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Metallic Filament In.
candescent Lamps THE most interesting development in 1 the field of electric lighting is the recent introduction of metallic filaments in place of the ordinary carbon filament in incandescent lamps. Both tantalum and osmium have been used for this purpose; and these new types of lamps—both of which are of German origin-show an efficiency far superior to the old-style carbon-filament lamp. It is perhaps not generally understood, that, in spite of the many refinements in the manufacture of incandescent lamps, only a very trifling proportion of the power which they consume is converted into light; the most of it is dissipated as heat. The efficiency of an ordinary incandescent lamp is about 3 to 312 watts per candle-power, so that a 16-candle-power lamp requires about 50 to 55 watts; in other words, one horse-power is necessary to light about fifteen of these lamps.
The tantalum lamp, which is not yet in commercial use in this country, but which has attained a limited use in Germany, is being watched with great interest by central station managers. This
lamp has an efficiency of from 1.66 watts Trade Schools to 2 watts per candle-power; or, in other
THE necessity and value of trade words, it requires from one-half to one
1 schools in distinction to technical colthird less power than the ordinary carbon
leges, was forcibly pointed out in a relamp. The introduction of such a lamp
cent address by Mr. William Barclay would mean that, at the same rate of
Parsons. Mr. Parsons pointed out the charge for current as at present, the
need of trade schools in which skilled consumer would save, say, 40 per cent on
workmen can be trained to play an imhis lighting bills, or he would get a pro
portant part in the industrial developportionally greater amount of light for
ment of to-day; and he also indicated the the same money he is now paying.
distinction between the trade school and The osmium lamp, which at first was
the technical institution. The latter turns made for a current of only 37 volts,
out men equipped for important engineerhas recently been improved in its methods
ing problems which involve work of the of manufacture so that now a very satis
highest responsibility. The technical factory lamp for 110-volt circuits has
schools, however, do not aim to turn out been produced. The efficiency of these
skilled mechanics, and they are not exlamps is in the neighborhood of 172 watts
pected to do so. per candle-power; and they also have a . In most manufacturing operations, at long, ne-2,000 hours, frequently being the present time, comparatively little reached, and occasionally 5,000 to 6,000 hand labor is involved ; and most work hours, without great deterioration.
of this kind is performed by special autoMeanwhile, the makers of carbon in
matic machinery. While a certain amount candescent lamps have not been idle, and of skilled hand labor is always needed,
Ked improvement in the carbon fila- there is a great demand for labor familiar ment has recently been announced. The with the principles and use of all kinds new filament, which has been named of automatic machinery. It is in this “metallized” carbon, differs considerably connection that the value of trade schools from the ordinary carbon filament. The
would be apparent; and the training essential difference in the treatment of which they could give would very mathese two filaments is that the new one terially improve the conditions of thousis raised to an intense heat in air, which
e neat in air, which ands of young machinists. There is at greatly increases its density and reduces present a very broad gap between the its specific resistance so as to almost manual training school and the technical amount to a new physical modification institution, and the trade school would of carbon. The old filament is treated logically fill this gap. There should be in vacuo, and is heated to less degree a far larger number of trade schools than than the new one. The new filament is technical institutions, to balance the procapable of being operated at an efficiency portion of workers who earn their living of 27/2 watts per candle-power..
as mechanics and machinists rather than The commercial introduction of these as engineers. metallic-filament lamps will undoubtedly take place in the near future, and with the improvement in the efficiency of the carbon-filament lamp, in a short time American Antomobiles
American Automobiles the cost of incandescent electric lighting is pretty sure to be considerably re
Abroad duced. This will prove advantageous SINCE the beginning of the present calnot only to the consumer but to the endar year, practically one million central station also, for it must be re- dollars' worth of automobiles and their membered that even if the consumers' parts have been exported from the bills are smaller, the use of a 11/2-watt United States to European countries ; lamp will practically double the capacity while for the fiscal year ended June 30, of the central station, and the number of 1904, the total value of such exportations customers and the use of electric lights was $1,895,605. These figures argue that will be greatly increased.
the total exportations for the fiscal year 1905 will show a large advance over 20,000 automobiles now in use in France those of the preceding year.
is approximately $40,000,000. The New York, Boston, Chicago, and figures for all the United States have not Newport, R. I., are the ports at which been yet completed, but it is believed machines were entered in imports from that they will eclipse all other countries. Europe, which, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1904, amounted in value to $1,294,160, the first-named port leading
Railroad Industrial the list, with 358 machines valued at $1,106,128; while Boston imported 41,
Bureaus valued at $121,252; Chicago, 10, valued THE great railroad systems are someat $19,897; and Newport, 6, valued at times unthinkingly classed as “soul$19,048.
less," but certainly no one can refuse to The first record of the importation of credit them with admirable foresight. foreign-built automobiles into the United There are few people who realize the States, was for the fiscal year 1901, when amount of energy persistently and sys26 machines, valued at $43,126 were tematically spent by our great railroads in brought into this country. Since that the interests of homeseekers and busiyear the imports have steadily increased, ness firms seeking advantageous sites. until, in 1904, they reached the number This is all, of course, with an eye to of 423, valued at $1,446,303, a sum con- business; but the selfish motive is transsiderably less than our exportations of figured into beneficent accomplishment the home-made product. During the last through a community of interest whose fiscal year, France supplied 86 per cent advantages are shared in common. of the importations, the value of the An Industrial Bureau is maintained by French machines being nearly seven a number of the prominent railroadstimes as great as the combined value of notably the Chicago & Northwestern and all from other countries.
the Rock Island in the West; the Erie Exportations of American-made ma in the East; and the Illinois Central, the chines and their parts have been recorded Seaboard Air Line, and the Southern only since 1902, in which year the total Railway in the South. The purpose of value of the exportations was $948,528; these Industrial Bureaus is to furnish rewhile for the ten months of the present liable information regarding the many defiscal year the total has been $1,876,063, sirable locations along their lines for new indicating a total for the full year of at manufacturing enterprises. The rapidly least $2,200,000. Canada and the United growing cities and the splendid resources Kingdom take about three-fourths of the of the sections reached by these roads, automobiles and parts that are exported combine many of the essentials of infrom the United States, the balance dustrial success. Fine water-power locagoing to various European countries, tions that may be supplemented by elecmainly Switzerland, although France, as trical power developed therefrom; vast well as the United States, imports auto- forests of hard and soft wood, for all mobiles, a demand for them having been kinds of woodworking concerns; mines noted during the past three years. There that produce the material for foundry are 20,000 automobiles in France; and it and machine work; coal fields close at is interesting to observe that the decrease hand; and an excellent supply of a good in the use of horses has been notable. In class of labor, are all available and, 1904 there were 869 fewer horses used in through these Bureaus, brought to the atParis alone than in the preceding year; tention of the public. while the decrease from 1901, the boom M anufacturers and mechanics who are year of autos, to 1904, was 43,745. The seeking new locations are furnished with same proportionate falling-off in the full information promptly upon applicanumber of horses was noted at Lyons; tion, the Bureaus thus proving also a and statistics show that the value of the time-saving convenience.
Description of a Type-Printing System Installed in Berlin
By FRANK C. PERKINS
HE accompanying illustration, returned downward quickly, ready to re-
Germany; while Fig. 2 shows one shift-key is first moved, and then any of of the instruments employed as either a the keys of the letters desired. transmitter or receiver. This type-print- One of these machines is used as a ing telegraph system has been installed transmitter at one central station; and in connection with the Berlin telephone another of the same type, as a receiver service. The printing telegraph instru- at the other station. The moving of a ment shown has four rows of keys, with given key on one machine causes a corseven in each row. Two of these keys responding movement at the receiving serve as shift-keys, the others being em- station, regardless of whether an operployed for the letters, figures, and punctuation marks. The letters are transmitted by moving the letter shift-key; and the figures and punctuation marks, by moving the figure shift-key, which displaces the type wheel automatically on its shaft so „s to bring the circular row of figures or punctuation marks above the printing surface of the paper ribbon. Then, by moving a key for a certain figure, the type wheel is rotated, and brings the desired type with that figure in front of the paper. The paper is pressed against the type wheel, printing the figure, and is