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TEE PENITENT THIEF.

BY M. PHILIPPOTEAUX AND THE RUSSIAN, GAY.
E have devoted so much attention in THE REVIEW the penitent thief on the cross, Jesus of Nazareth imme-

OF REVIEWS to the Oberammergau Passion diately after death, and a suggestion, rather than a

Play, and to pictures of the Passion, that I picture, of the Roman soldier who, after breaking the am very glad to be able to reproduce on the preceding legs of the thief, and seeing that Jesus was already dead, page a photograph of the great painting, “Christ Enter is disappearing on the right. Christ is treated as Gay ing Jerusalem," by M. Paul Philippoteaux. This picture, always treats the author of our redemption. He is pale, which is now on exhibition at Campbell's Art Gallery in wan, and miserable exceedingly. The form of the cross is Glasgow, is the best effort of the great French artist, who also different from that which is conventionally employed. is best known as the painter of “Niagara,"

,” “The Siege of There is no head-piece. The cross consists of two logs, Paris,” and “The Battle of Gettysburg."

one nailed on top of the other. The feet are at rest upon THE ENTRY INTO JERUSALEM."

a block on the ground. The hands are nailed not to the The picture speaks for itself. There is vigor, grace,

sides but to the top of the transverse piece. The head the expression of movement and of enthusiasm seen in the has fallen backwards upon this log. Even in a photomultitude which eagerly surrounds the prophet of Naza

graph the effect is terrible. But in the original canvas reth. It is a great painting, with all the effect of the the painter has exhausted his art in the most startling panorama. The various groups surrounding the central effect. The deadly pallor of the corpse on the cross, configure are each of them capable of being studied separately, trasting with the blood which has dripped from the head and could with little effort be expanded to form an ex

and from the wound in His side, create the impression tensive panorama. The Christ is no doubt conventional of a shambles. But the figure of Christ, ghastly and and far removed from the pictured conception of the Man pathetic though it be, would not have attracted so much of Sorrows, according to the great Russian painter, Gay,

attention were it not for the extraordinary impression whose death I regret to record. Philippoteaux and Gay that is portrayed on the face of the penitent thief. may be regarded as occupying the opposite extremes. Philippoteaux is French and Gay is Russian. The one This man is represented as a bullet-headed ruffian, a gives us a Christ who is beautiful and attractive, charm criminal who is tied to his cross by the arms and by the ing and débonnaire ; the other shows Him as the Man who body, the sharp cords cutting into his flesh. His legs are is acquainted with grief, in whom there is no form or nailed to each side of the cross through the ankles. The comeliness. Gay's effort has always been directed to give painter's conception is that the thief was an unwilling us the Christ as He was, the Man more or less hunted victim,whereas Christ sacrificed Himself willingly. A strong from pillar to post, scourged, tormented, betrayed, man could have wrenched his hands and feet from the nails, deserted, and haggard.

whereas it was impossible for the thief, tied as he is, to free GAY'S “ CRUCIFIXION.”

himself from the tree of torture. The novelty of his cross He has undoubtedly in his last composition produced is, however, completely forgotten when you look at his face. that effect to an extent which has scandalised the ordinary Upon it there is an expression of amazement and of horror Christian. At the time when Gay died I was in the like of which has seldom been depicted in art. That face negotiation for the removal of his picture of the is the puzzle of the picture. The artist tried to paint “ Crucifixion” to a London gallery. It was painted, as what the penitent thief thought when Christ died, all Gay's pictures are painted, for Russia, but its exhibi Christ who had assured him of entering into Paradise, tion in that country was prohibited.

Christ whom he had just recognised as his Lord,—and The story of the prohibition is interesting. When Gay's has attempted to express the blank dismay, the unutterpicture was hungon theline the director of the Academy was able despair and horror with which the penitent thief scandalised and ordered it to be removed. An appeal was might be expected to regard the falsification of all his made from him, however, to the President of the Academy, hopes by the death of Christ. It is this expression more one of the Grand Dukes. He also declared that it was than anything else which gives the keynote to the whole impossible for it to remain on exhibition. But an appeal was picture. Tüade from him to the Emperor himself. The Emperor

A GAY EXHIBITION IN LONDON. was extremely shocked when he saw Gay's masterpiece, I do not know whether I shall succee l in bringing the and declared that it must be removed. But next day he picture over to London, but if I am able to do so the returned and remained a long time studying the picture, English public will have an opportunity of forming their lost in thought. The picture, however, was removed on

own opinion upon this remarkable painting. I will only account of the shock which it gave to the conventional

add that when the picture was first shown to Count tradition of the Crucifixion. The painting was removed Tolstoi, he fell upon Gay's neck, kissed him, and said, to Gay's lodging, where it was exhibited to his personal

sobbing amid his streaming tears," Ah, my friend-yes ! friends. By one of them negotiations were opened with that is the way in which they crucified Him." Those who London, in order to secure the exhibition of so remark remember the reproduction of Gay's pictures, notably of able a specimen of Russian sacred art in the capital of his “ Christ before Pilate," which appeared in the first the Western world. These negotiations were still Christmas number of The Review OF REVIEWS, will pending when they were interrupted by the sudden death

naturally look with interest to see this latest masterof the great artist.

piece of the Russian painter. Gay was a profound

Christian of the Tolstoian cult, and I do not think that The painting itself is remarkable enough to provoke much better service COI be do in enabling the reflection even among the most thoughtless. It is in common man to realise how Christ actually appeared many respects the most ghastly picture of the Crucifixion to the men of His day, than the exhibition of the whole that we have seen. There are only two figures shown gallery of the Russian painter's pictures.

CHRIST ON THE CROSS.

THE NEW PUBLISHING OFFICE OF "THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS.”

CHE REVIEW OF REVIEWS has changed its publishing quantity. The demand for newspapers on that day was T office from Fleet Street to the Thames Embank no doubt phenomenal. The number of papers delivered

ment. The editorial office of THE REVIEW remains, by Messrs. Marshall on January 1st, 1893 was 172,198, as before, at Mowbray House, overlooking the Temple and the average number delivered daily in the year Station, but its publishing offices have followed Messrs. 1893 would be between 180,000 and 190,000, so that Horace Marshall and Son in their migration from their the sale on the Home Rule Bill would represent an extra familiar offices in Fleet Street to the imposing structure of 10 or 15 per cent. over the normal number. This which they have reared on the vacant lot near the City of would be equally true of Messrs. W. H. Smith and. London School. At present there is no publishing office Son. We may take it, therefore, that the number in London that occupies so commanding a site. The of daily papers handled every morning by the two new building, with its convenient and handsome clock. firms at these head offices is well on to 500,000 copies, tower, looks out over the great extent of land on which of which Messrs. W. H. Smith and Son supply 300,000, in time to come the new Old Bailey may arise, and while Messrs. Marshall supply 200,000. These two the Central Criminal Court of London stand between firms do the great bulk of the trade both in town and the river and Messrs. Marshall's publishing house. in country. The growth of the wholesale business is But sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof, and the aptly illustrated by the figures now before me of delay which has taken

Messrs. Marshall's business. place in providing new

In 1864, on January 1st, accommodation for justice

they sent out only 46,590 in London has been SO

copies of the morning great that we may assume

papers. Ten years later that some years will elapse

this number was more than before our publishing office

doubled, having risen to ceases to enjoy the river

95,550. Ten years later frontage.

again, on January 1st, 1884, Messrs. Marshall and Son,

they sent out 131,144, and who have taken possession

on January 1st, 1890, the of their new home, are the

total number of papers second largest wholesale

sent out from Fleet Street publishing house in Lon

was 194,479. Their busidon. That is to say, among

ness, therefore, has multinewsagents, At present

plied four-fold in thirty their publishing business,

years.

That relates to so far as books are con

morning papers alone. If cerned, is comparatively

were to compare the small. Their speciality is

figures in relation to other the handling of newspapers

periodicals we should proand periodicals of all kinds,

bably find the increase and in this respect they are

even greater. The story distanced by one firm, and

of Marshall and Son's pubby one firm alone. Messrs.

lishing house is very interW. H. Smith and Son have

esting; they were the long possessed the first

pioneers of railway bookplace. This is due almost

stalls. W. H. Smith and if not entirely to their practical monopoly of the Son, who at present monopolise the business, did not come bookstalls, and almost every railway company in the into the trade until the Marshalls had proved the possicountry is in their grasp. Messrs. Marshall and Son bility of doing good business on the railway book-stalls. have no such advantages, but they run a good second. It was in the year 1840 when they first began business in

Figures as to comparative business are always difficult Leadenhall Street. They then traded under the name to obtain, and until quite the other day it was not known of William Marshall and Son, William Marshall being how many papers Messrs. Smith and Son sent out from the father of the present head of the firm, who at that time their Strand house in a morning. In the life of the Right was a young man, or, rather, a boy just entering his Hon. W. H. Smith, however, for the first time exact infor teens. The first bookstall for the supply of newspapers mation was given on the subject. The figures were only ard other reading matter that was ever opened in Engquoted for a single day, but they suffice to enable us land was established by them at Fenchurch St. Station. to form a fairly good estimate of the comparative Subsequently they opened stalls at Stepney and Tilbury amount of business of the two houses. On the 14th on the same line. In 1850 they launched out into what February, 1893, the day after the introduction of the might be regarded as more distinctly the pioneer business Home Rule Bill for Ireland, W. H. Smith and Son when they obtained concessions to open bookstalls on the sent out from their establishment, 186, Strand, Great Western Railway, as far as Bristol in one direction 374,150 copies of the London morning dailies. On the and Swansea at the other. This they held down to the same day Messrs. Horace Marshall and Son sent out from year 1860, when like other firms who were doing business their premises in Fleet Street 214,972 copies between the on railways they made way for the great monopoly. hours of four and six in the morning. No other wholesale Messrs. Marshall remained in Leadenhall Street froin newsagent sent out anything approaching so large a 1840 to 1855, when they removed to 44, Ludgate

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Hill, from which they were compelled to remove by has always continued, and those who have done business the opening of the London, Chatham, and Dover with Messrs. Marshall have always delighted to bear Railway, and they made their office in 125, Fleet Street. testimony to the urbanity and generosity which have There they carried on business until last month, when characterised all their business dealings. dir. Morgan, the they established themselves in new and commodious manager of their house, has been continuously employed offices on the Thames Embankment. They have not by them for the last thirty-six years, and Mr. Marshall, given up their office in Fleet Street, but the whole of like other successful men, is a firm believer in continuity their newspaper business will henceforth be transacted of employment. Notwithstanding his close attention on the Thames Embankment, where every accommoda to the details of his business Mr. Marshall has always tion will be provided for the transaction of their ever made time to discharge the duties of citizenship. He is increasing trade.

a Member of the Corporation of the City of London, a The success of Messrs. Marshall is due to the same Justice of the Peace, and he has been a member of the cause which brings success in every department of life. Board of Guardians for twenty years. These are only The foundation of the business was laid by the untiring some of the public functions which he has discharged industry anl close attention to business of the present with credit to himself and to the advantage of the comsenior partner. Mr. Horace Marshall for thirty-five years munity.

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opened the warehouse at half-past one o'clock in the morn Of the new premises, of which I give an illustration, it ing, and during the whole of that time only missed one day. is unnecessary to speak in detail

. They are commodious, Such a record of early morning work speaks volumes, not well lighted, and afford ample accommodation for all the merely for the punctuality and automatic regularity of Mr. business that is done. How long they will continue to Marshall, it is hardly less eloquent as to the state of his be large enough depends upon many things. Judging health and his physical vigour. A man so equipped with by the past it is safe to say that, large as they are, and the regularity of an automaton and a constitution of iron commodious as they appear to be at present, before many has naturally a considerable advantage over his rivals. years have passed they will be found inadequate to In the struggle for existence Mr. Marshall has always accommodate the increasing demands which are made conducted his affairs with a strict regard to the ethics of upon the resources of Messrs. Marshall and Son to business and of human relationship. No business done supply the trade with newspapers and books, of which at a greater drive than publishing business. Between they are one of the greatest sources cf wholesale four o'clock and six o'clock every morning, when 200,000 supply. Mr. Horace Marshall, jun., is coming on to newspapers are being made up into parcels to be sent to take his father's place. He was educated at Dulwich all parts of the country, it has been calculated that College and Dublin University (where he took his M.A. six complete parcels are packed up every minute. But degree), and began business life later than his father. throughout the whole business the utmost good feeling

and as

HE weather in June has been, until the last week an idea that occurred to me when on a holiday tramp the To of the month, too wet for any one to dream of summer before last. camping out or even of cycling tours. The tent In company with a young cousin of mine I started to walk

from Bedford to the south coast, and on the way we discovered by Benjamin Edgington--not Messrs. Edgington, as I

how much the enjoyment was enhanced by keeping to footerroneously stated last month - supplied me for my

paths instead of roads; so much so indeed that with many garden has stood the test of the continuous downpour

persons no footpath would mean no walk. But keeping to perfectly. In default of cyclists, kept away by the

footpaths we often found meant many difficulties, hence my idea. weather, my children have been sleeping in the tent, and

Why not establish a footpath association ? It would be the bedclothes are as dry as if they were under slated

an immense boon to holiday seekers of limited means and roof. The weather was so hot in the last days of June refined tastes. The first thing to be done, as it seemed that even a tent was unnecessary. It is far pleasanter to me, was to issue a good reliable footpath map at a to sleep in a hammock

low price similar to the under the spreading

cyclist's maps; branches of the oak or

the cyclist map shows the

best roads for the wheel, the pine than in a tent.

so the footpath map would If it rains, there is

show the best paths for always the tent to re

the pedestrian (in some treat to.

districts, East Kent, for The season, howerer,

instance, there is quite a has hardly begun. The

network of them). Next cartoon, reproduced

to the map comes accomfrom one of the cycling

modation (eating and sleeppapers, is cleverly drawn,

ing). Now I believe there but it is an exercise of

are thousands of people in the imagination only. So

England who would decar, those who have

light in, and benefit by, a

walking tour through one offered to accommodate

of the lovely agricultural cyclists have certainly

districts-people who are not been overwhelmed

not robust or youthful with applications.

enough for cycling -- if The IVestern Morning

that accommodation quiesNews quotes the scheme

tion were devoid of diffias outlined in our May

culty or anxiety. (Such

walks I look back on as number and proceeds:This excellent sugges

the golden spots in my tion has already been acted

life.) Now it secms to me upon in at least one in

that the footpath society stance in the county of

might do what the Great Devon. Mr. Carpenter,

Eastern Railway have

done. In that company's proprietor of the charming

time table will be found a health resort at Huntly,

list of farmhouses and cotBishopsteignton, two and a half miles from Teign

tages in all the rural dismouth, on the road to

tricts within their system Newton and Torquay, has

where accommodation may

be obtained, for how many put up a tent in close proximity to his spacious

and at what price. lawn, and is ready and

What the walking tourist willing to receive cyclists

wants to know is how far on the terms and condi

it is to the next meal. The tions laid down by Mr.

information given by the Stead. Indeed, Mr. Car

G.ER. is of little or no From Cycling.)

[June 23, 1594. pentor, with his character

value to the pedestrian. A STEADFAST SUPPORTER. istic generosity, goes be

The places do not lie in yond this, and in the event BEETLE-BROWED BILLY.-“Wot, Timmy, old pard, I took yer for a bloomiu' dook!” any line of march, and of a cold or wet night a

TIMOTHY THE TERROR." Y see, Billy, arter the first outlay of finding the cycycle, it casual customers are not

We cyclers doss on Mr. Stead's lawn-free! more substantial habitat tudies cheaper.

invited. The Footpath will be available.

Society, as well as giving Why limit this offer to cyclists? I have been asked. information to tourists, might also protect those who entertained I do not limit it to cyclists. They seemed to me to be

them. The Footpath Society could issue to its members a passthe most likely to take advantage of it, but if such limited

port or certificate that would be the means of ensuring a kindly

greeting to the weary tourist as well as setting his enterhospitality could encourage pedestrians to take long

tainer's mind at ease. Indeed, with a little organisation the walks, I should be delighted to wideu its scope. I have

tourist might be relieved of the anxiety of carrying any conreceived a letter from distant Arizona, in the United

siderable sum of money in his pocket. States, in this connection, which I gladly quote. The Lastly, the list of houses of entertainment might be numwriter, Mr. Alfred Walker, says:

bered, and corresponding numbers placed on the map showing Your suggestions about camping for cyclists reminds me of

their position.

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th year,

OAN HYSLOP BELL of Darlington was formerly on the subject. But when Parliament was dissolved in

proprietor of the Northern Echo. Even before that 1874, so far was he from sulking in his text or from

halfpenny organ of stalwart Radicalism began its punishing the party for Mr. Forster's sins, that his diseventful existence Mr. Bell had made himself a name trict was almost the only one in England that showed a and a position as a doughty party fighting man as pro Liberal victory. When counties and boroughs all over prietor and editor of the South Durham Mercury at the land were going Tory with the most appalling Hartlepool. For the lifetime of a generation Mr. Bell unanimity, the county of Durham alone among the has been in the forefront of the Liberal ranks in English counties returned an unbroken phalans of the county of Durham, nor has he ever been known to thirteen Liberal members. It was a great and notable flinch or falter in his allegiance to the Gladstonian cause. victory, which unfortunately was spoiled by the violence I am heartily glad to see that, somewhat tardily, the chiefs encouraged if not instigated by a Tyneside organ which of the party which he has

cost us one of the seats for served so long, so loyally,

North Durham, and in its and so well, bave set on

achievement the Northern foot a movement for making

Echo had the foremost part. some solid recognition of

Mr. Bell always fought elechis services in the shape of

tions well. He never forgot a substantial testimonial.

that a

newspaper, even If he in some respects had

though a little one, must not been so good a man,

be a fighter. The Northern there would have been less

Echo was, while he owned justification for this move

it, a bantam of the game, ment than there is to-day,

by far the heartiest fightfor both merits and neod

ing morning paper between are often due to the same

Leeds and Edinburgh. It high qualities, and such is

was the Northern Echo, too, the case with Mr. Bell.

which, in the lour and John Hyslop Bell, who

power of the Conservative is now in his

reaction, was first in the was born in Scotland, in

provinces to rally the scatCarlyle's county. Hecrossed

tered and dispirited ranks the Tweed in his early man

of the Liberals, and to hood, married and settled

revive the good old cause down in the bishopric of

by the enthusiasm and Durham. Although he

dogged pertinacity with spent some of his early years

which it championed the in the northern division,

cause of liberty in the the real pith of his life

Balkan Peninsula. When work has been put into

Bulgaria was liberated one South Durham and Cleve

of the first acts of the land. As the proprietor,

Bulgarian Assembly was to and at one time the editor,

pass unanimously a resoluof the only morning paper

tion of gratitude to Mr. published in the county,

Gladstone, M. de Laveleye, he had more to do than any

the Daily News, and the other man in maintaining

Northern Echo. Both Mr. and in strengthening and

Gladstone and M. de Larein deepening the devotion

leye, as well as all the of the electors of Durham

leading anti-Jingoes, ICto the Liberal cause. Mr.

peatedly recognised the inBell was fair

estimable services which weather friend of the party

Mr. Bell's paper had renwhich he served. He was far more than a mere party dered to what at first seemed an almost hopeless cause, man. He was a Radical who has a wide and comprehen In the field of domestic and industrial politics Mr. Bell sive range of those principles which ara ridiculed as fads has always used his pen and his paper to promote the before they are adopted as planks of the party platform, cause of labour, the cause of peace, and the cause of but none of his fads ever led him to play a scurvy trick

It is owing in no small degree to the strenuous to those in whose hands he sincerely believed the in and enthusiastic support which Mr. Bell ever gave to the terests of the country would be safe. Like all North cause of arbitration and conciliation that the Board of Country Radicals he deplored the 25th Clause of the Arbitration in the finished iron trade, with which the Education Act by which denominational schools were name of Mr. David Dale was so long and so honourably subsidised from the rates. He really worried over that associated, was able to triumph over all its difficulties, wretched Clause, wrote endless analyses of the way in and so afford to the world the most successful practical which it was slipped into the Bill, made speeches against illustration of arbitration. The Northern Echo was it, and generally did what he could to rouse public opinion founded just when the Cleveland iron field was be

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mere

woman.

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