chin diminished somewhat the true effect of the lower one. His complexion was sallow. The frame of his body was in general small and fine, particularly his hands and feet; but his deep chest and short neck were gigantic. This lack of proportion did not, however, interfere with his gait, which was firm and steady. The student of character would have declared the stripling to be self-reliant and secretive; ambitious and calculating; masterful; but kindly.

For some cause or other Napoleon seems to be very much to the fore just now in the magazines. McClure's Vagazine for November begins the publication of a great pictorial life of Napoleon, which when completed will contain no fewer than two hundred illustrations. A hundred of these will be portraits of Napoleon. There are about twenty portraits in the November number. The general effect is to suggest that if the originals were accidentally to meet in a room they would not recognise each other.

HOW TO KEEP WARM IN WINTER. DR. ANDREW Wilson in the Young Woman prescribes more fat inside and more wool outside. He is strong foran increase of fat all round in the food, and especially in the food of the young, and of those who present themselves before us as shivering mortals in the winter season. If people tell me they dislike fat, I may sympathise with them, but I would point out that they do take and enjoy fat, as I have shown, in many common articles of diet. If I make the suggestion that those who suffer much from cold in winter should increase the fat in their food, I may be told they cannot do so without making themselves ill. As often as not, they have never tried to increase it. They may take more butter, more milk, and more fat in the shape of butcher's meat, increasing it little by little, with perfect safety and with great advantage. A very excellent plan is to take after meals a little cod-liver oil: if this disagrees, try one of the good emulsions of the oil now sold in plenty; or, better still, try the Kepler cod oil and malt extract, which children of a larger growth” may take as well as young children with great advantage. Generous living, then, is the first rule for those who would keep warm in winter, and a necessary part of that generous dietary is fat. Chilliness in bed is to be counteracted, for example, by warm nightgarments, even by stockings, which are not to be despised by any means; and a moderate degree of exercise through the day (and every day) is a measure to be neglected by none, whether robust or only fairly so. Any one who in a variable climate, such as that which reigns supreme in the British Isles, clothes in winter in any other garments than wool--in so far as underclothing is concerned-is really tempting Providence, to use the familiar expression in the way of laying himself or herself op n to the attack of cold.

A MURDER PLOT AGAINST PRESIDENT LINCOLN.

THERE is a very interesting paper in McClure's Magazine for November which forms the first of a series of “True Detective Stories." It tells how Allan Pinkerton saved President Lincoln's life in 1861. The story of the plot to assassinate the President is not familiar to English readers. It is told as follows:-

On February 9 Mr. Pinkerton learneil on reliable authority that a distinguished citizen of Maryland had joined with others in taking a solemn oath to assassinate Mr. Lincoln before he should reach Washington. On the evening of February 8, twenty conspirators in Baltimore had met in a dark room to decide by ballot which one of them should kill the President as he passed through the city. It was agreed that the task should be entrusted to that one of their number who should draw a red ballot. Whoever was thus chosen was pledged not to disclose the fact, even to his fellow-conspirators. To make it absolutely sure that the plot would not be defeated at the last moment by accident or cowardice, eight red ballots instead of one were placed in the box from which they drew. unknown to the conspirators themselves, and eight determined men regarded themselves as thus chosen, by high destiny, to rid the country of an infamous tyrant. So they professed to believe, and their plans for the assassination were perfected to the smallest detail. The hour of the President's arrival in Baltimore was well known, and the line of march to be followed by his carriage across the city had been announced. In case there should be any change in the programme, agents of the conspirators in the various Northern cities passed through by the Presidential party were ready to a pprise them of the fact. There would be an immense crowd in Baltimore at the Calvert Street station when Mr. Lincoln arrived, and it was a matter of common knowledge that the Baltimore chief of police, George P. Kane, was in sympathy with the conspirators and had promised to send only a small force of policemen to the station, and to furnish no police escort whatever through

An English Dialect Dictionary. FROM Dr. Joseph Wright, the Deputy Professor of Comparative Philology in the University of Oxford, comes the welcome announcement that under his general editorship a dictionary is contemplated which will include, as far as is possible, the complete vocabulary of all dialect words which are still in use, or are known to have been in use, at any time during the last two hundred years. All words occurring in the literary language, and the dialects, but with some local peculiarity of meaning in the latter, will also be included. On the other hand, all words which merely differ from the literary language in pronunciation, but not in meaning, will be rigidly excluded, as belonging entirely to the province of grammar and not to that of lexicography. But, not unnaturally, a work of this sort cannot adequately be carried out without the assistance of the ordinary public, who are alone, in many cases, in the knowledge of the peculiar and obscuro dialects of particular districts. Dr. Wright will be glad, therefore, of any offers of help addressed to him at 6, Norham Road, Oxford. It should be added, perhaps, that the Rer. Walter W. Skeat is to be the treasurer of the dictionary.

MRS. JOSEPHINE BUTLER'S BIBLE.

A WOMAN'S BIBLE? NO!
A PLEA FOR WOMEN AS COMMENTATORS.

But this is not the only way in which Mrs. Butler Mrs. BUTLER has been interviewed in the Humanitarian would redress the balance. She bas another and unsusspon a subject which is very close to her heart. Too pected card in reserve. She would revise the canon,-not often many of the advanced advocates of women's enfran that she would draw up a woman's Bible, for on that chisement have fallen foul of Christian teaching, on point she is explicit. She says :account of certain texts in the epistles of St. Paul. Mrs. I was once consulted with regard to the bringing out of a Butler, as is natural to a devout woman reared within woman's Bible. I did not favour the idea, because I felt that. the pale of the Christian Church, does not take that road. it might be just as pharisaical and one-sided as are the views Not for one moment does she admit that the Bible is of the male commentators of whom I complain. The only against woman's rights; but she is free to confess that it

sound result will be when we drop all sex prejudice and put.

our hearts and intellects together as men and women. is not as much in favour of them as it might be, and so with characteristic energy she proceeds to explain how it

WHERE GOOD MEN WENT WRONG! might be improved in that direction. First of all, she But, while objecting to the publication of a woman's begins by expressing her entire approval of the poet Bible, she would have women brought in to revise the Whittier, who said:

judgment of those males who have in times past decided Would that the heart of woman warmed our creeds!

what books were canonical and what were not. She says:-Not from the sad-eyed hermit's lonely cell

While I believe in a large sense in the inspiration of the Not from the conclave where the holy men

Scriptures, I do not believe in the direct inspiration of the Glare on each other as with angry eyes.

council of men who decided as to what should be canonical. They battle for God's glory--and their own

A WORD FOR SUSANNAH. Ah, not from these the list'ning soul can hear

She does not at present go so far as to say that she The Father's voice that speaks itself divine.

would exclude any of the books in the canon on the Love must be still our master; till we learn What he can teach us from a woman's heart,

ground that their presence there is due to the sex bias We know not His, whose love embraces all.

of the councils of men, but she certainly would include

books at present excluded. For instance, she says:Even the most hardened male will probably admit that there is a great deal of room for improvement in the

“We find the prejudices of the early Fathers against woman

manifested in many cases. Take, for example, the story of direction indicated by the Quaker poet. But how is it to be done?

Joseph and Potiphar's wife, how graphically the man's resist

ance is described while the teroptress is painted in odious WANTED-LADIES AS BIBLICAL CRITICS!

colours. I do not object to this, but why was this story Mrs. Butler answers in two ways—first, by training a included in the canon while the history of Susannah was school of women commentators who will strive undo declared apocryphal ? Because in the latter narratise it is a the mischief done by those schools which have so long

pure and noble woman withstanding the lust of men in the monopolised the translating and commenting upon Holy

persons of the two Elders. One can scarcely find a more

beautiful instance of womanly bravery and purity than Writ.

Susannah. But what say the men? Oh, that cannot be true, It is full time that women shonld become profound students

it is apocryphal!' of Scripture, accomplished Hebrew and Greek scholars, and versed in the principles of true criticism. I do not wish

“ The exclusion of the book of Judith forms another instance women to be shallow, emotional exponents of religion and theology, but to be really learned interpreters. Mon have

of sex bias. It is a beautiful epic poem. Every time I read

it I feel more in love with the beautiful heroine; where can we had it all their own way in that region for long enough.

find a more splendid example of woman's patriotism and I hold that to get at the heart of any truth, moral, social

wisdom?” or spiritual, or to deal with the problems touching human

Her methods were a little violent, don't you think?" life and regeneration, it is necessary to bring to the solution

“She cut off the head of that tyrant Holophernes, and I have the united intelligence and action of the hearts and the brains of men and of women. Neither a man

the greatest satisfaction that she did so. Did he not represent nor a woman

tyranny and lust, those two great evils? In the present day see a truth fully, alone. It requires the two. This is being largely realised in social questions, and it is also of equal

we drag such a monster into the public gaze, pillory him in importance in strictly spiritual matters.

press, bring the law to act upon him-cnt off his head socially.

Judith adopted the only course open to her in those barbarous POOR ST. PAUL!

times--she cut off his head physically. As an instance of the way in which women commentators

“The passages in which the men of the city sing her praises will deal with the Scriptures, Mrs. Butler says:

as they receive her at the gates and the salutation of the high

priest :- Thou art the exaltation of Jerusalem, thou art the I have always felt astonished that respectable and reverent

great glory of Israel, thou art the great rejoicing of our nation, men should have so long allowed a hazy translation of certain

are tributes in praise of a woman which have not been equalled expressions of St. Paul to pass as quite authoritative, and so in the canonized Scriptures. influence in a very important direction the whole of human rules and conduct. The apostle says, “It is a shame for women to speak in the church," and this has been enforced in its

“Take yet another instance where sex bias is equally visible literal sense by a large body of ecclesiastics. Judge the

—the exclusion of the Second Book of Esther from the canon. surprise of a modern intelligent woman when in looking up the

The First Book of Esther, in which the heroine seems in every word rendered “speak” in Liddell and Scott's Greek-English

way subservient to the King, living only to give him pleasure, Lexicon-of which no one will dispute the authority--she

abasing herself at his feet and trembling at approaching his finds it translated, “to chatter like monkeys, to twitter like

presence, this is pronounced canonical. Doubtless, the learned birds"!

council thought it an admirable example to set before women,

but when they came to study the Second Book of Esther, in These Greek women, it seems, were regular chatterers in church and out of it, and it was necessary for the apostle

which the soul of the woman rises in revolt against the drunken

and licentious monarch, who owns her as his chattel, they to put an extinguisher nipon their habit of chattering shake their heads in doubt. That part of the story must be like monkeys and twittering like birds in places of public apocryphal. And so we have that prayer of Queen Esther, worship

for herself and her people, one of the most beantiful out.

AD FOR JCDITH.

can

AND FOR ESTHER II.

pourings of a woman's heart ever penned, excluded from the Seriptures.

- This Second Book is Esther's private diary in which the real woman shows herself. In it is found the key to lier attitude in the First Book. She is offering herself a sacrifice for her people, and prays for a speedy deliverance from the unholy bonds in which she is living :- Thou knowest all things, O Lord; thou knowest that I hate the glory of the unrighteous, and abhor the bed of the uncircumuised, and of all the heathen.''

It is not quite clear whether Mrs. Butler would bring in the Maccabees; but she certainly would discard Bel and the Dragon and the Book of Tobit. Of course she has no words strong enough with which to condemn the rascally revisers who print the story of the woman taken in adultery in brackets, and who cast doubts upon its authenticity, because it was left out of earlier manuscripts by men who could not bear to have the same standard of morality applied to both sexes. The whole article is very interesting, and the Woman's Signal had better take to printing the story of Susannah and the Elders, and the Second Book of Esther, for the information of its readers. The apocryphal books are rather difficult to get hold of nowadays, more's the pity.

REMINISCENCES OF DICKENS. In the Christmas number of the Youny Mun and Young Woman there is an interview with Charles Dickens's daughter, which contains many interesting items concerning the great novelist. The following passage gives an interesting account of the absorption of Dickens in his work:

He was usually alone when at work, though there were, of course, some occasional exceptions, and I myself constituted such an exception. During our life at Tavistock House I had a long and serious illness, with an almost equally long convalescence. During the latter iny father suggested that I should be carried every day into his study, to remain with him, and although I was fearful of disturbing him, he assured me that he desired to have me with him. On one of these mornings I was lying on the sofa endeavouring to keep perfectly quiet, while my father wrote busily and rapidly at his desk, when he suddenly jumped from his chair and rushed to a mirror which hung bear, and in which I could see the reflection of some extraordinary facial contortions which he was making. He returned rapidly to his desk, wrote furiously for a few minutes, and then went again to the mirror. The facial pantomime was resumed, and then turning towards, but evidently not seeing me, he began talking rapidly in a low voice. Ceasing this soon, however, he returned once inore to his desk, where he remained silently writing until luncheon time. It was a curious experience for me, and one of which I did not until later years fully appreciate the purport. Then I knew that with his natural intensity he had thrown himself completely into the character that he was creating, and that for the time being he had not only lost sight of his surroundings, but had actually become in action, as in imagination, the personality of his pen.

After a morning's close work he was sometimes quite preoccupied when he came in to luncheon. Often when we were only our home party at Gad's Hill, he would come in, take something to eat in a mechanical way, and return to his study to finish the work he had left, scarcely having spoken a word. Our talking at these times did not seem to disturb him, though any sudden sound, as the dropping of a spoon or the clinking of a glass, would send a spasm of pain across his face.

The railway accident wbich befell Dickens in June, 1865, has naturally impressed itself very clearly upon his daughter's

She speaks of the irresistible feeling of intense dread from which Dickens was afterwards apt to suffer whenever he found himself in any kind of conveyance.

"One occasion,” she says, “I specially recall; while we were on our way from London to our little country station Higham, where the carriage was to meet us, my father suddenly clutched the illms of the railway-carriage seat, while his face grew aslıy pale, and great drops of perspiration stood upon his forehead, and though he tried hard to master the dread, it was so strong that he had to leave the train at the next station. The uccident had left its impression upon the memory, and it was destined never to be effaced. The hours speot upou railroads were thereafter hours of pain to him. I realised this often when travelling with him, and no amount of assurance could dispel the feeling."

The Uses of Profanity. It has long been an article of faith with Western teamsters that it is impossible to get an order into a mule's head unless it is weighted with a curse. From a very interesting article which appears in the Cosmopolitan for November, on the Mississippi Roustabouts, it would appear that the mule is not alone in needing the word of command to be emphasised with an oath. The Roustabouts, that is to say the negroes who do the heavy porterage on the Mississippi steamers, are unable to rouse themselves to energetic action until they are addressed in language which is, to put it mildly, somewhat profane. The writer of the article says:

So accustomed to authority are the roustabouts, that tbey will do nothing without the word of command; and even when they set about obeying an order, it is with such a total disrcgaril for the result, and with such snail-paced motion, that they must be stimulated from time to time by repetitions of the command, interspersed with choice profanity. This may be shocking to the stranger, but it seems to be taken as a matter of course. It is not the same as profanity in polite society; it means nothing on the part of the mate except a peculiar way in which he emphasises his commands; and the roustabout sees in it nothing but a measure of the importance of the command. A command may be given to haul in a line. Some of the men take hold of it and throw themselves back lazily, exercising not a hundredth part of their power. After two or three ineffectual attempts to accomplish the task, the mate flies into a passion and lets go a volley of profanity that tints the atmosphere, and the men surge back ou the line as though they had just awakened to consciousness. A small ferry made of Choctaw logs, used for carrying teams across the layou, was left stranded on the bank by the falling water. The planter asked the captain to have bis men go out and carry it down to the water. About forty roustabouts shuffled out and gathered about the raft. As if obeying the order, they took hold of the raft and pretended to lift, no one of them expending enough strength to carry a watermelon. After two or three attempts to move the raft, they straightened up and looked inquiringly at the boat, to see what was the next thing on the programme. Meuntime the mate, who had been bandying pleasantries with acquaintances on the bank, glanced up, took in the situation, and rushed ashore. Running up to the raft, he jumped upon it and, with a sharp, crisp oath, ordered the men to carry it to the water. The command hardly left his lips before the men seized the ferry and walked with it and the mate to the bank of the bayou.

memory.

IN Temple Bar there are several extremely readable articles. Of a nature that is not usually found in Temple Bar, is Mary Cholmondeley's account of the Rev. Johu Thom, the Unitarian minister, who died last September at the age of eighty-six. She declares he is a latter-day prophet. There are interesting literary articles on Theodore Hook, Guy de Maupassant, and the customary mass of interesting fiction. The most notable article, however, is that entitled “The Anarchists' Utopia," which describes Prince Kropotkine's scheme for bringing about the millennium by the road of revolution.

THE REUNION OF ENGLAND AND AMERICA.

THE PROS AND CONS OF A NAVAL ALLIANCE. The desire to bring the Empire and the Republic together has led to the publication of a very interesting and suggestive discussion in the pages of the North American Reriew. It would, however, be a pity to confound the movement for the reunion of the two oceansundered branches of the English-speaking race with any specific scheme of Anglo-American naval alliance. The two papers on this subject in the November North Ancricun both seem to regard the naval alliance as if it were almost equivalent to the reunion of England and America, which is obviously not the case.

CAPTAIN MAHAN'S CAUTION. Captain Mahan writes the first paper, and shakes his head over the whole business. He does so not merely because he does not think the time is ripe for the conclusion of a naval alliance, but because he distrusts the consequences of an assured peace. He is a man of war, is the captain, and there is nothing like leather to him. He fails to see that even if the English-speaking races formed alliances there would plenty of work still remain to be done in keeping the rest of the world in order. He says:

Firmly though i an convinced that it would be to the interest of Great Britain and the United States, and for the henefit of the world, that the two nations sliould cordially act together on the seas, I am equally sure that the result inust not only be hoped but also quietly waited for, whilo the conditions upon which such cordiality depends are being realised by men.

PROGRESS BY STRUGGLE. The following are the passages in which Captain Jahan indicates his belief in the necessity of conflict ils a means of progress :

I own that, though desirous as any one can be to see the fact · accomplished,' I shrink from contemplating it, under present conditions, in the form of an alliance, naval or other. Rather I should say : Let each nation be educated to realise the length and breadth of its own interest in the sea; when that is dono the identity of these interests will become apparent. In the rivalries of nations, in the accentuation of differences, in the conflict of ambitions, lies the preservation of that martial spirit, that alone is capable of coping finally with the destructive forces which from outside and from within threaten to subinerge all that the centuries have gained. In this same pregnant strife the United States will doubtless be led, by indeniable interests and aroused national sympathies, to play a part, to cast aside the policy of isolation which befitted her infancy, and to recognise that, whereas once to avoid European entanglement was essential to the development of her individuality, now to take her share of the travail of Europe is but to assume an inevitable task, an appointed lot in the work of upholding the common interests of civilisation.

THE NAVAL OBJECT OF A RACE UNION. He does, however, admit that the union of the Englishspeaking people, in order to obtain the control of the sea, is an object worth dreaming of and working for :

The preservation, advancement, and predominance of the race may well become a political ideal, to be furthered by political combination, which in turn shall rest, primarily, not upon cleverly constructed treaties, but upon natural affection and a clear recognition of mutual benefit arising from working together. If the spirit be there, the necessary machinery for its working will not pass the wit of the race to provide; and in the control of the sea, the beneficent instrument that separates us that we may be better friends, will be found the object that neither the one nor the other can master, but which may not be beyond the conjoined energies of the race. When, if ever, an Anglo-American alliance, naval or other, does come, may it

be rather as a yielding to irresistible popular impulse, thian as a scheme, however ingeniously wrought, imposed by the adroitness of statesmen.

We may, however, I think, dismiss from our minds the belief, frequently advanced, and which is só ably advocated by Sir George Clarke, that such mutual support would tend in the future to exempt maritime commerce in general from the harassment which it has hitherto undergone in war.

LORD CHARLES BERESFORD'S SCHEME. The writer of the other article is Lord Charles Beresford. He thinks that the naval alliance should be limited to the protection of those commercial interests in which both countries are equally interested. He discusses at some length Mr. Carnegie's paper, and says:

Whether his views be accepted or not, his object is a glorious one, and he deserves the generous thanks of both great nations for starting the theory that reunion would be for the benefit of c.

Sir George Clarke, in his paper (March, 1891), aster criticising Mr. Carnegie's paper in the most able way, comes to the conclusion that the best method for bringing about it reunion between Great Britain and the United States would be by means of a complete naval union. In this I agree, but before it is possible there must be extensive preliminaries.

A COMMERCIAL INSURANCE ALLIANCE. Theoretically his idea is splendid, but practically I do not think either country is in any way ripe for such a detailed scheme, and the mere fact of forcing the details of such a scheme might break down the attempt to form a reunion. It would appear casier for the present to strengthen and promote the sentiment for reunion by endeavouring to lay fully before the public of each country the value and amount of commerce between them that might be disturbed or lost in the event of either of them being engaged in war.

The total British trade with the United States for 1891 equals £168,000,000—that is, nearly one-half of the whole foreign trade of the United States is with Great Britain.

Why should not the United States and Great Britain enter into a defensive alliance for the protection of those interests upon which the prosperity of cach so much depends ?

I believe that the mere fact of the existence of an alliance such as I have indicated, combining the almost unlimited latent resources of two such great countries, would deter other nations from attacking that which for the moment appearel inadequately defended.

It is much to be feared that in the time coming, when the United States may adopt the policy of free trade, and also build up, as she has apparently commenced to do, a nary sufficient for her needs, it might not be worth her while to undertake the responsibilities of an alliance with Great Britain. Now is the time to bring about the alliance, wher its advaatages are apparent to both countries.

Another Woman's Right. We have long had in England compartments in railway carriages for the exclusive use of the fair sex, and now in Chicago they are proposing to establish a separate police-station for women. Mr. H. H. Van Meter, in the November number of the litruistic Review, says :

A bill has been presented to the City Council of Chicagı providing for a Central Detention or Relief Station, whers women, girls and children can find shelter in cases of nerd instead of being crowded into cells or corraled into corridor with vicious criminals of the lowest classes, as has been the case too often, for lack of any other accommodation of any kind save such as is found in ordinary police-stations. The very moderate amount of £2,000 is all that is asked for its maintenance for one year, and it is recommended that a committee of three men and two women have the management. This committee is to act without pay, being chosen from our philanthropic citizens according to plans proposed by friends of the movement, many of whom would prefer a majority of womeu in the management.

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