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there and may journey uninterruptedly, see even the promise of fulfillment; but save for a change from one car to an- the work was carried to completion, and other, to the port of Salina Cruz on the was performed as conscientiously as Isthmus of Tehuantepec. In fact, to-day though the steel rail layers were followman may go in uninterrupted railroading in the trail of the land surveyors. travel from Edmonton in the Canadian The survey of that day stands at the Northwest to one of the southernmost present as leading through the points ports of the Republic of Mexico. of least natural resistance down to the

The question of the building of the southern terminus in Patagonia—or what Pan-American Railroad is already an- was once Patagonia, but is now southern swered, as far as the great countries of Argentina. the North American continent are con- Since the second conference on the Incerned. Existing roads reach a point tercontinental Railroad project was held within sixty miles of the northern bound in the City of Mexico, circumary of Guatemala in Central America. stances have combined to give South of this, in the Spanish-American solid support to the project, and to countries, miles of railroad have been demonstrate that real progress is being constructed; and one day the missing made. The construction problem to-day links will be supplied, and the chain—the really concerns only the lands south of longest ever forged by the hand of man- Mexico. Some of the circumstances will be complete.

which give promise of a completed work

and proof of past progress, are the folField is Carefully Studied lowing: Three years ago in the City of Mexico FIRST.—Mexico has extended her railthere was held the Second International roads southward to within sixty miles Conference of American States. At that meeting a resolution was adopted, to the effect that the United States should be invited to send to the southern republics a representative to determine the resources of each country, “the location and condition of the railway lines now in operation, the existing condition of their commerce, and the prospects of business for an intercontinental line.”

The ministers accredited to Washington from the South American republics added their personal influence to the plea for the study of the railway project, and did all that was in their power to facilitate the work of the commissioner, who, a few weeks after the conference adjourned, was sent by the President to investigate and to make report.

It is not exaggeration to say that the results of the study of the Intercontinental Railway question were far more satisfactory than it was supposed that they would be by American citizens, though some of them unquestionably were prejudiced.

Survey Made Eight Years Ago The intercontinental survey for the railroad line was made eight years before there was strong belief that the plan for building the steel highway would ever LINE IN Costa Rica, ALREADY COMPLETED.

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SHIPS FROM ALL CORNERS OF THE EARTH GATHER AT VALPARAISO, of Guatemala, and is hard at work in a north-and-south line through the two country that offers many obstacles to American continents have already been progress, in the endeavor to complete met and overcome in lines which have the line to the northern borders of her been built in several of the South Amerisouthern neighbor within the fixed time can countries. A railroad to-day runs of one year.

ENDS AT THE SOUTH.

from Callao on the coast of Peru to SECOND.—The Argentine Republic is rapidly extending its railroad system from its present terminus north to the frontier of Bolivia, thus closing the sections which were open when the survey of the Intercontinental Commission was made, from the northern limit of Guatemala to the southern boundary of Bolivia.

THIRD.—Spurred by the thought of the commercial advantages which will accrue from direct railroad connection with the United States, the countries of

PORT SALINA CRUZ, WHERE THE MEXICAN ROAD South America are rapidly settling by arbitration their boundary disputes, and are thus eliminating rapidly one of the Oroya, a city on the surveyed line for worst obstacles in the way of railroad the great railroad. construction.

When this road was first proposed,

several engineers declared that it could From Coast to Coast

not be built. Others went over the outFOURTH.—The Congress of Chile has

lined route, and said that it could be provided for the construction of a trans

built; and to-day it is in operation. This Andean line which will give through rail

i short railroad has an infinity of grades, communication between the Atlantic and

curves, bridges, viaducts, tunnels, and Pacific coasts, with outlets for commer

switchbacks; yet it is in successful opcial products to the north and the south

eration, and it is said of it that it is the by means of the Intercontinental Rail

one railroad of the world whose trains way when completed.

are always run on schedule time. FIFTH.—Several of the republics in

Several of the Mexican roads were tend to pass laws establishing guaranty

built under conditions which threatened funds which will insure the continuance

failure, but failure did not come. of a permanent railway policy. In Peru,

Built in Face of Ridicule legislation of this effective kind is already

The Quito and Guayaquil Railroad in upon the statute books.

Sixth.—The certainty of the construction of the Isthmian Canal by the United States has stimulated greatly the interest in a continuous north-and-south railroad line which will enable the northern and southern Spanish-American republics to reach seaports quickly with the products of their mines, their forests, and their fields.

Engineering Difficulties Great
It may be said, broadly speaking, that

FIELD HOUSE OF SURVEYING PARTY IN THE ANDES. the sections of the Intercontinental Railway present no insuperable engineering Ecuador was declared to be impossible difficulties. Greater hindrances to con- of construction, and the men who prostruction than those in the way of the jected it were classed with the insane; but the road is there, and it will be one Americans for energy; but in the matter of the connecting links in the All-Ameri- of railroad construction in mountains and can railroad of the future.

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over bogs, they have set an example of

zeal. Government Action Taken

The projected Pan-American Railway, The cost of overcoming some of the leaving Mexico and the United States obstacles, and the ability of the South out of consideration, starts at the IsthAmerican governments to make up de- mus of Tehuantepec, and runs southeastficits where the traffic does not afford ward either on or close to the Pacific inducement to private enterprise, form coast-line, touching all the larger seaquestions of a practical nature. The port cities. Entering Colombia, it runs answers, however, may be said to have due south, and then a little southwest, been found in the expressed purpose of until it reaches the city of Quito in Ecuathe Chilean authorities to bore a tunnel dor. South and southeast it passes through the very bowels of the Andes; through Cuenca, Loja, Cerrode Pasco, in the action of the Argentine Republic and Oroya; thence southeastward into in constructing an extension through the Bolivia and southward into Argentina, Quebrada of Humahuaca into Bolivia; there connecting with already constructed in the policy of Bolivia in authorizing a roads leading to Buenos Ayres, Monteroad connecting Tupiza and Uyuni; and video, and Bahia Blanca. in the plans of Peru for building a road connecting Oroya and Cuzco.

Great Benefits Promised It takes but a glance at a good map The question has been asked time and of South America to give a fairly ade- again–Of what real commercial service quate idea of the nature of the country will this great intercontinental railway be through which these government lines to the great republic of the north and to must run. The South Americans have the smaller republics of the south? The not been given too much credit by North answer perhaps is best given in the words

of H. G. Davis, Chairman of the PanAmerican Railway Committee:

“Before the railways were built between the United States and Mexico, about fifteen per cent only of the import and export trade of Mexico was with this country; but now nearly the entire commerce of the southern republic is with its northern neighbor.

“We buy from the Central and South American republics much more than we sell to them, only about twenty per cent of their import trade being with this country. Steamship lines from South America to Europe now largely control the traffic. When the PanAmerican Railway is built, however, no foreign power can ever successfully interfere or compete with us in our trade relations with the republics to the south.”

palities are connected by rail with the places of export on the coast. Thus the “feeding" line question has already been answered.

The completion of the Pan-American Railway means more to South America than the mere giving of opportunity for commercial intercourse with the north. It means the opening of vast sections of land to cultivation and to civilization. Let us take under consideration for a moment the case of Bolivia. The country has large tracts of land practically unexplored ; and no man save the adventurer has penetrated the wilderness, for the sole reason that whatever treasure might be found there must of necessity be left where it lies.

Where Savages Roam In Bolivia there are tribes of men as savage as any tribe ever found in the heart of Africa. Wandering through some of the Bolivian forests where the trees themselves are a treasure trove, are savages who reject all clothing save the breech-cloth. The white man who

To Connect all Seaport Cities It must be understood that while the surveyed line for the Pan-American Railway, after it strikes the South American continent, follows a course for some

inland from the Pacific coast, every large seaport town will be connected with the road by branch railways. The greater line touches nearly every one of the important towns which lie back from the sea; and to-day most of these munici

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